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CASE STUDIES

PRESENTED BYANJALI SUDAN


M.ED

INTRODUCTION
Case study is based on intensive study of the

comparatively fewer persons, sometimes confined to


a very small number of cases
P.V. Young writes: A fairly exhaustive study of a
person or a group is called a life of case history
Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing
the life of a social unit- be that unit a person, a
family, institution, culture group or even an entire
community

CASE STUDY REFERS TO :


CLOSE STUDY OF AN UNIT

Objectives Of Case Study


Clinical purpose

PHASES OF CASE STUDY


RETROSPECTIVE PHASE: refers to the past record

of the case completely which is used in diagnosing


the case
PROSPECTIVE PHASE: refers to the present status
of the case, which is helpful in understanding the
case
CONSPECTIVE PHASE: refers to the future
development and improvement of the case

TYPES OF Case Study


A group or a community case study
Causal comparative study
Activity analysis
Content or document analysis
A follow-up study
Trend studies

SOURCES OF CASE DATA


Personal documents- Diaries, autobiographies,

memoirs, letters , confessions etc.


Life history records
Related persons- Parents, neighbours, friends,
teachers etc.
Official records- School records, clubs, institutions
etc.
The Subject himself.

STEPS OF CASE STUDY


STEP 1- Status

of the situation or unit of

attention
-Identification of the need situation, aspect of
behavior or phase of the life process as the unit for
study.
STEP 2- Collection

of data, examination and

history
-Emphasis on the search for facts that may serve as a
bases for diagnosis or identification of the causal factor
operating.

CONTINOUE..
a) Examination and History Outlines: The range of data

useful in studying the circumstances associated with the


particular situation of unit is well illustrated in an
abbreviated outline for use in pedagogical case study.
b) Personal documents: As such documents as the life
history, biography, auto-biography, diaries and journals ,
letters records of dreams and expressive interview are
valuable.
c) Life history: The life history differs from the usual
autobiography in its emphasis on the natural history of the
individual, has reactions to early social stimuli that have
led to development.

STEP 3- Diagnosis and identification of causal

factors
-Formulation of a theory or hypothesis of causation
Most of the data gathering instruments and
procedures contribute to diagnosis and for
identifying causal factors
Techniques: Test of general intelligence aptitude
personality and acheivement

Observation of the peoples study habits, attitudes


and reactions.

Analysis of the people written work


Analysis of the oral responses
The interview
Laboratory procedures
Objectives devices to determine the nature and

significance of faults

STEP 4: Adjustment, Treatment and Therapy

-If the time and effort spent enriching a diagnoses of


causal factors are to be fully justified, an
appropriate adjustment of conditions should be
effective.
-Analysis of the process of therapy, in terms of non
directive or client central concepts including certain
hypothesis that are based on an increasingly large
body of experience.

STEP 5: Follow-up programme

-To complete the cycle of case study and case work, it


is necessary to check the validity of the remedial
treatment.

APPLICATIONS OF CASE STUDY


Case study procedures have been extensively

followed in the following fields as law and juvenile


delinquency, medicine, psychiatry, physiology,
education, counselling and guidance , anthropology,
sociology, social work, economics etc.

CONCLUSION
Case studies are analysis of persons, events, decisions,

periods, projects, institutions or other systems that are


studied holistically by one or more method.
The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an
instance of a class of phenomena that provides an
analytical frame- an object- within which the study is
conducted and which the case illuminates and
explicates.
According to J. Creswell , data collection in a case
study occurs over a sustained period of time