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HUMAN CELL

Cells are the smallest structures capable


of basic life processes
such as taking in nutrients, expelling
waste, and reproducing.

HUMAN CELL
All living things are composed of cells.
Cells carry out thousands of biochemical reactions each
minute and reproduce new cells that perpetuate life.
Cells vary considerably in size.
red blood cells measure 0.00076 mm (0.00003 in) to
liver cells that may be ten times larger.
The human body, consists of an estimated 20 to 30
trillion cells.
displays a remarkable ability to join, communicate, and
coordinate with other cells.
the shape is typically tailored to the cell's job

flat skin cells

pack tightly into a layer that protects the underlying tissues from
invasion by bacteria.

Long, thin muscle cells


contract readily to move bones.

cells
Tissues
Connective tissue (tendons and bones)
Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes)

Organs
Heart, Stomach, Brain, lungs

systems

Circulatory system
Digestive system
Nervous system
Respiratory system

The components of cells


the four major molecules that underlie cell
structure and also participate in cell functions

Proteins
nucleic acids
Carbohydrates
lipids

Types of cells
unicellular,
meaning they consist of a single cell.
bacteria and protozoa,

multicellular

Plants, animals, and fungi are


they are composed of a great many cells
working in concert.

CELLS FALL INTO ONE OF TWO CATEGORIES:


PROKARYOTIC OR EUKARYOTIC.
prokaryotic cell
unicellular
found only in bacteria and archaebacteria,
all the components, including the DNA, mingle freely in the cell's
interior, a single compartment.
The term prokaryote comes from Greek words that mean before
nucleus or prenucleus

Eukaryotic cells
Multicellular

which make up plants, animals, fungi, and all other life forms,
contain numerous compartments, or organelles, within each cell.
The DNA in eukaryotic cells is enclosed in a special organelle
called the nucleus, which serves as the cell's command center
and information library.
eukaryote means true nucleus.

Concept 1: Common Features of All Cells

The common features of prokaryotic and


Eukaryotic cells

1. DNA, the genetic material contained in one or more chromosomes and


located in a nonmembrane bound nucleoid region in prokaryotes and a
membrane-bound nucleus in eukaryotes
2. Plasma membrane, a phospholipid bilayer with proteins that separates
the cell from the surrounding environment and functions as a selective
barrier for the import and export of materials
3. Cytoplasm, the rest of the material of the cell within the plasma
membrane, excluding the nucleoid region or nucleus, that consists of a
fluid portion called the cytosol and the organelles and other particulates
suspended in it
4. Ribosomes, the organelles on which protein synthesis takes place

Concept 2: Features of Prokaryotic


Cells
Prokaryotes, which
include all bacteria and
(archaebacteria),
are the simplest
cellular organisms.
prokaryotic cells lack a
nucleus and
membranous organelles.

Concept 3: Features of Eukaryotic


Cells
contain a membrane-bound
nucleus and numerous
membrane-enclosed
organelles (e.g.,
mitochondria, lysosomes,
Golgi apparatus) not found
in prokaryotes. .
The nucleus is bounded by
the nuclear envelope, a
double membrane with many
nuclear pores through which
material enters and leaves.
Animals, plants, fungi, and
protists are all eukaryotes.
Eukaryotic cells are more
complex than prokaryotic
cells and are found in a great
many different forms

The Cell Membrane


The membrane is like a big plastic bag with tiny
holes in it. PLASMA MEMBRANE.
What's it For?
to hold the cell together.
It keeps all of the pieces, like the organelles and
the CYTOPLASM, inside.
controls what goes in and out of the cell.
It acts like a crossing guard and says "You
better stop right there buddy. You aren't getting
in

Cell Membrane
Structure

Scientists have a theory about the way a cell membrane works.


The theory is called the FLUID MOSAIC MODEL.
two layers of MOLECULES, a BILAYER.
made up of molecules called phospholipids.

Each phospholipid has an HYDROPHOBIC and HYDROPHILIC end.


HYDRO means water. PHOBIC means afraid.

PHILIC means loving.


So one end of the molecule is afraid of the water, and one end loves being in the
water.
Millions of these molecules line up together to form a cell membrane.

Cell Membrane Proteins

Throughout the membrane are proteins stuck inside the membrane.


These proteins cross the bilayer and make the holes that let ions
and molecules in and out of the cell. (That crossing guard thing
again.)
FACILITATED DIFFUSION.
When ions move through the cell membrane
Facilitated means helped.
Diffusion means moving from one area to another.
procedure where an ion is helped across the membrane. (Like helping
an old lady across the street.)

The Nucleus

The Nucleus
The nucleus is the largest, most
prominent organelle in eukaryotic cells;
it is a round or oval body that is
surrounded by the nuclear envelope and
contains the genetic information
necessary for control of cell structure and
function

The Nuclear Envelope


Around the nucleus is another membrane
(different from the cell membrane).
The nuclear membrane holds the nucleus
together.
Scientists call the membrane the NUCLEAR
ENVELOPE.
Just like in the other membranes and the cell
wall, this one has tiny holes.
Pieces of protein and RNA pass through these
holes

Nucleolus
a small dark area inside the nucleus.
This dark area is called the
NUCLEOLUS.
The nucleolus is made up of protein and
RNA with very little DNA.

Chromatin

When the cell is just sitting around, there is something called


CHROMATIN in the nucleus.
chromatin is made up of DNA, RNA and proteins.
When the cell is going to divide, the chromatin becomes very compact,
it condenses.
When it comes together, you can see the things that scientists call
chromosomes.

Looking for DNA

James Watson, American, biologist, scientist, Nobel prize winner.


He worked with a guy named Crick and Wilkins and was one of the first scientists
to come up with the structure of a DNA molecule.
They used something called x-ray diffraction to see the shape of the molecule.
They took an X-ray of the DNA and when they looked at it, they saw it was in the
shape of a DOUBLE-HELIX.
That's like having a ladder and then twisting it.
With their discovery, scientists were then able to figure out how DNA replicates in
the cell

Francis Crick. He worked with Watson and Wilkins on figuring out the structure
of DNA.
He was born in England and then worked at Cambridge University. For his
work, he won a Nobel Prize in 1962.
The big deal about coming up with the structure was that scientists could figure
out how DNA duplicates.
Crick helped discover that DNA uses something called codons (sets of three
nucleic acids) when it duplicates and when it helps make proteins.

DNA Structure and Replication

The Nucleotide

The basic building


block of DNA is the
nucleotide.

Concept 2: DNA Double Helix


DNA consists of two
polynucleotide chains
wound around each
other to form a double
helix. The helix twists
in the right-handed
directionthink of two
strands of rope twisted
around each other in
the clockwise direction.
This twisting is an
inherent property of
DNA, and it is the same
when the helix is
looked at from either
end.

Concept 3: Semiconservative Model of DNA


Replication
After Watson and Crick
proposed the double
helix model of DNA, three
models for DNA
replication were
proposed:

Conservative
Semi-conservative
dispersive.

The semi-conservative
model was proved to be
the correct one.

Concept 4: Biosynthesis of DNA

DNA polymerase
catalyzes the
synthesis of DNA
using a DNA strand
as a template.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum


Two forms
a. Rough endoplasmic
reticulum (RER)
it appears bumpy
under a microscope.
The bumps are
actually thousands of
ribosomes attached
to the membrane's
surface.
The ribosomes work
with other molecules
to link amino acids to
partially completed
proteins.

B. Smooth Endoplasmic
reticulum (SER)
lacks ribosomes and has
an even surface.
Within the winding
channels of the smooth
endoplasmic reticulum are
the enzymes needed for
the construction of
molecules such as
carbohydrates and lipids.
The smooth endoplasmic
reticulum is prominent in
liver cells, where it also
serves to detoxify
substances such as
alcohol, drugs, and other
poisons.

Ribosomes
cells that produce many proteins for export,
white blood cells of the immune system,
which produce and secrete antibodies.
Ribosomes are the protein builders of the cell.
Ribosomes are found either floating around in
the CYTOPLASM or attached to the
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
The ribosomes attached to the ER make
proteins that will be used inside the cell AND
sent outside the cell.

Ribosomes

The Golgi Apparatus


Pronounce it like this - Golgi is like GOAL and
GEE.
It's like the ROUGH Endoplasmic Reticulum,
made up of a stack of flattened out sacs.
proteins are transported from free and bound
ribosomes to the Golgi apparatus.
It is packed with enzymes that complete the
processing of proteins.
The completed protein then leaves the Golgi
apparatus for its final destination inside or outside
the cell.
.

The Lysosomes
These organelles also create something called ENZYMES
Enzymes are molecules that speed up chemical reactions.
Enzymes are the molecules used to break down large molecules.
Lysosomes combine with the food taken in by the cell.
The enzymes in the lysosome bond to the food and start to digest it.
Smaller molecules are released and they are absorbed by the
mitochondria.
Lysosomes also break down old organelles and cells.
When an organelle no longer works, the lysosome attaches and
breaks it down like food (kind of like a cannibal).
Lysosomes can also destroy the cell if it breaks open accidentally.

The Mitochondria

The Mitochondria
The POWERHOUSE of the cell
Mitochondria are very tiny organelles.
There can be several thousand
mitochondria in one cell, depending on
what the cell's job is.
That folding of the membrane
increases the SURFACE AREA.

The Mitochondria

they are the cell's little powerhouses.


They are the thing that lets cells survive.
Their whole purpose is to break down food molecules so that the cell has
the energy to live.
You eat and your intestines break down the food for you to use.
A cell eats and the mitochondria break down the molecules for the cell to
use.

WHAT'S GOING ON INSIDE?

Mitochondria are unusual in that


they contain their own DNA in the
form of a prokaryote-like circular
chromosome;
have their own ribosomes, which
resemble prokaryotic ribosomes;
and
divide independently of the cell.

Osmosis: Movement of Water


Across Membranes
Osmosis (movement of
water across
membranes)
depends on the relative
concentration of solute
molecules on either
side of the membrane.

Concept 3: Selective Permeability


of Membranes
Some solutes cross the
membrane freely, some
cross with assistance, and
others do not cross at all.
A few lipophilic substances
move freely across the cell
membrane by passive
diffusion.
Most small molecules or ions
require the assistance of
specific protein carriers to
transport them across the
membrane.

Concept 4: Passive and Active


Transport
Active transport
uses energy to move a
solute "uphill" against its
gradient, whereas in
facilitated diffusion
a solute moves down its
concentration gradient
and no energy input is
required. downhill.

Concept 5: Mechanisms of Active


Transport
Active transport can
occur
as a direct result of ATP
hydrolysis (ATP pump)
or by coupling the
movement of one
substance with that of
another (symport or
antiport).

energy is always used to


move the solute against
its concentration
gradient.

Concept 1: Dynamic Membrane Flow Through


the Cell
Membrane vesicles form
by budding off from a
membrane.
Then they migrate
through the cell and fuse
with other target
membrane systems.
Enclosed materials are
thus transported to
different compartments
or secreted to outside
cells.

Concept 2: Endocytosis and Exocytosis


Endocytosis
is the movement of
materials into a cell via
membranous vesicles.

Exocytosis
is the movement of
materials out of a cell
via membranous
vesicles.

To stay alive, cells must be able to carry


out a variety of functions.
Some cells must be able to move, and
most cells must be able to divide

A. Movement
Many unicellular organisms swim, glide, thrash,
or crawl to search for food and escape enemies.
Flagellum
the sperm cell uses a flagellum to swim toward the
female egg for fertilization

Cilia,
short, hairlike proteins built by centrioles, which are
barrel-shaped structures located in the cytoplasm that
assemble and break down protein filaments.
In cells that do not move, cilia are used for other
purposes.
In the respiratory tract of humans
ciliated cells prevent inhaled dust, smog, and microorganisms
from entering the lungs by sweeping them up on a current of
mucus into the throat, where they are swallowed.

B. Nutrition

In humans, the cavity of the small intestine


contains the nutrients from digested food,
and cells that form the walls of the
intestine use similar pumps to pull amino
acids and other nutrients from the cavity
into the bloodstream.

C. Energy
Cells require energy for a variety of
functions, including moving, building up
and breaking down molecules, and
transporting substances across the
plasma membrane.
Nutrients contains energy, but cells must
convert the energy locked in nutrients to
another formspecifically, the ATP
molecule, the cell's energy battery
before it is useful.

D. Protein Synthesis
A typical cell must have on hand about
30,000 proteins at any one time.
Many of these proteins are enzymes needed
to construct the major molecules used by
cells

carbohydrates,
lipids,
proteins, and
nucleic acids

Hemoglobin, for example, is a protein that


transports oxygen in red blood cells.

E. Cell Division
Most cells divide at some time during their life cycle, and some
divide dozens of times before they die.
Organisms rely on cell division for reproduction, growth, and
repair and replacement of damaged or worn out cells.
Three types of cell division occur:
binary fission,
mitosis, and
meiosis.

Binary fission
the method used by prokaryotes
produces two identical cells
from one cell.

MITOSIS
produces two genetically identical cells from a single cell
is used by many unicellular eukaryotic organisms for
reproduction.
Multicellular organisms use mitosis for growth, cell repair,
and cell replacement.
In the human body

an estimated 25 million mitotic cell divisions occur every


second in order to replace cells that have completed their
normal life cycles.

Cells of the liver, intestine, and skin may be replaced


every few days.
Recent research indicates that even brain cells, once
thought to be incapable of mitosis, undergo cell division
in the part of the brain associated with memory.

Meiosis
The type of cell division required for sexual
reproduction.
Meiosis differs from mitosis in that cell division
begins with a cell that has a full complement of
chromosomes and ends with gamete cells, such
as sperm and eggs, that have only half the
complement of chromosomes.
When a sperm and egg unite during fertilization,
the cell resulting from the union, called a zygote,
contains the full number of chromosomes.

There are two kinds of cell division


in eukaryotes

Mitosis
Meiosis

Mitosis
is division involved in development of
an adult organism from a single
fertilized egg,
in growth and repair of tissues, in
regeneration of body parts,
and in asexual reproduction.
the parent cell produces two "daughter
cells" that are genetically identical.
(The term "daughter cell" is
conventional, but does not indicate the
sex of the offspring cell.)
can occur in both diploid (2n) and
haploid (n) cells;

Meiosis
diploid parent cells divide and
produce the gametes or spores
that give rise to new individuals.
The parent cell produces four
haploid daughter cells.

cytoplasm
Prior to both mitosis and meiosis, the
chromosomes in the nucleus are
replicated.
The nucleus then divides.
Nuclear division is usually followed by
division of the cytoplasm.
In mitosis, there is one such division.
Meiosis consists of two divisions; since
the chromosomes have replicated only
once, the four daughter cells have half as
many chromosomes as the parent cell.

cell cycle
the orderly sequence of events that occurs
from the time a cell divides to form two
daughter cells to the time those daughter
cells divide again.
The phases of the cell cycle occur in
meiosis as well as mitosis
The length of time of the cell cycle varies
among organisms and among cell types..

Nuclear Division (Karyokinesis)


During the process known as
karyokinesis,
the nucleus divides.
Nuclear division includes several
subphases
Karyokinesis is usually followed
by cytokinesis.

INTERPHASE
Most of the cell cycle is spent
the cell is growing and metabolic activity
is very high.
Toward the end of interphase, new DNA is
synthesized and the chromosomes are
replicated.
Each chromosome of the homologous pair
is then composed of two sister chromatids.