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PATHLOSS TRAINING COURSE

INTRODUCTION
To
PATHLOSS
March 17, 2009
NEC Corporation Islamabad
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GENERAL PROGRAME OUTLINE


Path Loss program is organized into the 8 following
modules:
Module 01:
Module 02:
Module 03:
Module 04:
Module 05:
Module 06:
Module 07:
Module 08:

Summary
Terrain Data
Antenna Heights
Worksheets
Diffraction
Reflection
Multipath
Network

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NEC Internal Use Only

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COURSE OUTLINE

Module 01:
Module 02:
Module 03:
Module 04:
Q&A

Summary
Terrain Data
Antenna Heights
Worksheet

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 1: SUMMARY MODULE

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 1: SUMMARY MODULE

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 1: SUMMARY MODULE

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 1: SUMMARY MODULE

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Module 1: SUMMARY MODULE

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module

Basic procedures to create a Terrain Profiles


Survey Angle calculation
Global 30 ARC Second Database
SRTM Database.
Profile Generation

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module (contd)

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module GTOPO30

GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a


horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1
kilometer).
GTOPO30, completed in late 1996, was developed over a
three year period .
The absolute vertical accuracy of GTOPO30 varies by
location according to the source data.
The full resolution have a vertical accuracy of + or - 30
meters.

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 2: Terrain Data Module SRTM


SRTM is a 90m Digital Elevation Data for the entire world.
Originally produced by NASA, is a major breakthrough in
digital mapping of the world, and provides a major advance in
the accessibility of high quality elevation data for large
portions of the tropics and other areas of the developing
world.
The NASA Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has
provided digital elevation data (DEMs) for over 80% of the
globe.
The SRTM data is available as 3 arc second (approx. 90m
resolution) DEMs.
A 1 arc second data product was also produced, but is not
available for all countries.
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Module 3: Antenna Height Module

Basic Operations,
Setting Clearance Criteria,
Clearance Calculation at a point,
Antenna height Considerations,
Setting Antenna Heights,
Optimizing Antenna heights,
Report Generations

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 3:Antenna Height Module (contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 3:Antenna Height Module (contd)

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Module 3:Antenna Height Module (contd)

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Module 3:Antenna Height Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module

Overview
Antenna Configurations
Reliability Options
Diversity options
Microwave Worksheet Options
Look up Tables

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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Module 4: Worksheet Module (contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 5: Diffraction Module

Overview,
Diffraction loss variation with K-factor
Diffraction loss variation with different algorithms
Diffraction loss variation with height variation

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

Diffraction of microwave beam occurs when the


beam center line grazes over an obstacle and RF
energy reaching the far antenna is attenuated.

Diffraction creates a small shadow region where


some energy is re directed in a narrow and rapidly
diminishing wedge toward total shadow.

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

The actual amount of diffraction is dependent upon:


The Fresnel Zone Radius of the wave front at the
obstruction point
The Size and Shape of the obstruction and
The Reflectivity of the obstruction.

3rd

2nd
1st
Fresnel Zones

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

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Module 5: Diffraction Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module

Reflective Plan Definition,


Terrain Roughness,
Variable Parameters,
Dispersion Analysis,

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 6: Reflection Module

Reflection occurs when radio waves strike:

A smooth surface such as water,


sheet of Ice in winter

A smooth earth

The boundary between the adjacent


atmospheric layers of different
densities.

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

Depending on the length of the reflected path,


the reflected wave may arrive at the
receive antenna either:

In phase,
Out of phase or
Partially out of phase

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 6: Reflection Module (contd)

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Module 7: Multipath Module

Overview,
Constant Gradient Method
Variable Gradient Method

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 7: Multipath Module

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Module 7: Multipath Module (Contd)

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Module 7: Multipath Module (Contd)

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Module 7: Multipath Module (Contd)

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Module 7: Multipath Module (Contd)

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Module 7: Multipath Module (Contd)

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Module 8: Network Module

Overview,
Interference calculation procedure,
Interference Calculations

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NEC Internal Use Only

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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)

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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)

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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)

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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)


The simplified RL networks are used to illustrate the
calculation procedure.

RECTANGULAR
NETWORK

TRIANGULAR NETWORK
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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)


Obtain the following information to determine where interference
analysis is needed in the network:
Frequency Bands
If the network frequency plan uses different frequencies then
there is no need to analyze these links for interference. For
example use of 7 and 13 GHz bands together.
Available Frequency Pairs
For example a two frequency plan as opposed to a four
frequency plan. Number of pairs determine how often the
frequencies are repeated.
System Layout ( to scale)
This will indicate possible cases of interferences in the network
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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)


Distance between paths
Distances over 150 Km an be ignored, however short
distances or co located sites must be analyzed for
interference.
Terrain
Mountains between sites will block an interfering signal,
however sites located on mountain tops must be
investigated for possible interference.
Exaggerated Azimuths
90 180 degrees may not require interference analysis.
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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)


Antenna Patterns
These should be based on polarizations schemes such as
HH, VV, HV, VH used in the network and shall be available
for both, the victim receiver and the interfering transmitter.

Path Calculations
These should include: Victim Path, Interfering Path and
interfering path to victim receiver.

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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)


Consider any of the following options to meet the
required interference objectives:
Antenna Changes:
Use larger diameter antenna to increase gain
Use High performance antennas to achieve higher
levels of discrimination
X pole discrimination

Adjust Power Output

Use other frequency assignments

Re route the link


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Module 8: Network Module (Contd)

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NEC Internal Use Only

THANK YOU

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