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NEUROANATOMY

QUIZ BEE

Neuro Questions
QUESTION 1
QUESTION 2
QUESTION 3
QUESTION 4
QUESTION 5
QUESTION 6
QUESTION 7
QUESTION 8
QUESTION 9
QUESTION 10
QUESTION 11
QUESTION 12
QUESTION 13
QUESTION 14
QUESTION 15

QUESTION 1

1. A 43-year old male complains of double


vision when walking downstairs. He has
no other concerns. He eats a balanced diet
and takes one multivitamin daily. He jogs
for 30 minutes every morning. His past
medical history is significant for type 2
diabetes mellitus, which is well controlled
with glyburide. A lesion of which of the
following structures is most likely
responsible for this patients complaints?
a. Optic nerve
b. Oculomotor nerve
c. Abducens nerve
d. Trochlear nerve
e. Medial longitudinal fasciculus

Answer:

D. Trochlear Nerve
Vertical diplopia is most noticeable
when the affected eye looks toward
the nose, as occurs when reading the
newspaper or walking downstairs.
One more common causes of vertical
diplopia is a palsy of cranial nerve
IV (trochlear nerve). Most such
palsies have traumatic or idiopathic

CN I (Optic Nerve)- transmits


visual information to the brain
CN III (Oculomotor Nerve)innervates superior rectus,
medial rectus, inferior rectus,
and inferior oblique.
CN VI (Abducens Nerve)innervates lateral rectus,
responsible for eye abduction.
Medial longitudinal
fasciculus- lesion is associated
with internuclear

QUESTION 2

2. A patient presents to the


emergency room complaining of
worsening headaches, confusion, and
intermittent vomiting. She is
admitted, but lates dies in the
hospital. Examination of the brain at
autopsy shows enlargement of the
lateral and third ventricles and a
normal-sized fourth ventricle. Where
is the most likely site of obstruction
in a.
this
patient?
Interventricular
foramina of Monro
b. Cerebral aqueduct
c. Medial foramen of Magendie
d. Lateral foramina of Luschka
e. Arachnoid villi

Answer:

B. Cerebral Aqueduct
The patient had findings
consistent with
noncommunicating
hydrocephalus resulting from
obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid
flow at the cerebral aqueduct

CSF Flow
1. Lateral ventricles
2. Interventricular
foramen of Monro
3. Third ventricle
4. Cerebral aqueduct
of Sylvius
5. Fourth ventricle
6. Lateral foramina of
Luschka or the
Medial foramen of
Magendie

QUESTION 3

3. A 45 year old woman is suffering


from numbness over the tip of her
nose. Which of the following nerves
is most likely to be damaged?
a. Opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve
b. Maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve
c. Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
d. Facial nerve
e. Auriculotemporal nerve

Answer:

A. Opthalmic division of
the trigeminal nerve
The skin over the tip of the nose is
innervated by the external nasal
branch of the nasociliary nerve of
the branch of the ophthalmic
division of the trigeminal nerve

Maxillary division- innervates skin of the


face above the upper lip but below the lower
eyelid.
Mandibular division- supplies the lower
part of the face below the lower lip
Facial nerve- provides no cutaneous
sensation in the face but innervates the
muscles of facial expression.
Auriculotemporal nerve- branch of
mandibular division of trigeminal nerve,
innervates the sikin of the auricle and the
scalp

QUESTION 4

4. A 14 year old boy hits his head on the


asphalt road after falling off his
skateboard. His radiograph reveals
damage to the sella turcica. This is
probably due to fracture of which of the
following bones?
a. Frontal bone
b. Ethmoid bone
c. Temporal bone
d. Basioccipital bone
e. Sphenoid bone

Answer:

E. Sphenoid bone
The sella turcica is part of the sphenoid
bone and lies superior to the sphenoid
sinus. Therefore, none of the other bones
listed is fractured.

QUESTION 5

5. The inability to perform rapidly


alternating movements
(dysdiadochokinesia) is associated
with lesions of the
a. Premotor cortex
b. motor cortex
c. Cerebellum
d. substantia nigra
e. medulla

Answer:
C. Cerebellum
Coordination of movement (synergy) is the
function of the cerebellum. Lesions of the
cerebellum cause ataxia, lack of coordination, poor
execution of movement, delay in initiation of
movement, and inability to perform rapidly
alternating movements. The premotor and motor
cortices plan and execute movements. Lesions of
the substantia nigra, a component of the basal
ganglia, result in tremors, lead-pipe rigidity, and
poor muscle tone (Parkinson disease).

QUESTION 6

6. A 58-year-old woman comes to a hospital


and complains of progressive loss of voice,
numbness, loss of taste on the back part of
her tongue, and difficulty in shrugging her
shoulders. Her MRI scan reveals a dural
meningioma that compresses the nerves
leaving the skull. These nerves leave the skull
through which of the following openings?
a. Foramen spinosum
b. Foramen rotundum
c. Internal auditory meatus
d. Jugular foramen
e. Foramen lacerum

Answer:
D. Jugular Foramen
A loss of voice is due to an injury to the recurrent laryngeal
nerve of the vagus nerve; numbness and loss of taste on the
posterior part of the tongue is due to a lesion of the
glossopharyngeal nerve; an inability to shrug the shoulder is
due to damage of the accessory nerve. These three cranial
nerves exit the skull through the jugular foramen.
The foramen spinosum transmits the middle meningeal
artery.
The foramen rotundum transmits the maxillary division of
the trigeminal nerve.
The internal auditory meatus transmits the facial and
vestibulocochlear nerves.
The foramen lacerum transmits nothing, but its upper part is
traversed by the internal carotid artery with sympathetic
nerve plexus.

QUESTION 7

7. A 5-year-old male demonstrates persistent


food-seeking behavior. He is obese, and his
mother reports that he sometimes exhibits
aggressive and bizarre behaviors. These
clinical findings may be explained by a lesion
in which of the following hypothalamic nuclei?
a. Lateral
b. Suprachiasmatic
c. Supraoptic
d. Anterior
e. Ventromedial

Answer:

E. Ventromedial
The bodys satiety center resides within
the ventromedial nucleus of the
hypothalamus. The neurons here detect
blood glucose elevations and signal
satiety in response. Bilateral lesions of
the ventromedial nuclei cause
hyperphagia and obesity. Lesions of
the ventromedial nuclei are the cause of
obesity in only exceedingly rare cases.

Lateral nuclei- signal hunger


Suprachiasmatic nuclei- located above the
optic chiasm, receive visual input from the
retina via the optic tract. Regulate circadian
rhythms by relaying light information.
Supraoptic and paraventricular nucleiproduce vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
which are carried down the axons to the
posterior pituitary.
Anterior hypothalamic nuclei- cools the
body when temperature rises by stimulating
the parasympathetic nervous system to
produce vasodilation and sweating.

QUESTION 8

8. A 25-year-old man is involved in an


automobile accident and slams his head into
a concrete wall of a bridge. His computed
tomography (CT) scan reveals that the middle
meningeal artery has ruptured but the
meninges remain intact. Blood leaking from
this artery enters which of the following
spaces?
a. Subarachnoid space
b. Subdural space
c. Epidural space
d. Subpial space
e. Cranial dural sinuses

Answer:
C. Epidural Space
Rupture of the middle meningeal artery in the
cranial cavity causes an epidural hemorrhage.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is due to rupture of
cerebral arteries and veins.
Subdural hematoma is due to rupture of
bridging cerebral veins as they pass from the
brain surface into one of the venous sinuses.
Subpial hemorrhage is due to damage to the
small vessels of the pia and brain tissue.
Cranial dural sinuses normally contain venous
blood.

QUESTION 9

9. A 33-year-old woman develops Bells palsy.


She must be cautious because this can result
in corneal inflammation and subsequent
ulceration. This symptom results from which
of the following conditions?
a. Sensory loss of the cornea and conjunctiva
b. Lack of secretion of the parotid gland
c. Absence of the corneal blink reflex
d. Absence of sweating on the face
e. Inability to constrict the pupil

Answer:
C. Absence of the corneal
blink reflex
Bells palsy (facial paralysis) can involve inflammation of the
cornea, leading to corneal ulceration, which probably is
attributable to an absence of the corneal blink reflex. This is
due to paralysis of the orbicularis oculi, which closes the
eyelid.
Sensory loss of the cornea and conjunctiva is due to injury of
the ophthalmic nerve.
Lack of secretion of the parotid salivary gland is due to injury of
the glossopharyngeal, tympanic, or lesser petrosal nerve.
Absence of sweating is due to damage of the sympathetic
nerve.
Inability to constrict the pupil is due to paralysis of the sphincter
pupillae or damage of parasympathetic nerve fibers to the
sphincter.

QUESTION 10

10. From what part of the neural tube is the


spinal cord derived?
a. Anterior neuropore
b. Caudal
c. Cavity
d. Cranial
e. Posterior neuropore

Answer:

B. Caudal
The spinal cord derives from the caudal part of
the neural tube.
The cranial part becomes the brain.
The cavity gives rise to the central canal of
the spinal cord and ventricles of the brain.
The anterior neuropore is an opening in the
neural tube that in the fourth week becomes
the lamina terminalis.
The posterior neuropore is a second opening
in the neural tube that closes in the fourth week.

QUESTION 11

A 69-year old man presents with unilateral


hearing loss. A lesion in which of the following
structures could be responsible for this loss?
A. Inferior colliculus
B. Lateral lemniscus
C. Medial Geniculate body
D. Medial lemniscus
E. Organ of corti
F. Superior olivary nucleus

E.
Organ
of
corti
Answer:

QUESTION 12

A 53-year-old woman is diagnosed as having


a pituitary tumor. If the tumor is large
enough, she could exhibit which of the
following disorders?
A. Blindness
B. Bitemporal (heteronymous) hemianopia
C. Right nasal hemianopia
D. Left homonymous hemianopia
E. Binasal hemianopia

Answer:

B. Bitemporal (heteronymous)
hemianopia

QUESTION 13

A 20-year-old guard at the gate of the Royal Kings


palace blinks his eyes when a strong wind hits the
cornea of his eye. The afferent fibers of the corneal
reflex arc are carried by which of the following
nerves?
A. Optic nerve
B. Lacrimal nerve
C. Nasociliary nerve
D. Zygomatic nerve
E. Oculomotor nerve

Answer:

C. Nasociliary nerve
The answer is C. The afferent limb of the
corneal reflex arc is the nasociliary
nerve, and its efferent limb is the facial
nerve. The other nerves are not involved in
the reflex arc The opening of the eye is
conducted by the occulomotor nerve, but it
is not a part of the corneal reflex.

QUESTION 14

A 28-year-old woman comes to her family physician


and complains of difficulty in swallowing. Further
examination reveals that shehas no taste sensation of
the posterior one-third of her tongue and a lack of
secretion of the parotid gland. Which of the following
would most likely cause this condition?
A. Fracture of the mandibular canal
B. Section of the zygomatic nerve
C. Glossopharyngeal nerve injury
D. Tumor in the pituitary gland
E. Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve

Answer:
C. Glossopharyngeal nerve
The answer is C.
Glossopharyngeal nerve
stylopharyngeus muscle,
taste on posterior one-third of
tongue and vallate papillae;
parasympathetic nerve to otic
ganglion [parotid gland];
external ear.

QUESTION 15

Which of the following responses is


mediated by parasympathetic muscarinic
receptors?
A. Dilation of bronchiolar smooth muscle
B. Erection
C. Ejaculation
D. Constriction of GI sphincters
E. Increased cardiac contractility

Answer:

B. Erection
Erection is a parasympathetic
muscarinic response.
Dilation of bronchioles,
ejaculation, constriction of GI
sphincters, and increased cardiac
motility are all Sympatheticalpha & beta responses.

THANK YOU!
LABYU!