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Spill models

SPILL (Shaw and Briscoe., 1980)

The SPILL model was developed by the Safety and Reliability

Directorate (SRD) for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK.

This model is suitable for liquid pools of cryogenic and pressurized

liquid releases on both land (concrete and soil) and water.

Both catastrophic failure and minor containment failure is

considered where the rate of release of liquid is instantaneous and

DRIVAS (Drivas.,1990)

This model calculates the evaporation rates

compounds in a multi component liquid mixture.



It focuses on the evaporation of confined spills.

It calculates total evaporation rate, liquid composition and vapour


GASP (Webber., 1990)

This model was developed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) for
the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). It accounts for both continuous and
instantaneous spill over land and water.

GASP model constitutes three sub models such as spreading model, heat
transfer model and vaporization model

MOFAT 2D (Katyal et al.,1991)

This is one of the infiltration models, which is much

necessary in understanding the spill impact of hazardous
substances on land.

The model is a 2D finite element model which accounts

for both saturated and unsaturated porous media.

The model consists of sub modules such as flow module

and transport module.

HSSM (Weaver et al.,1994)

This model is also one of the infiltration models which are particularly suitable for

The model is used to estimate the fate and transport of LNAPLin subsurface and
ground water.

The subsurface is assumed to homogenous ignoring the lateral spreading.

The transport of LNAPL inside the soil is considered as 1-dimensional.

The model is useful for

Tracking the flow of NAPL.

Simulated dissolution of various chemicals in ground water.

Transport of contaminants to receptors in aquifers.

LEONELLI (Leonelli.,1994)

This model estimates evaporation rates accounting for both ideal and
non-ideal liquid mixtures in boiling or evaporative conditions.

It is suitable for both confined and unconfined surface and also handles
instantaneous and continuous releases.

The pool is modeled in two ways:

The pool is assumed to be well mixed at uniform temperature.

The pool is formed by well mixed bulk and very thin surface layer,
having difference in surface and bulk temperature.

This model consists two sub-models spreading model and vaporization


LSM 90 (Cavanaugh et al., 1994)

LSM90 model was developed by Exxon to model simultaneous spreading

and vaporization of multi-component spills on water and land surfaces.

LSM90 only considers only continuous releases of ideal mixtures.


The model cannot treat non- ideal liquids.

2. The model does not account temperature variations.

OILSFSM (Hussein et al., 2001)

OILSFSM is a screening model for predicting the surface flow of oil

by considering infiltration and evaporation.

Surface flow is simulated by semi analytical model (gravity currents)

considering viscous forces. Infiltration is simulated by Green-Ampt
infiltration model and evaporation is calculated by compositional
model which accounts fractional changes of each compound.

This model is suitable for permeable surfaces and it can model both
continuous and instantaneous sources.

The OILSFSM consisted of three modules such as surface flow

module, infiltration module and evaporation module.

REACTPOOL (Kapias T. and Griffiths R.F.,2001)

This is one of the pool models describes the features of pool

behavior which is predominantly modeled for accidental
releases for SO3 and oleum,

But it can be applied for other liquids irrespective of volatility

and reactivity.

The model is suitable for instantaneous and continuous


PVAP (PHAST) (Witlox., 2008)

PVAP of PHAST was developed as commercially available

software by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the purposes of risk
assessment in the process industry.

Phast includes a single-component pool model that accounts

for spreading, vaporization and dissolution, for both continuous
(constant or variable rate) and instantaneous releases.

The model consists of two sub models, spreading model and

vaporization model.