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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Chapter 1
The Study of Organizations
Learning Objectives
After completing Chapter 1, you should be able to:
Define
The term organizational behavior
Explain
The contingency approach to managing behavior
Identify
Why managing workplace behaviors is different in different countries
Compare
The goal, systems, and stakeholder approaches to effectiveness
Describe
The type of environmental forces that make it necessary for
organizations to change

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Chapter Outline

Studying Organizational Behavior

A Model for Managing Organizations

Perspectives on Effectiveness

The Nature of Managerial Work

Three Ways to Think about Effectiveness

Managerial Work & the Behavior, Structure, and Processes


of Organizations

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Organizational behavior is a field of study that draws on


theory, methods & principles from different disciplines. It
seeks to learn about:
Individuals perceptions,
values, learning capacities, &
actions while working in
groups & within the
organization.
The effect of the external
environment on the
organization and its human
resources, missions,
objectives, & strategies.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Organizational behavior:
Focuses on human behavior at individual, group, &
organizational levels.
Is multidisciplinary.
Has a humanistic orientation.
Is performance oriented.
Is affected by the external environment.
Relies on the scientific method.
Has an applications orientation.

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Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

FIGURE 1-1: CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY


AND APPLICATION OF OB
Behavior Science
Psychology

Sociology

Topic, model, technique


Perception
Values
Attitudes

Recruitment
Selection
Motivation

Social Psych.

Group
decision making

Pol. Science

Influence tactics
Power and ethics
Political strategies

Empowerment
Conflict resolution
Illusion of power

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Individual

Organization theory Power


Organization culture Work teams
Group development Change
Behavioral change
Attitude change
Group processes

Anthropology

Level of Analysis

Cross-cultural
Values & morals
communication
Cross-cultural analysis
5

Group

Field of
OB

Organization

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

OPERATING
ASSUMPTIONS
Organizational behavior follows

principles of human behavior


Organizations are social systems
Multiple factors shape
organizational behavior

Contingency approach: theres no one


best way to manage in every situation;
managers must find different ways that
fit different situations

Structure and processes affect


organizational behavior and the
emergent culture

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Organizational Structure
A blueprint that shows how people &
jobs are grouped in an organization.
Depicted in an organization chart.

Organizational Processes
Activities that give life to
organizational structure, such as
communication, decision making, &
career development.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

FIGURE 1-2:
A MODEL FOR MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS
Environment

Environment
Behavior within organizations: The individual
Individual differences and diversity (chapter 4)
Content explanations of motivation (chapter 5)
Process explanations of motivation (chapter 6)
Rewards obtained through organized behavior (chapter 7)
Behavior within organizations: Groups and interpersonal influence
Group behavior and teamwork (chapter 8)
Intergroup behavior and team building (chapter 9)
Realities of power and politics (chapter 10)
Basic explanations for effective leadership practice (chapter 11)

Managing effective
change and renewal
processes
(ch. 18)

The structure and design of organizations


The structural anatomy of organizations (chapter 13)
Designing effective jobs in the global era (chapter 14)
Designing effective organizations in the global era (chapter 15)
The processes of organizations
Managing effective communication processes (chapter 16)
Managing effective decision-making processes (chapter 17)
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Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

FIGURE 1-3:
THREE PERSPECTIVES ON EFFECTIVENESS

Individual
effectiveness

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Group
effectiveness

Organizational
effectiveness

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Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

FIGURE 1-4:
CAUSES OF EFFECTIVENESS
Individual
effectiveness

Group
effectiveness

Causes
Ability
Skill
Knowledge
Attitude
Motivation
Stress

Causes
Cohesiveness
Leadership
Structure
Status
Roles
Norms

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Organizational
effectiveness

Causes
Environment
Technology
Strategic choices
Structure
Processes
Culture

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Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

FIGURE 1-5:
MANAGEMENTS CONTRIBUTION TO EFFECTIVENESS0
Management
performs the
functions of:
Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling

To coordinate the
behavior of:
Individuals
Groups
Organizations

To attain:
Individual
effectiveness
Group effectiveness
Organizational
effectiveness

Feedback

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

PLANNING
Determining where the

organization should be going &


developing a plan to get there.

Involves analyzing alternatives

for action based on their degree


of fit with the organizations
mission.

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

ORGANIZING
Designing the responsibility &

authority of each individual job.

Determining which of these jobs

will be grouped into specific


departments.

Creating an effective

organizational structure.

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Tenth
Edition

Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

LEADING
Influencing people to perform well

& achieve organizational goals.


Channeling human behavior toward

organizational goals.
The most human-oriented

management function.
Executive leaders express the

organizations ideals to external


constituents.
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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

CONTROLLING
Ensuring that the organizations

actual performance conforms


with planned performance.

Controlling activities include

employee selection & placement,


performance appraisal, materials
inspection, & financial statement
analysis.

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Organizations

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

THREE APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVENESS

Goal approach

Systems theory approach

Stakeholder approach

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Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

Tenth
Edition

FIGURE 1-6:
BASIC ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Environment
System: A grouping of elements that individually establish relationships with each other and
interact with their environment both as individuals and as a collective.
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Tenth
Edition

Organizations

Gibson
Ivancevich
Donnelly

Behavior
Structure
Processes

FIGURE 1-7: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MANAGEMENT


FUNCTIONS & INDIVIDUAL, GROUP & ORGANIZATIONAL
EFFECTIVENESS
Sources of Effectiveness

Management
Functions

Individuals

Groups

Organizations

Planning

Objectives

Goals

Missions

Organizing

Job designs
Delegated authority

Department or unit

Integrative methods
& processes

Leading

Person-centered
influence

Group-centered
influence

Entity-centered
influence

Controlling

Individual standards
of performance

Group standards
of performance

Organization standards
of performance

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