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Virulence Factors

of E. coli

Nazish Baig
BSBT - 02113028

CONTENTS

What is E. coli?
Types of E. coli
Virulence of E. coli
Epidemiology
Virulence genotype
Adhesins Virulence genes
Serum Resistance protein
Siderophores
Toxin and Proteases
Summary

WHAT IS Escherichia coli?

Enterobacteriaceae family
Gram Negative and rod shaped and
normal flora
Remain unaffected
No virulent gene
Become virulent and cause disease
Bacteriophage
Plasmid DNA encode
enterotoxins
Virulence factors invasion

TYPES OF E. coli

Six pathotypes
1.

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

2.

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

3.

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

4.

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)

5.

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

6.

Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC)

DAEC

EPEC

EHEC
EAEC
ETEC

EIEC

Shows Venn diagram


demonstrating relationship of
diarrheal disease causing E.
coli

EPIDIMOLOGY

Most common illness in the


world.
More than 30 countries
reported infection.
Canada, US and Scotland
in 1996
According to WHO (2005)
2 million death annually

VIRULENCE
FACTOR??

VIRULENCE FACTOR

The word virulence factor is used for causes


or factors that has a major influence to a
pathogenic strain of E. coli

Promotes

Proliferation

Colonization

Interaction

TYPE OF VIRULENCE FACTORS

There are two main types of


virulence factors of E. coli

Type 1
fimbriae

Surface virulence
factors
LPS
P fimbrial

(lipopolysacch
aride)

S and F1C
fimbriae

Exported virulence factors


Toxins
(RTX)

Haemolysin
(HlyA)

cytotoxic
necrotizing
factor
(CNF)

siderphore
s

iron
molecules

Genotype

15 categories of virulent gene for E. coli


Adhesins (papA, papG, fimH),
Dr binding adhesins
(afa/draBC)
S and F1C fimbriae (sfa/focDE)
Toxins (HlyA, CNF)
Serum resistance gene (traT,
iss)
Siderophores (iroA, iutA)
Polysaccharide coating (LPS)

SURFACE VIRULENCE

Adhesins
Adherence of bacterium with host

cell allow them


To colonize the tissue.
To bind to host cells
fimbriae (pili)
some bacterial cell walls
Capsules

These adhesins bind to specific


epithelium receptors

Type 1
fimbriae
P fimbriae
S fimbriae
Afimbrial
adhesins

FimH, FimA
D mannose sensitive
type 1 fimbriae to join or attach with various cells,
such as, epithelial cells, erythrocytes, mast cells,
granulocytes macrophages

papG, papA, papC


P fimbrial (papG) contain two alleles; alleles II and
III
Gal (al 4) Gal
Pilus assembly; central region of pap operon

sfa/foc
Central region of sfa (S fimbriae) and foc (F1C
fimbriae) operons

Adhesion to mucosal epithelium and tissue matrix,


cytokine induction
Central region of Dr antigenspecific fimbrial and
afimbrial adhesin operons
Dr/afa

Afimbriated
Bacterial Cells

Non-adherent
Afimbriated
Bacterial Cells and
Buccal Cells

Fimbriated
Bacterial Cells

Plasmid-Associated Proteins in Serum Resistance

Defense mechanism of host against invasion of foreign particles.


Virulent effect on Gram negative bacteria.
E. coli virulence factors like
Co1V plasmid-encoded proteins Iss and traT that assist in
bacterial resistance.
traT gene

traT weighing 25kDa


Surface exclusion, serum survival

Iss gene

Iss is a protein weighing 10-11kDa


anti-complimentary effect

EXPORTED
VIRULENCE

Siderophores

Enterobactin, a generally known siderophore is encoded by


cluster of ent gene
Receptor FepA
Host protein lipocalin 2 is produced by host.
iroA gene is carried by many UPEC isolates within PAIs.
Iuc (aerobactin gene cluster) and iutA (ferri-aerobatin)
virulence of these strains is decided by expression of the iron
uptake system.

Conti..

Toxins and Proteases


Inactivate one or more
vital component of the
host.
Produce Exotoxins
Hemolysins,
Enterotoxins causes
Diarrheas,
Important toxins
Heat labile HL Heat
stable HS
Vero toxins VT
Shigella toxins ST

Haemolysin (hly)

Lyses red blood cells


and attacks immune
systems of host, badly
impairing the function
of cells.
Type of haemolysin,
alpha haemolysin
beta haemolysin
gamma haemolysin

Four types of Hemolysin genes;

Hemolysin genes
Hly
A

Hly
B

Hly
C

Hly
D

programs the
structure of
haemolysin
protein

gives energy
during the
process

activates hlyA,
so enable
binding with
erythrocytes

release of
haemolysin
from the outer
membrane

Hemolysin genes

Cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF Toxin)

CNFs starts necrosis and stimulate


the formation of multinucleated
cells
Almost 5 % to 30% causes diarrhea
Perform its function by the
activation of Rho,
Encodes cnf gene
Two domains of CNF toxins:
cell binding domain
catalytic domain.

Surface Coating

Surface coating E. coli

LPS
(lipopolysacch
aride)

O
antigens

K antigens
(capsular
polysaccharides)

Responsible for the virulence factors in


the extraintestinal infections.

Summary
E. coli is the most common and prevailing gram
negative bacteria mostly found in human fecal. Some
theories on pathogenicity suggests that distinct
properties which enables the E. coli to overwhelmed
the host defense in new environment that is needed
to escape the restriction of the colonic mileu, moves
in the new niches
Virulence factors help to discriminate or characterize
the potential of pathogens from normal strains
In this presentation we summarized the current
position of knowledge about the genetics,
mechanisms of action, and clinical significance of the
VFs thought to be most important in E. coli.