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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIALS
TOPIC:

ADVANCED
CERAMIC MATERIALS
PRESENTED BY

Shubham Khanve (U12CH041)


(U12CH042)
Rahul
Parmar
(U12CH043)
Sonawadia(U12CH045)

Shubham

Yadav

Shubham

CERAMICS
Aceramicis aninorganic, nonmetallic solidprepared by the
action of heat and subsequent cooling.

The word "ceramic" comes from theGreekword


(keramikos), "of pottery" or "for pottery",from
(keramos), "potter's clay, tile, pottery".

CERAMICS VS METALS
METALS

CERAMICS

Crystal Structure

Crystal Structure

Large number of free electrons

Captive electrons

Metallic Bond

Ionic/Covalent bond

Good electrical conductivity

Poor conductivity

Opaque

Transparent(in thin sections)

Uniform atoms

Different size atoms

High tensile strength

Poor tensile strength*

Low shear strength

High shear strength

Good ductility

Brittle

Plastic flow

None

Impact strength

Poor impact strength

Relative high weight

Lower weight

Moderate hardness

Extreme hardness

High density

Initial low density

WHAT ARE ADVANCED CERAMIC


MATERIALS?

Familiar ceramics such as tiles, porcelain, sanitary ware, bricks,

etc. are all based on the potter's clay. However, in addition to


these so called "traditional ceramics", we have a new class of
ceramics, called the "advanced ceramics" which came on to the
scene in the 20thcentury as the materials systems became
more refined and special compounds and processes were
developed for structural and electronic applications. These
advanced ceramics are distinguished by their high chemical
purity, careful processing and high values of the useful
properties.

ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS

INDUSTRIAL CERAMICS
Thousands

of engineering gears have used from advanced


ceramics solutions for wear resistance, corrosion resistance &
thermal resistance, providing significant lifetime added to over
conventional metal gears. It is not always the best possible design
solution, commonly advanced ceramics can be benefited as direct
substitutes for available designs.

Dynamic-Ceramic

can provide now hundreds of case histories on


the successful and cost effective application of advanced ceramics
solutions in mechanical engineering applications.

Although

ceramics have been used by man for many centuries,


until recently their applications have been limited by their
mechanical properties. Unlike metals, most ceramics materials do
not exhibit a non-linear plastic region before failure. Instead,
ceramics are known to be brittle and fail catastrophically.

INDUSTRIAL CERAMICS
Ceramic products resist to high temperatures, gases, water, salts &
acids based on their mineral component, Properties of all ceramic
products are not identical they vary from each other. Ceramics are
normally bad conductor of electricity; in certain cases when cooled,
they turn into super conductor.

Common ceramics are made from minerals such as feldspar, talc.

clay, and silica, These minerals known as silicates form the


majority of the earth's crust. In the laboratory Chemists formulate
advanced ceramics like alumina, silicon carbide, and barium
titanate from mix excluding silicates.

Common ceramics used in industries.


1. Alumina (Ai2o3)

Molecular Structure of
Alumina

2. Silicon-Carbide (sic)
Its physical hardness makes it ideal to be used in abrasive
machining processes like grinding, honing, sand blasting and
water jet cutting.
The ability ofSilicon Carbideto withstand very high
temperatures without breaking or distorting is used in the
manufacture of ceramic brake discs for sports cars. It is also
used in bulletproof vests as an armor material.
Hardness

23800

26250

MPa

Young's Modulus
Compressive
Strength

390.2

410

GPa

3047.4

3359.9

MPa

Molecular Structure of SiC

3.Barium Titanate( BaTiO3 )


As a semiconductor it exhibits positive temperature of coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) properties in the polycrystalline
form. This means at a certain temperature, called the Curie
temperature, the material will exhibit an increase in
resistivity.
Barium titanate also exhibits ferroelectric properties and is
an excellent photo refractive material.

Property

Value

Density ( g.cm-3 )

6.02

Melting Point (C)

1650

Youngs Modulus (GPa)

67

Hardness (Mohs)

Molecular Structure Of Barium


Titanate( BaTiO3 )

Ceramic

materials that contain alumina and silicon carbide


are extremely rigid and are used to sand various surfaces, cut
metals, polish, and grind. Ceramics that consists of silica,
zirconium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon carbide & alumina
are used in making refractories. Engineers continually
research developing the various uses of ceramics.

INDUSTRIAL CERAMICS
Usually,Ceramic productsare divided into 4 sectors

Structural, pipes, including bricks, roof tiles & floor


Refractory, such as kiln linings, gas fire radiant,

steel and glass

making crucibles

White

wares, sanitary ware, including tableware, pottery products


and wall tiles

Technical,

is also known as Engineering, Advanced, Special, and


Fine Ceramics. Those items include tiles used in the Space Shuttle
program, ballistic protection, nuclear fuel uranium oxide pellets, gas
burner nozzles, bio-medical implants, missile nose cones, and jet
engine turbine blades. Repeatedly the raw materials do not include
clays.

Industrial ceramic Products

Engineered Ceramics
Metallized Ceramics
Wear Resistant liner
Ballistic Protection
Lined equipment
Grinding Media

Ceramic Tiles
Cement
Power Generation
Steel Industry
Fluid Handling
Power Distribution Equipment
Coal Washery
Armor

Industrial ceramics Industry

OTHER APPLICATIONS

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
CUTTING TOOLS

NEWLY APPRECIATED LIQUID-LIKE


PROPERTIES OF OLD Se-Cu CERAMIC
MATERIAL

Liquid-like thermo-electrics: The blue spheres represent selenium


atoms forming a crystal lattice. The orange regions in between
represent the copper atoms that flow through the crystal structure like a
liquid. This liquid-like behavior is what gives the selenium-copper
material its unique thermo-electric properties.

USES OF ADVANCED CERAMICS


IN MEDICAL
SIDE

They are used in used in surgical implants, prosthetics and


various medical tools and devices, medicalceramicschange lives.
Manufacturers fabricate numerous ceramic medical appliances
from the oxides alumina and zirconia.

Some medical devices, specifically, ceramics-on-ceramics in


artificial joint systems, required various modifications before they
became such a widely practicedand FDA safeprocedure.

Among the latest products of medical ceramics are electronic


implantable ceramic sensors, a blend of medical processing and
modern technology.

TYPICAL MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS

Prostheses
Surgical Instruments
Diagnostic Equipment
Consumables
Instrumentation
Blood Separation
X-Ray Equipment
Electronic Implants
Electrophoresis
Blood Flow
Foetal Heart Monitor
Nebulisation

Catheters
Pacemakers
Cataract Removal
Ultrasonic Scalpels
DNA Testing
Heart pumps
Blood analysis
Blood flow sensors
Air in-line sensors
Bone stimulators
Bone screws
Cochlear implants
RF ablation instruments
Medical imaging

VIDEO

ZIRCONIA CERAMICS
Zirconia ceramic is characterized as an extremely high strength material. It
is generally stronger than alumina. Because of such resilience, it has been
applied to devices that typically generate sufficient wear, such asfemoral
ballsin hip replacements. While this material is known for its strength, it is
regularly combined with the metal yttrium to prevent the breakdown of the
product.
Single crystals of the cubic phase of
zirconia
are
commonly
used
asdiamond simulantinjewellery. Like
diamond, cubic
zirconia has a cubic crystal structure
and a highindex of refraction. Visually
discerning a good quality cubic
zirconia gem from a diamond is
difficult, and most jewelers will have a
thermal conductivity tester to identify
cubic zirconia by its lowthermal
conductivity(diamond is a very good

ALUMINA CERAMICS
Aluminais generally composed of an aluminum and oxygen
compound and is employed in medical ceramic applications
because it is typically well tolerated by body tissue. It is also
suitable as a surgical implant because it is a very tough and hard
material, and does not wear easily. Alumina is generally
composed of minuscule tightly packed crystals. The composition
results in a ceramic product that is fracture resistant, which is
crucial to safety as well as the maximum wear of an implant.It
offers excellent electrical insulation.
Since early seventies more than 2.5 million femoral heads and
nearly 100,000 liners have been implanted worldwide. And most
importantly alumina-on-alumina implants have been FDA( Food
And Drug Administration) monitored and over 3000 implants
have been successfully implemented since 1987.

PRESENT
SCENARIO

The global demand on medical ceramics and ceramic


components was about US $9.8 billion in 2010. It is
forecast to have an annual growth of 67% in the
following years, and the world market value will increase
to US$15.3 billion by 2015 and reach US$18.5 billion
by 2018.

Future trends
One proposed use for bioceramics is the treatment ofcancer. One of the most
common approaches in cancer treatment is the removal of the diseased parts,
however unfortunately recovery or return of full function is seldom achieved.
Non-invasive treatment techniques where only the cancer cells are destroyed
were introduced in mid 80sTwo methods of treatment have been proposed;
treatment throughhyperthermia, and radiotherapy.
Hyperthermia treatmentinvolves implanting a bioceramic material that
contains a ferrite or other magnetic material. The area is then exposed to
alternating magnetic field, which causes the implant and surrounding area to
heat up.
Radiotherapy in this bioceramic materials can be doped with -emitting
materials and implanted into the cancerous area.

CERAMIC SENSORS
FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT
In ultrasonic flow rate measurement a distinction is made
between two different measuring principles: the Doppler effect
and the analysis of the traveling wave time.
In both cases a piezo-ceramic transducer positioned on the tube
wall generates ultrasonic waves, which are then transmitted into
the liquid diagonally to the direction of flow. The Doppler
evaluates the frequency shift of the ultrasonic waves, which are
reflected by stray particles in the liquid.
The greater the flow speed of the liquid, the greater the
frequency shift between the radiated and the reflected wave
front. Only one piezo transducer sending and receiving at
different times is needed for this measuring method.

The

traveling wave time principle always employs two piezoceramic transducers positioned offset to the direction of flow.
They send or receive alternately pulse-shaped ultrasonic wave
packages against the direction of flow and in the direction of flow.

In

each case there is a superimposition of sound propagation


speed and flow speed. The flow speed is then proportional to the
reciprocal value of the propagation time difference in and
opposite to the direction of flow. The advantage of this measuring
method is that the measurement is independent of the sound
propagation speed and therefore also the medium. This enables
the measurement of both liquids and gases

LEVEL SENSORS IMMERSED


TRANSDUCER MEASUREMENT
Level sensors are typically divided into two different measuring systems:
Propagation time measurement of a reflected airborne ultrasonic signal
by Piezo-ceramic transducers on the one hand, and immersed transducer
measurement by piezo-ceramic sensors on the other. The self-resonant
frequency of a metal tuning fork is excited by a small piezo-ceramic plate.

This self-resonant frequency


depends on the surrounding
medium. If for example the
tuning fork is immersed in a
liquid or a powder, the
resonant frequency of the
system will change. This
change
in
frequency
is

The disadvantage of this system is that no analog

measurement is possible. The sensor only indicates whether it


has exceeded or fallen short of a certain level.

This drawback can be overcome by positioning several of

these sensors at different levels in the tank. The advantage of


the system is that the existing substance is very reliably
detected and the sensor is largely insusceptible to interference

CONCLUSION
Starting from humble origins in earthenware and bricks, the
ceramics have come a long way where today they seem to be
poised to virtually revolutionize the modern living.
High temperature superconductors, structural ceramics for
engines and electrolyte ceramics for storage batteries and fuel
cells _ to name only a few- have the ability to cause a step
change in the world around us if their promised potential is
realized.
The next two decades should see this happen. Then we will have
truly entered the "New Stone Age".

REFERENCES