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Radiodetection

PCM

Pipeline Current Mapper


PCM+

Radiodetection

PCM

The PCM can.


Find contacts with other structures
Evaluate Pipe Coating for defects
Perform periodic Pipeline surveys
Find defective Insulation joints
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Radiodetection

PCM

What is different about PCM


High output power Transmitter
Low Frequency signal
Current Direction of applied signal
Data logging of current measurements
A Frame pinpointing of coating holidays
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PCM

Radiodetection

Benefits of low frequency


test
point
AC Tx

DC
signal
strength
(dBmA)

4Hz
1KHz
distance

PCM

Radiodetection

Benefits of low frequency


1A (4Hz)
1A (1KHz)

960mA

40mA
400mA

fault

400mA

900mA
200mA

Radiodetection

PCM

The Transmitter utilises..


High output power (150W)
Very low frequency
This helps to.
increase range
reduce coupling to other
services
reduce field distortion

PCM

Radiodetection

The Transmitter
Can be powered
from
110/240Vac
The D.C output of a
rectifier (20 to 50vD.C)
External Automotive
batteries (24v to 48V)

Radiodetection

PCM

PCM Receiver provides..

Pipe location and


depth
Current measurement
of survey current
Stores up to 999
readings for download
to a PC or PDA

Radiodetection

PCM

Transmitter connection
Typical rectifier
installation.
Provides a perfect
pipe connection
point
Anode provides
perfect ground
connection point
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Radiodetection

PCM

Transmitter Connection
Disconnect the
rectifier output from
both pipe and Anode
Connect the PCM
transmitter in place
of the rectifier

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Radiodetection

PCM

Setting the Transmitter


Three output settings
4Hz and 98Hz
4Hz, 8Hz and 98Hz
4Hz, 8Hz and 512Hz
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Radiodetection

PCM

Setting the Transmitter


Set Current switch
to desired current
The PCM
transmitter is a
constant current
source, this
ensures stable
survey readings.
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PCM

Radiodetection

Taking current reading


Ensure both PCM
receiver is set to the
same frequency as
the Transmitter
Pinpoint the pipe in
the peak Mode

100
%95
%

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Radiodetection

PCM

Taking Current Readings


Hold the Receiver
Steady on the
ground, press and
hold the PCM Key.
Current is
displayed after
approximately 3
seconds

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PCM

Radiodetection

PCM current v Line Drops


LINEAR COMPARISONS
AMPS
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

6
LOCATION Nr

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Data obtained during comparative tests on site


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PCM

Radiodetection

Current Direction
This tells you in which direction the
Current is flowing
Aids fault analysis
target line

Transmitter

short

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PCM

Radiodetection

Datalogging
999 readings can be stored
Stored readings can be
reviewed on PCM+ or
downloaded to PC
Downloaded files are in text
format and can be displayed
using Excel or 123
speadsheets
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Radiodetection

PCM

Pinpointing Coating Defects


For accurate
coating defect
location use the
A Frame

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Radiodetection

PCM

Finding Coating Defects


A-Frame

Transmitter

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PCM

Radiodetection

Case Histories

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Radiodetection

PCM

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Radiodetection

PCM

Defects found by PCM


Cut away ready for repair

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Radiodetection

PCM

Close up view of cutaway


showing area of metal loss

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Radiodetection

PCM

Cables in contact with pipe

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Radiodetection

PCM

Sheet pile in contact with pipe

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Current Attenuation
Graph
Actual PCM Results
3 steps are different
looking in mA but
nearly identical in dB

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AC
Voltage
Gradient
Can be part of Current tools
Becoming very popular
Extreme sensitivity
Rejection of interference
Very accurate location of faults
typically better then 6"

Sometimes part of Current Attenuation equipment


This method deserves to be considered as a solid
tool for integrity and the ECDA process.

ACVG in Operation
Both signal
strength and
direction arrows
lead user to
holiday.
Fault value is
proportional to
holiday size and
soil resistivity.

Pool of Potential
Is AC, but at any instant in time, there is a direction.

ACVG Receiver Theory

ACVG Tuning
Older systems used a simple DMM

Does not tune to any one frequency


60 Hz, cable earth faults, telecom noise Rxd

Very tight tuning in the signal generator


and receiver effectively increases
sensitivity as it ignores current from other
sources
SNR improves

In this case the next fault was quite close (20-30m) which is
why the left side of graph climbs quickly.
Other cases may show 100s of meters of signal at 30 and
under..

Dig Pictures