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Induction Motor

05/29/10 L.N Tripathy 1


Poly Phase Induction
motor
 Two Important parts are
Stator

Rotor

Squirrel Cage Rotor Wound Rotor

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Schematic View of Three
phase Induction Motor

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Cut-way View of Induction
Motor

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Stator & Yoke of Induction
Motor

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Stator of Induction Motor

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Important points on Stator
 Stator consisted of stator frame, stator core,
poly phase (2 or 3 ) distributed winding, end
covers ,bearing etc
 Stator core is stack of cylindrical steel
lamination slotted along inner periphery for
housing 3 phase winding.
 Stator core is screwed to stator frame .
Stator frame is made of Cast Iron

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Rotor
1. Squirrel cage rotor :- Winding
Consist of un-insulated conductor, in
form of copper or aluminum bars
embedded in semi- closed slots. These
bars are short-circuited at the end by
end-rings of same materials. The rotor
bars form uniformly distributed winding
along rotor slots
2. Wound Rotor
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Squirrel Cage Rotor

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Wound Rotor

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Important points of Wound
Rotor motor
 The rotor slots accommodate an insulated
winding.
 The windings are uniformly distributed and
usually connected in star.
 Three leads from the star connection are
connected to slip rings or collector rings
mounted on but insulated from shaft.
 Carbon brushes pressed on slip ring allow
external resistance to be inserted in series
with rotor winding for speed and starting
torque control

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Important Note.
 In both type of rotor, the rotor slots are
not parallel to the shaft but it is skewed
for obtaining quieter and smoother
operation
 Wound rotor is used where driven load
require speed control and high starting
torque.
 Squirrel cage rotor is more simple and
economical than wound-rotor motor.
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Motor Magnetic Field

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Comparison between two
types of Motor
Characteristi Squirrel-cage Slip-ring
c
Speed Almost Constant,
Decrease slightly with
Speed decreases more
rapidly with load
increased load

Torque Starting torque is less, Starting torque 3 times


Running torque good full load torque, running
torque is good

Current Starting current is 5-6


times full load current
Starting current is
about 2 times full load
current

Speed controlDone by changing pole By changing external


resistance of rotor
circuit
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Comparison contd…
CharacteristicSquirrel cage Slip-ring

Low (about 0.7 t0 0.8) About 0.8 to 0.9


Power factor
low Higher
Cost
Maintenance Very low High due to brushes,
Extra Resistance
Cost
Application Lathes , drill, Printing
Machine, blower etc.
Lift, cranes etc where
high starting torque is
necessary

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Difference Between
Transformer and Induction
motor
 Transformer primary and secondary are
concentrated winding , require no winding
factor. In Induction motor stator and rotor both
are distributed winding with different winding
factor.
 No load current in transformer is 2 to 6 % but in
induction motor it is 30 to 50 % due to presence
of air gap which create high reluctance between
stator and rotor.
 Transformer primary and secondary frequency
are same but in induction motor the rotor
frequency is slip times the stator frequency
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Concept of Rotating
Magnetic field
øR=øM Sinwt
øY=øM Sin(wt-1200)
øB=øMsSin(wt-2400)
øT=øR+øY+øB

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Production of Rotating
Magnetic field in3-phase
winding
øT
øy=-0.866øm
øB=0.866øm
Case1 Ə=wt=00
600
øR = ømSinwt = 0
øY= øm Sin(-120 )=-0.866øm
øB= øm Sin(-2400)=0.866øm
øT=øR+øY+øB
øT=2×0.866ømcos300=1.5øm

øY
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Production of Rotating
Magnetic field in3-phase
winding
Case2: Ə=wt=600
øy=-0.866øm øR = ømSin60 =0.866øm
0

øY= øm Sin(60-1200 )=-0.866øm


øB= øm Sin(60-2400)=0
øT=2×0.866ømcos300=1.5øm
øT
600
øR=0.866øm

øY Assumed positive Direction

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Production of Rotating
Magnetic field in3-phase
winding
Case3: Ə=wt=1200
DirectionøR = ømSin120 =0.866øm
0
øB Assumed positive
øY= øm Sin(120-1200 )=0
øB= øm Sin(120-2400)=-0.866øm
øT=2×0.866ømcos300=1.5øm
øR=0.866øm

600

øT
øB=-0.866øm
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Production of Rotating
Magnetic field in3-phase
winding
Cas4: Ə=wt=1800

øR = ømSinwt = 0
øY= øm Sin(180-120 )=0.866øm
øB= øm Sin(180-2400)=-0.866øm
600 øT=2×0.866ømcos300=1.5øm

øB = -0.0866øm
Øy=0.866øm

øT 21
Gist
 Rotating magnetic field is produced
when three stationary stator winding
are excited by balance three phase.
 The speed of Rotating magnetic field
is given by 120f/P , and called
synchronous speed.
P = number of poles
f = Supply frequency

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Principle of Operation
 Three phase winding in stator when
get supply produce rotating magnetic
field [or flux] of Constant magnitude
but rotating at synchronous speed
 This rotating magnetic field induce emf
in rotor circuit and current start flowing
in rotor circuit as rotor is short
Circuited.

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Cont..
 The torque is produced on the rotor due to
interaction of two fields.
 As per Lenz’s law ,under the influence of this
toque the rotor start rotating in same direction
to catch the rotating magnetic field. The
relative speed between rotating magnetic field
and the rotor is called slip speed.
 Note:- The rotor rotate near synchronous speed
but can not attend the synchronous speed. So
induction motor is called Asynchronous motor.

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Slip of Induction Motor

Synchronous speed [ N s ] − Rotor Speed [ N ]


Slip[ s ] =
Synchronous Speed [ N s ]
[ N s − N ] ×100
s= %
Ns

Slip is Always expressed as percentage

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Frequency of Stator
current & Rotor current
 Stator current frequency is same
as supply frequency f
 Rotor induced emf frequency or

Rotor current frequency= sf


Where
‘s’ is the slip

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Thank You

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