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SECURING UNDERWATER WIRELESS

COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

SUBMITTED BY
T.SAI DEEPTHI SREE
V.VATSALYA
DEPARTMENT OF ECE

CONTENTS

Introduction
Underwater Wireless Communication system
Attacks and counter measures
Security requirements
Proposed security mechanisms
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
(UWCNs )are constituted by sensors, sink
and
autonomous
underwater
vehicles
(AUVs) that interact to perform specific
applications
such
as
underwater
monitering.

Sensor nodes also known as motes or simply Nodes are


small and energy constrained devices that have the ability of
sensing the surrounding environment.

Sink also known as base station, is a more powerful node


that behaves as an interface between the sensor nodes and
the clients.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles(AUVs)


that interact to perform specific applications such as
underwater monitering.

Underwater Wireless Communication


System
Radio waves do not propagate well underwater due to the high
energy
absorption of water
Therefore, underwater communications are based on acoustic
links
characterized by large propagation delays.
The propagation speed of acoustic signals in water (typically
1500 m/s)
Acoustic channels have low bandwidth. As a result, the bit error
rates of
acoustic links are often high, and losses of connectivity arise
It cannot rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) because it

Underwater Wireless Communication


System
Underwater wireless communication networks are particularly
vulnerable to malicious attacks due to the high bit error rates,
large and
variable propagation delays, and low bandwidth of acoustic
channels.
Several methods are proposed to secure Underwater wireless
communication Networks. Three schemes namely, secure time
synchronization, localization, and routing in UWCNs

Wormhol
e
attack
Sinkhol
e
Attack

Jammin
g

Attack
s

Hello
Flood
attack

Sybil
attack

Selective
Forwardi
ng

Acknowl
edgeme
nt
Spoofin
g

Jamming
Method of Attack
The transmission of data packets continuously so
that the
wireless channel is completely blocked.

Countermeasures
Spread spectrum techniques
Sensors can switch to sleep mode

Selective Forwarding
Method of Attack
Malicious nodes drop certain messages instead of
forwarding them to
hinder routing.

Countermeasures
Multipath routing
Authentication

Sinkhole Attack
Method of Attack
A malicious node attempts to attract traffic from a
particular
area towards it by announcing that it is a high quality
route

Countermeasures
Geographical routing
Authentication of nodes exchanging routing
information

Helloflood attack
Method of attack
A node receiving a HELLO packet from a malicious node
may
interpret that the adversary is a neighbour.

Countermeasures
Bidirectional link verification
Authentication is a possible defense

Security Requirements
Authentication
Proof that data was sent by a legitimate user
confidentiality
Information is not accessible to unauthorized parties

Integrity
Information is not altered availability
Data should be available when needed by an
authorized user

Proposed Security Mechanism


Secure underwater communication
Secure time synchronization
Secure localization
Secure routing

Secure time Synchronization


Why is Time Synchronization
Important?
Location and proximity of siblings
Intra network coordination
Maintain ordering of messages
Use of TDMA
Energy efficiency

Secure time Synchronization


Multilateration algorithm
Phase 1:
Assume that a set of anchor nodes on ocean surface already
know their
location and time without error
A group of nearby sensors receives synchronization Packets
from at least 5
anchor nodes

Phase 2:
The sensors learn their time difference between themselves and
anchor
nodes by comparing the synchronization packets
These nodes subsequently becomes the next anchor nodes

Secure Localization
Goal: To guarantee correctness despite of the presence of
Intruders
Localization is the process for each sensor node to locate
its positions
in the network.
Localization algorithms developed for terrestrial sensor
networks are
either based on the signal strength or the time-ofarrival (TOA)

Secure Localization
Range-based
- Use exact measurements (point-to-point distance
estimate
(range) or angle estimates)
- More expensive
- Scalable Localization with Mobility Prediction
(SLMP)

Range-free
- Cost-effective alternative to range-based solutions

Secure Routing
Routing is espicially challenging in UWCNs due to the large
propagation delays, low bandwidth, difficulty of battery
refills of
underwater sensors, and dynamic topologies.
A secure routing rejects routing paths containing malicious
nodes.

Secure Routing
Proactive protocols (DSDV)
Reactive protocols (AODV)
Focused Beam Routing Protocol

Advantages
It avoids data spoofing.
It avoids privacy leakage.
Minimize communication and computational cost.
Maximizes the battery power by preserving the power of
Underwater
sensors.

Conclusion
Wireless technology plays a vital role in many application areas
that
were not possible in the past. Wireless Underwater
communication is
one of them.
The main attacks related to UWCN have been surveyed.
A system with secure time synchronization, secure localization
and
secure routing can overcome these attacks.
Since the development of the proposed system is still in its
development
stage, an account of actual implementation has not been

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