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Chapter 33 - Light and

Illumination
A PowerPoint Presentation by
Paul E. Tippens, Professor of
Physics
Southern Polytechnic State
2007
University

Objectives: After completing


this module, you should be
able to:

Define light, discuss its properties, and


give the range of wavelengths for visible
spectrum.
Apply the relationship between
frequencies and wavelengths for optical
waves.
Define and apply the concepts of
luminous flux, luminous intensity, and
illumination.
Solve problems similar to those
presented in this module.

A Beginning Definition
All objects are
emitting and
absorbing EM radiation. Consider a poker
placed in a fire.
As heating occurs, the
1
emitted EM waves
2
have higher energy
3
and eventually become 4
visible. First red . . .
then white.
Light
Light may
may be
be defined
defined as
as electromagnetic
electromagnetic
radiation
radiation that
that is
is capable
capable of
of affecting
affecting the
the
sense
sense of
of sight.
sight.

Electromagnetic Waves
Wave Properties:

E
B
3 x 108
m/s

Electric E
Magnetic B

1. Waves travel at the


speed of light c.
2. Perpendicular
electric and
magnetic fields.

3. Require no
medium for
For
propagation.
For aa complete
complete review
review of
of the
the
electromagnetic
electromagnetic properties,
properties, you
you should
should
study
study module
module 32C.
32C.

The Wavelengths of Light


The
The electromagnetic
electromagnetic spectrum
spectrum spreads
spreads over
over
aa tremendous
tremendous range
range of
of frequencies
frequencies or
or
wavelengths.
wavelengths. The
The wavelength
wavelength is
is related
related to
to
the
the frequency
frequency ff::
88
cc =
f

c
=
3
x
10
= fc = 3 x 10 m/s
m/s
Those EM waves that are visible (light) have
wave-lengths that range from 0.00004 to
0.00007 cm.
Violet,
Red,
0.00007
cm

0.00004
cm

Frequency
f (Hz)
wavelength
1024
1023
1022
1021
1020
1019
1018
1017
1016
1015
1014
1013
1012
1011
1010
109
108
107
106
105
104

nm)

Gamma
rays
X-rays
Ultraviolet
Infrared
rays
Short Radio
waves
Broadcast Radio
Long Radio
waves

10-7
10-6
10-4
10-3
10-1
1
10
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
1010
1011
1012
1013

The EM
Spectrum
A wavelength of

one nanometer 1
nm is:
-9
11 nm
=
1
x
10
nm = 1 x 10-9
m
m
Visible
Spectrum
400
nm 700
nm

Red 700 nm Violet 400


nm
88
cc =
f

c
=
3
x
10
= fc = 3 x 10 m/s
m/s

Example 1. Light from a Helium-Neon


laser has a wavelength of 632 nm.
What is the frequency of this wave?
The Helium Neon Laser

= 632 nm

Laser

c f

Wavelength

c
3 x 108 m/s
f
632 x 10-9 m

14
ff =
= 4.75
4.75 xx 10
1014
Hz
Hz

Red light

Properties of Light
Any
Any study
study of
of the
the nature
nature of
of light
light must
must
explain
explain the
the following
following observed
observed
properties:
properties:
Rectilinear propagation: Light travels in
straight lines.
Reflection: Light striking a smooth
surface turns back into the original
medium.
Refraction: Light bends when entering
a transparent medium.

The Nature of Light


Physicists have
have studied
studied light
light for
for centuries,
centuries,
Physicists
finding that
that itit sometimes
sometimes behaves
behaves as
as aa
finding
particle and
and sometimes
sometimes as
as aa wave.
wave. Actually,
Actually,
particle
both are
are correct!
correct!
both

Reflection and
rectilinear
propagation
(straight line path)

Dispersion of
white light into
colors.

Photons and Light Rays


Light may be thought of as little bundles of
waves emitted in discrete packets called
photons.
photon
s
The wave treatment uses rays to
show the direction of advancing
wave fronts.
Light
Light rays
rays are
are
Ligh
convenient
convenient
t ray
for
for describing
describing
how
how light
light
behaves.
behaves.

Light Rays and Shadows


A geometric analysis may be made of
shadows by tracing light rays from a point
light source:
Point
sourc
e

shado
w

scree
n
The
The dimensions
dimensions of
of the
the shadow
shadow can
can be
be
found
found by
by using
using geometry
geometry and
and known
known
distances.
distances.

Example 2: The diameter of the ball is 4


cm and it is located 20 cm from the
point light source. If the screen is 80
cm from the source, what is the
diameter of the shadow?
The
ratio
The
ratio
h
4 cm

of
shadow
of
shadow
80 cm 20 cm
to
to the
the
4 cm
source is
is
h source
same
same as
as
20 cm
that
of
that
of
80 cm
ball
ball to
to
source.
source.
(4 cm)(80 cm)
Therefore:
h
h = 16 Therefore:
20 cm
cm

Shadows of Extended
Objects
Extende
d source

penumb
ra

umbr
a
The
umbra
is the
region
where
no
The
umbra
is the
region
where
no light
light reaches
the screen.
reaches
the screen.
The penumbra is the outer area
where only part of the light reaches
the screen.

The Sensitivity Curve

40
W

40
W

Sensitivity curve
Sensitivit
y

Human eyes are


not equally
sensitive to all
colors.
Eyes are most
sensi- tive in the
mid-range near
= 555 nm.

555
nm

400
nm

700
nm

Wavelength
Yellow
Yellow light
light appears
appears
brighter
brighter to
to the
the eye
eye than
than
does
does red
red light.
light.

Luminous Flux
Luminous flux is the portion of total radiant
power that is capable of affecting the sense
of sight.
Typically only about
10% of the power (flux)
emitted from a light
bulb falls in the visible
region.
The unit for luminous flux is the lumen
which will be given a quantitative
definition later.

A Solid Angle: Steradians


Working
Working with
with luminous
luminous flux
flux requires
requires the
the
use
use of
of aa solid
solid angle
angle measure
measure called
called the
the
steradian
steradian (sr).
(sr).
AA solid
solid angle
angle of
of
one
one steradian
steradian ((11
R
A
sr
sr)) is
is subtended
subtended
at
at the
the center
center of
of aa

sphere
sphere by
by an
an area
area
A
The
AA equal
to
the
equal to the
2
Steradia
R
square
square of
of its
its
22
n
radius
(
R
).
radius ( R ).

Example 3. What solid angle is


subtended at the center of a sphere by
an area of 1.6 m2? The radius of the
sphere is 5 m.
R
5m

A
1.6 m2

A
The
2
Steradia
R
n

AA

22
RR

1.60 m

2
(5.00 m)

=
= 0.00640
0.00640
sr
sr

The Lumen as a Unit of


Flux
One lumen (lm) is the luminous flux

emitted from a 1/60 cm2 opening in a


standard source and included in a solid
angle of one steradian (1 sr).
In practice, sources of light are usually
rated by comparison to a commercially
prepared standard light source.
A typical 100-W incandescent
light bulb emits a total
radiant power of about 1750
lm. This is for light emitted in
all directions.

The Lumen in Power Units


Recalling that luminous flux is really
radiant power allows us to define the
lumen as follows:
One
One lumen
lumen is
is equal
equal to
to 1/680
1/680 W
W of
of
yellow-green
yellow-green light
light of
of wavelength
wavelength 555
555
nm.
nm.
A disadvantage of this
Sensitivity curve
approach is the need
to refer to sensitivity
curves to determine
Wavelength
the flux for different
colors of light.

Luminous Intensity
The luminous intensity I for a light
source is the luminous flux per unit
solid angle.
Luminous
intensity:
F
F

I
I

Unit is the candela


(cd)
source having
having an
an intensity
intensity of
of one
one
AA source
candela emits
emits aa flux
flux of
of one
one lumen
lumen per
per
candela
steradian.
steradian.

Total flux for Isotropic


Source

An isotropic source
emits in all directions;
i.e., over a solid angle of
4 steradians.
Thus, for
F F
I
such a
4
source, the
intensity is:
Total flux:
flux: FF =
=
Total
44II
The flux confined to area
A is:
= II AA
FF =

= 4 sr

R
3
m

Example 4. A 30 cd spotlight is located 3


m above a table. The beam is focused on
a surface area of 0.4 m2. Find the intensity
of the beam.
Total flux:
flux: FF =
=
Total
44II
FT = 4(30 cd) = 377

R
3
lm
The luminous
m
intensity of the beam
2
depends
on
A 0.4 m
2
; 0.0444 sr
Beam
2
R
(3 m)
Intensity:
F
754 lm
I=
= 8490
8490
I
I
cd
0.0444 sr
cd

Illumination of a Surface
The illumination
illumination EE of
of aa surface
surface AA is
is
The
defined as
as the
the luminous
luminous flux
flux per
per unit
unit
defined
area ((F/A
F/A)) in
in lumens
lumens per
per square
square meter
meter
area
which is
is renamed
renamed aa lux
lux (lx)
(lx)..
which
An illumination
illumination of
of one
one
An
Illumination,
lux occurs
occurs when
when aa flux
flux
lux
E
of one
one lumen
lumen falls
falls on
on
of
an area
area of
of one
one square
square
an

R
meter.
meter.

F
F
Unit: lux
lux (lx)
(lx)
EE
Unit:
AA

Area A

Illumination Based on
Intensity

The
The illumination
illumination EE of
of aa surface
surface is
is
directly
directly proportional
proportional to
to the
the intensity
intensity II
and
and inversely
inversely proportional
proportional to
to the
the
square
square of
of the
the distance
distance RR..
F
F
E ; I ; F I

R
A

I
A
E
but 2 so that
A
R

II
Illumination,
Illumination, EE 22
RR

Area A

This equation applies for


perpendicular surfaces.

Example 5. A 400-cd light is located 2.4


m from a tabletop of area 1.2 m2. What is
the illumination and what flux F falls on
the table?

I
400 cd
E 2
2
R
(2.40 m)

Illumination: E = 69.4
lx
Now, recalling that E = F/A, we find F
from:
F = 93.3
F = EA = (69.4 lx)(1.20
lm
m2)

The Inverse Square


Relationship
E/9

I
E 2
R

E/4

9 m2
4 m2

E
1 m2

1m

2m

3m

If the intensity is 36 lx at 1 m, it
will be 9 lx at 2 m and only 4 lx
at 3 m.

Summary
Light
Light may
may be
be defined
defined as
as electromagnetic
electromagnetic
radiation
radiation that
that is
is capable
capable of
of affecting
affecting the
the
sense
sense of
of sight.
sight.
General Properties of
Light:
Rectilinear
propagation
88
cc =
ff
cc =
33 xx 10
m/s
=

=
10
m/s
Reflection
Refraction
Red,
700 nm

Violet,
400 nm

Summary (Continued)
The formation of shadows:

Extende
d source

penumb
ra

umbr
a
Luminous flux is the portion of total radiant
power that is capable of affecting the sense
of sight.

Summary (Continued)
R

A
The
2
Steradia
R
n

Total flux:
flux: FF =
=
Total
44II

Luminous
intensity:
F

Unit is the candela


(cd)

F
F
Unit: lux
lux (lx)
(lx)
EE
Unit:
AA

Summary (Cont.)
II
Illumination,
Illumination, EE 22
RR
E/9
9
m2

3m

E/4
4 m2

2
m

1
m2

1
m

Illumination,
E
R

E
Area A

CONCLUSION: Chapter 33
Light and Illumination