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Grammar : Reported speech

1. Jennifer said, I like birthday cake


2. Jennifer said that she liked birthday cake.

Quoted speech and reported speech


1. Quoted speech = direct speech uses the
exact words of the speaker and quotation
marks .
- Jennifer said I like birthday cake
2. Reported speech = indirect speech
doesnt use the exact words of speaker
and quotation marks.
- Jennifer said (that) she liked birthday cake.
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I. When we report what somebody says we make


the following changes.
1.
Change the pronouns and possessive
adjectives, because a different person is now
speaking.
Pronouns ( who ? Whom ?) I, you, me, him,
myself...
Possessive adjectives ( whose ?)
my, your, his, our...
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made the cake myself Daisy said.


Daisy said that she had made the cake
herself.
Well buy you a plane ticket for your birthday
so you can visit us, said my grandparents.
______grandparents
methat
told ____
My
they
_______would
buy _______
me a plane ticket for
the
______birthday
so ___could
visit __________.
I
my

2. Change time and place words.


Theres a big party here tonight, said
Julie (Saturday)
Julie said there was a big party there last
night. ( Sunday)
Julie said there was a big party there
that night. ( a few days later)
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time
today

that day/yesterday.
tomorrow the next day/ the following day.
yesterday the day before
now then/ at that moment/ at that time.
a week ago a week before
last weekend the previous weekend
Next (week) the following (week)
last night the night before
tonight that night
tomorrow night the following night
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place
here

there
this that
these those

3. Change verbs
Direct

speech

1. Present simple

indirect speech
Past simple

She said, "It's cold." She said it was cold.


2. Present continuous Past continuous
She said, "I'm teaching English online."
She said she was teaching English online.
3. Present perfect Past perfect
She said, "I've been on the web since 1999.
She said she had been on the web since 1999.

4. Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous


She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."
She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
5. Simple past Past perfect

She said, "I taught online yesterday."


She said she had taught online the day before.
6. Past continuous Past perfect continuous
She said, "I was teaching earlier."
She said she had been teaching earlier.

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7. Past perfect Past perfect


She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived.
She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.

8. Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous

She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes.


She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.

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4. Change modal verb forms


Direct speech
Indirect speech
1.
will would
She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow.
She said she would teach English online the following day.
2. can could
She said, "I can teach English online."
She said she could teach English online.
3. must had to
She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online.
She said she had to have a computer to teach English
online.

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4. shall should
She said, "What shall we learn today?"
She asked what they should learn that
day.
5. may might
She said, "May I open a new browser?
She asked if she might open a new
browser.
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5. Reporting conditionals
Verb tenses dont change in unreal or unlikely
conditional statements. ( condition type 2 and 3)
ex:1. If you had told me sooner about your birthday, we
could have had a party, said Paul
Paul said If I had told him sooner about my birthday,
we could have had a party.
Ex.2. If I were a better cook, I would make dinner for you
myself
Paul said If he were a better cook, he would make
dinner for me himself.

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Verb

tenses change in real or likely


conditional statement. ( condition type 1)
If you want, I will take you to a
restaurant
Paul said if I wanted, he would take me
to a restaurant.

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6. Reported questions
1

+6

He
She
They
A noun

inquired
1. if,whether Subject verb
+
+
+ asked
+ object +
wanted to
2. Wh- word
know
wondered

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Yes-no questions and Wh-questions


1. She asked me: Do you like him ?
She asked me if I liked him.
2. He said : What did she say ?
He asked what she had said.
3. Neil asked his mother what he should
buy his sister for her birthday.
Neil asked his mother what to buy his
sister for her birthday.
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7. Imperative and reporting verbs


1

He
She
They +
A noun

ordered
Commanded
told
requested
asked
begged

to
+ object infinitive
+ not to
infinitive

+ verb

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Examples
The teacher ordered : Go to the
blackboard, John
The teacher ordered John to go to the
blackboard.
2. He said to his classmate: Dont close
this door
He told his classmate NOT TO close
that door.
1.

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Exclamation and reporting verbs


1. She said, What a lovely house!
She exclaimed that the house was lovely.
2. He said to me : Hello ! Hows work ?
He greeted me and asked me how work was.
3. She said : My toothache is getting worse!
She complained that her toothache was getting
worse.

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