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SAFETY TRAINING CRANES

AND HOISTS
Crane &Hoist Operator
Safety Training,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

QUALIFICATIONS
11-3.1.3 Qualifications for Operators of
Floor-Operated Cranes or Carriers
Personnel shall be required by the
employer to pass a practical operating
examination. Qualification shall be
limited to the specific type of
equipment for which examined.

The Users Responsibilities

All candidate for the Crane and Hoist operation job should be in the
interest of safety and be able to meet the minimum requirements
before being considered for training.
The basic requirements are as follows:
Must pass Hearing and Vision Testing per State Requirements.

Age
Most state laws, which govern the operations, require that a
person shall have passed their 18th birthday before being
allowed to operate an overhead crane.

Vision
Standard visual acuity of 20/20 should be met. This can be
measured by a number of devices. Color vision should be
checked and field of vision should be determined.

.Reaction Time
Measures how quickly the person reacts to a set of signals or
to an emergency. (The Up Button sticks closed)

Distance Judgement
Measurement of depth perception is important for Crane
Operators.

Hearing
Several devices are available to test hearing ability. The
person should be able to meet standard requirements.

General Health
The company doctor should determine the physical fitness of the
individual. Any tendencies toward heart trouble, epilepsy, dizzy
spells, diabetes, high blood pressure, or physical defects should
be studied to determine physical fitness. If the doctor approves
of an individuals physical condition, the candidate should be
considered as having passed this phase of the requirements.
Physical Examination
A urinalysis and blood serology test should be given to every
candidate for a Crane Operators job. If the individual meets
standard requirements they can be considered as having passed
this phase of the requirements.

Literacy
Most state laws that govern the operations, site that an
individual must be able to read and write in English before
being allowed to operate an overhead crane.
This list is the minimum suggested requirements generally
recognized by most states.

SAFETY RULES
There are many safety rules that have been set up to be
observed by Crane Operators. However, if you follow these
rules you will observe most of the necessary precautions
while operating your crane.
.

THE OPERATOR MUST KNOW WHERE THE MAIN LINE


POWER DISCONNECT IS LOCATED.
MAIN DISCONNECT MUST BE CLEARLY MARKED AND
FLOOR ACCESSABLE AND LOCKABLE
On floor- or remote-operated cranes, a disconnect
device of the enclosed type shall be provided in the
leads from the runway conductors. This device should
be mounted on the bridge near the runway collectors.

3. Under no circumstances permit your crane to


bump into
another crane or run the bridge or
trolley into end stops.

Do not run into the End Stops


On Top Running or Underhung
Cranes

Underhung End Stops

Where the track is suspended from hanger rod


'assemblies, restraining means shall be provided to
prevent the hanger rod nuts from backing off the
hanger rods.

AWAYS LOOK AT NUTS

5. Hoist Chains/Wire Rope SHALL NOT be


wrapped around the load. Slings must be
utilized.

.6. Do not carry load over people on floor;


sound warning devices if crane is equipped to
warn persons nearby.

9. If you are asked to do something that you DO NOT


believe is safe, you should refuse to do it and call your
foreman/supervisor in charge for advice.
10. An Operator MUST NOT operate a crane if he/she is not
physically fit to do so.

11. Check all capacities for Max


load you can pick, Never overload

Check all Capacities

Never Overload!!

12. In case of a problem always STOP operation


and open the power switch.
If your crane fails to respond correctly call your
foreman/supervisor.
Attempting to get out of difficulty by repeating the
operation may make the condition worse instead of
better

13. When your crane is down for repairs,


assist the repairman. After completion of
any repair, make sure that bolts, tools, ect.
have been removed so that no injury to
personnel or damage to equipment will
result from falling objects when the crane
is returned to service.

14. Never go on top of the crane or permit anyone else to do


so without opening the main switch and placing a warning tag
or lock on it. If you find a main switch with a warning tag or
lock DO NOT close the switch.
NOTE: Unless you are the one who opened the switch and
are absolutely sure there is no one on the crane or crane
runway.

Crane operators must follow the


signals given to them only by
authorized persons (THE ASSIGNED
RIGGER) and should ignore
directions given by others during
operation of their equipment.
The only EXCEPTION to this rule is
if ANYONE commands them to
EMERGENCY STOP.

The operator should stay focused


of your surroundings-be aware of
any unusual sounds or warnings.

Cranes and Hoists are designed to make Vertical


lifts of loads ONLY.
DO NOT angle/side load unless it has been
determined by a qualified person not to pose a
hazard to equipment or personnel.

All employees are to read


B30.16
Employer is to have a copy of the
manufacturers manual on site!

TOP RUNNING CRANES RUN ON


TOP OF ALL RAILS


UNDERHUNG CRANES
HOISTS RUNNING ON THE BOTTOM OF THE
FLANGE OF A BEAM IS CALLED AN
UNDERHUNG SYSTEM.

JIB HOIST MANUAL

WALL MOUNT JIB

THE HOIST DRUM WILL HAVE TWO FULL


WRAPS OF ROPE LEFT ON THE DRUM AT
THE LOWEST POSTION.

LIMIT SWITHES ARE NOT USED AS A


OPERATING STOP.
Limit switch - a switch that is operated by some
part or motion of a power-driven machine or
equipment to alter the electric circuit associated
with the machine or equipment.

Lever Activated

Lever Activated

GEARED LIMIT

Load Protector

Use of two Cranes


(i) When two or more pieces of equipment
are used to lift a load, one qualified person
shall be in charge of the operation. This
person shall analyze the operation and
instruct all personnel involved in the
proper positioning and rigging of the load
and the movements to be made.

Hand Signals

Load Marking
11-1.1.1 Rated Load Markings Crane
The rated load of the crane shall be marked on
the crane, and if the crane has more than one
hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load
marked on the hoist or its load block so that the
rated load marking shall be legible from the
ground or floor. The combined load on all
hoists on the crane shall not exceed the
rated load of the crane.

OPERATION
THE CAPACITY OF THE CRANE OR HOISTING
SYSTEM SHALL BE CLEARLY MARKED ON EACH
SIDE OF CRANE.

WARNING DEVICES SHALL BE USED TO


WARN EMPLOYEES OF CRANE
MOVEMENTS.
WARNING DEVICES ARE REQUIRED ON
CAB & REMOTE CONTROLLED CRANES.
Bells, Buzzers, Lights, Ect

WHEN OPERATING A CRANE OR HOIST THE


OPERATOR WILL NEVER JOG OR REVERSE
THE LOAD TO CAUSE THE LOAD TO SWING
MOVE TROLLEY OR BRIDGE TO MEET LOAD
AT SWING OF TRAVEL.

CHECKING THE LOAD AND


MOTOR BRAKES
LIFT THE LOAD A FEW INCHES OFF THE GROUND.
Stop the lift and see if the load stops and holds.
If the load keeps going, even if it is a few inches, the
motor brake is to loose and needs adjusted.

ONLY LIFT THE LOAD HIGH ENOUGH TO CLEAR ANY OBJECT


IN YOUR PATH.

NEVER EXCEED THE LOAD RATING ON YOUR SYSTEM.

Must be clearly marked on each side of Beam

When load is lifted over 5 feet, head protection is required.

Operators should be trained in the use of fire extinguisher

KNOW THE LOAD


THE OPERATOR IS NEVER TO EXCEED THE
CAPACITY OF THE CRANE.
Look on shippers tag for the weight or weigh the
item on shipping scale
If unsure always ask !

PATH OF OPERATOR
DAILY INSPECTION
1910.179
B30.2 OPERATION

Daily inspections shall be performed by the


crane operator prior to beginning shift and
through observation during normal operation.

IN PLANT PRE-OPERATION SAFETY EXAM


OVERHEAD CRANE PREOPERATION CHECK
LIST

1. TAGGED CRANE OR HOIST Check that crane or hoist is


not tagged out -of-order
2. Control Devices Test run that all motions agree with
control device marking.

OPERATING CONTROLS
ALL LABLES MUST BE LEGABLE
MUST HAVE STRAIN RELIEF ATTACHED
PENDENT MUST NOT HAVE ANY CRACKS

Need to be Color Coded, Shock resistant


Need to be permanently identified by function and direction

Pendent Warning tags


11-1.1.3 Warnings
On floor-operated hoists, warnings are to
be in
accordance with ASME B30.16.
All Electric power or air-power hoists shall
have affixed to the hoist, load block,or
controls, a label or labels displaying
information concerning operating
procedures. B30.16 16-1.1.4

IN PLANT PRE-OPERATION SAFETY EXAM


OVERHEAD CRANE PREOPERATION CHECK
LIST
3. Brakes - Check that all motions do not have
excessive drift and that stopping distance is normal.

UPPER LIMIT SWITCH

4. HOISTS HAVE TWO BRAKING MEANS, LOAD & MOTOR BRAKE


5. TWO BLOCKING LOWER BLOCK COMES IN CONTACT WITH
UPPER HOIST HOUSING
6. THE TROLLEY IS USED TO MOVE HOIST IN ONE OF TWO
DIRECTIONS
7. THE BRIDGE IS USED TO MOVE THE HOIST & TROLLEY IN
DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS

IN PLANT PRE-OPERATION SAFETY EXAM


OVERHEAD CRANE PREOPERATION CHECK
LIST
8. Hooks - Check for damage, cracks, nicks,
gouges, deformations of the throat opening not to
exceed (5%), wear on the saddle not to exceed 10%
Check load bearing point , and hook has 0 deg twist
from the plane of the unbent hook. Check lower hook
bearing for freedom of movement.
9. Hook Latch - If hook latch is required, check for
proper operation.

Inspect All Hooks


Even Hand Hoists

Pre Operation Inspection


10. Wire Rope - Check for broken wires,
broken strands, kinks, any deformation
or damage to rope structure. (Check for
reduction in diameter)

Maximum Broken Wires 12 per lay, 4


per Strand
Check for Reduction in Diameter

Wire Rope Checks


Wire rope check for internal or external
corrosion
Inner wire breakage
Rope Stretch
Loosening or tightening of rope lays

Damaged WIRE Ropes

Wire Rope Construction

NEVER USE A BAD ROPE!

Check Sheaves for Rope Prints

Outside Wires

Pre Operation Inspection


11. Hoist Chain - Check for cracks, nicks,
gouges, wear and stretch-check that
the chain is in the upper and lower
sprockets and in the chain guide.

HOIST CHAIN IS GRADE 8 / CASE HARDEN


CHECK CHAIN FOR SCRAPING AT AREA OF USAGE
IF IN ANY QUESTIONS ASK SOME ONE.

Chain Saddle Wear

Chain Inspection

UPPER CHAIN SPROCKET

Take Chain to floor then check it.

Lower Block
Checks

12. Check Sheaves Upper and Lower, Check Hook


in block assembly. Check the Hook Bearing for free
movement. Check Sheave Guard for damage
13. Check the Sheave pin and Sheaves for Proper
Movement. Does the Lower Pin Rotate when the
Hoist is raised?
14. Load testing to 100% to 125% max.

PART #2 OPERATION CHECK


LIST
15. Reeving- Check that the wire rope is
properly reeved and that rope parts are not
twisted around each other

CHECK FOR PROPER WIRE


ROPE REEVING

PART #2 OPERATION CHECK


LIST
16. Limit Switches- Check that all upper
limit devices stops the lifting motion of the
hoist load block before striking any part of
the hoist or crane. Check all limiting
devices for proper operation. Trolleys
,Bridges, robot arms ect.

GEARED LIMIT

Manual Limit

Daily Checks
17. Oil leakage- Check for any sign of oil leakage on the
crane and on the floor beneath the crane.
18. Unusual Sounds- Check for any unusual sounds
from the crane or hoist mechanism while operating the
crane or hoist.
19. Warning and Safety Labels- Check that all warning
and other safety labels are not missing and are legible.
20. Housekeeping and Lighting- Check area for
accumulation of material to prevent tripping or slipping

SPAN = CENTER OF CRANE WHEEL TO CENTER OF CRANE WHEEL


ROPE DRUM= MUST HAVE TWO WRAPS ON DRUM AT LOWEST POINT.

SKEWING= ONE SIDE OF BRIDGE IS AHEAD OF OTHER SIDE OF BRIDGE

Daily Operation Checks Part # 1


TAGGED CRANE OR HOIST - Check that crane or hoist is not tagged out oforder
Control Devices - Test run that all motions agree with control device marking.
Brakes - Check that all motions do not have excessive drift and that stopping
distance
is normal.
Hooks - Check for Damage, Cracks, Nicks, Gouges, Deformations of the throat
opening, Wear on the saddle or load bearing point, and Twist. Refer to the manual
furnished by the original crane manufacture
Hook Latch - If hook latch is required, check for proper operation.
Wire Rope - Check for broken wires, broken strands, kinks, any deformation or damage
to rope structure. (no reduction in diameter)
Hoist Chain - Check for cracks, nicks, gouges, wear and stretch-check that the chain is
in the upper and lower sprockets and in the chain guide.

Daily Operation Checks Part # 2

Reeving- Check that the wire rope is properly reeved and that rope parts are not
twisted about each other

Limit Switches- Check that all upper limit device stops the lifting motion of the hoist
load block before striking any part of the hoist or crane.

Oil leakage- Check for any sign of oil leakage on the crane and on the floor beneath
the crane.

Unusual Sounds- Check for any unusual sounds from the crane or hoist mechanism
while operating the crane or hoist.

Warning and Safety Labels- Check that all warning and other safety labels are not
missing and are legible.

Housekeeping and Lighting- Check area for accumulation of material to prevent


tripping or slipping

PENDENT MOUNT PRE CHECK


LIST

References
ASME/ANSI B30.2, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge,
Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.9, "Slings."
ASME/ANSI B30.10, "Hooks."
ASME/ANSI B30.11, "Monorails and Under hung Cranes."
ASME/ANSI B30.16, "Overhead Hoists (Under hung)."
ASME/ANSI B30.17, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge,
Single Girder, Under hung Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.20, "Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices."
ASME/ANSI B30.21, "Manually Lever Operated Hoists."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.179, "Overhead and
Gantry Cranes."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.184, "Slings."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1926.550, "Cranes and
Derricks."
Mechanical Engineering Department Design Safety Standards, Chapter
2.2, "Lifting equipment."
CMAA Specification No. 70, Specifications for Electric Overhead
Traveling Cranes.
CMAA Specification No. 74, Specifications for Top-Running and UnderRunning Single-Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes Utilizing
Under Running Trolley Hoist.
NFPA 70, Article 610, Cranes and Hoists.