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THIRD GRADING

ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENTS

ANALOG AND DIGITAL MULTITESTER

HISTORY

DONALD
MACADIE

Multimeters were invented in


the early 1920s.
The invention of the first
multimeter is attributed to
British Post Office
engineer, Donald Macadie,
who became dissatisfied with
having to carry many
separate instruments
required for the maintenance
of the
telecommunications circuits.

Avometer

Macadie invented an
instrument which could
measure amperes ( amps),
volts and ohms, so the
multifunctional meter was
then named Avometer. The
meter comprised a moving
coil meter, voltage and
precision resistors, and
switches and sockets to
select the range.

Pocket multimeter

Pocket watch style


meters were in
widespread use in the
1920s, at much lower
cost than Avometers.
The metal case was
normally connected to
the negative connection,
an arrangement that
caused numerous
electric shocks.

The Multitester

THE MULTITESTER OR
MULTIMETER IS
SOMETIMES CALLED THE
VOM (VOLTMETER,
OHMMETER AND
MILIAMMETER). IT IS
THE BEST INSTRUMENT
THAT CAN MEASURE
VOLTAGE, RESISTANCE
AND CURRENT. IT IS
GENERALLY MADE OF
TWO TYPES: THE DIGITAL
AND THE ANALOG.

Parts of the multitester

Pointer
Pointer-the needle shaperod that moves over the
scale of meter.
It is mechanically
connected to the moving
coil. It indicates the
measured values on the
multi meter.

Range selector
knob
RANGE SELECTOR
KNOB
(Selector switch)
makes it
possible to select
different
functions and range of
the
meter.

ADJUSMENT SCREW

Adjustment screw
-makes it
possible to adjust
the pointer
to the zero
position of the
scale.

Scale

SCALE
IS A SERIES
MARKING USE
FOR READING
THE VALUE OF
A QUATITY.

ZERO-OHM ADJUSTING KNOB

Zero-ohm
adjusting Knob
is
used to zero-in
the pointer before
measuring
resistance.

TEST PROBE POSITIVE (RED)


NEGATIVE (BLACK)

Test probe positive


(red),
negative (black)
is used to
connect the circuit to
the
electrical components
being
tested.

SIMPLE RECALL
WHO ATTRIBUTED THE INVENTION OF THE FIRST MULTITESTER?

SIR DONALD MACADIE


WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL METER
INVENTED BY SIR MACADIE?

AVOMETER
WHAT IS THE MAIN REASON/PURPOSE WHY SIR MACADIE INVENTED THE
MULTIFUNCTIONAL METER?

HE IS DISSATISFIED TO CARRY MANY SEPARATE INSTRUMENT


REQUIRED FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF TELECOMMUNICATION
CIRCUITS.

WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE MULTI TESTER OR MULTI METER?

POINTER

SCALE

RANGE SELECTOR
KNOB
(Selector switch)

Test probe

Adjustment screw

Zero-ohm
adjustingKnob

DIGITAL MULTITESTER
Digital Multi meter (DMM)
, which is the newer type of
the two multi meters, is
completely electronic in
operation, and no
mechanical components
are involved in the
measurements. The whole
operation of the device is
based on electronic
components.

ANALOG VS DIGITAL MULTIMETER


Analog multi meter

Digital Multi meter

Analog multimeters give the output as a


reading on a scale against a pointer

While digital multimeter output is in


numerical form displayed on a LCD.

Analog multimeters have to be calibrated


manually

While most digital multimeters are calibrated


automatically before every measurement.

Analog multimeters have to be set for the


specific range of measurement manually

while some must digital multimeters have


auto ranging feature.

Analog multimeters require practice to take while digital multimeters can be operated
good measurements,
even by an untrained person.
Analog multimeters are less costly

while digital multimeters are expensive

Proper care and maintenance of the multi tester


1. Read manual of instructions on how to
operate the multi-tester.
2. In reading the amount of voltage, always
start with the highest range to avoid
reading voltage higher than the tester
setting.
3. Be sure that the tester is set to the
correct range setting: resistance range
when measuring the ohm, voltage range
when measuring voltage and ammeter
range when measuring the value of electric
current.

Proper care and maintenance of the multi tester


4. Always check the condition of
its battery. Worn out batteries
will damage the internal setting
of the tester.
5. When the tester is not in used
or will be stored, set the selector
switch to 1000V or to OFF
position.
6. Never drop the tester.

PROCEDURE ON HOW TO INTERPRET RESISTANCE READING IN AN


OHMMETER

1. Know the value of individual


calibration in the ohmmeter scale.An
ohmmeter scale is nonlinear which
means the value of one line or
calibration may not be true to other
lines. It is therefore proper to assign
values to every line for proper and
accurate interpretation.

As shown in the illustration, the


scale can be divided into eight areas
where individual treatment has to be
made. Several mathematical
computations will be involved to
show the manner how values of
individual lines are resolved.

For 0- 2:

The areas involved are 0- 2, 2-10,


10 -20, 20-50, 50 100, 100- 200,
200 300, 300 500.Value of
1calibration = line distance / total
calibrations involved

Line distance = 2 Total no. of cal = 10 Value of 1


line = 2/10 = 0.2
For 2-10:
Line Distance = 8 Total no. of cal = 16 Value of
1line = 8/16 = 0.5

RANGE

0-2

2-10

10-20

20-50

50-100

100-200

RANGE
X1

0.2

0.5

20

RANGE
X10

10

20

50

200

RANGE
X1K

20

50

100

200

500

2K

RANGE
X10K

200

500

1K

2K

5K

20K

Range
Range 10v

Value/Divisio
n
0.2 volts

Range 50v

1 volt

Range 250v

5 volts

Range 100v

20 volts