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Acoustics

ACOUSTICS

Acoustics

ACOUSTICS

Broadly defined as "the science of sound.

Acoustics

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS

Acoustics

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS

(also known as building acoustics)


-Is the science & engineering of achieving a good
sound within a building.
-Maybe defined as the technology of designing
spaces, structures, and mechanical systems to
meet hearing needs.

Acoustics

With proper design;


Wanted sounds can be heard properly while
unwanted sound or noise can be attenuated or
masked to the point where it does not cause
annoyance

Acoustics

The balance of keeping

wanted
sounds
and eliminating

Acoustics

Room Acoustics
Shape

Materials

Room Acoustics

Volume

Acoustics

FUNDAMENTALS
OF ACOUSTICS

Acoustics

SOUND
Sound refers to those vibrations with frequencies
detectable by the human ear. This is in the range
20 20,000 Hertz (Hz).
-audible signal

Acoustics

It is assumed That the hearer has a pair of healthy


young ears with a detection range of
20 HZ and 20,000 HZ.
Most sensitive in the range of 100HZ to 5000HZ

Acoustics

Sound Pressure/
Amplitude

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Acoustics

Acoustics

VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION:

VELOCITY
MEDIUM

METERS PER SECOND

FEET PER SECOND

AIR

344

1130

WATER

1410

4625

WOOD

3300

10,825

BRICK

3600

11,800

CONCRETE

3700

12,100

STEEL

4900

16,000

GLASS

5000

16,400

ALUMINUM

5800

19,000

Acoustics

SOUND WAVE

Acoustics

SOUND WAVE
A longitudinal pressure wave of audible or inaudible sound.

Acoustics

Acoustics

frequency;
vibration cycles per second

amplitude

wave length:
distance between identical points on a wave

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Reverberation
Absorption
reflection
Diffraction
Refraction
Diffusion

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Reverberation

-The perpetuation of reflected sound within a space after


the source has ceased.
The time interval between reflections is usually so short
that distinct echoes are not heard. Instead, this series of
reflections will blend with the direct sound to add "depth.

Acoustics

Room Acoustics
C

Reverberation

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


For sound in a large room, reverberation begins at about 1/5
second following the direct sound. It is due to the accumulation of
many reflections, compounding one upon the other, so much that
the sound no longer seems composed of echoes but rather just a
sound of noise, a din of chaos that has no discrete direction and no
discrete timing

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Absorption
-The loss of sound energy that occurs when the sound wave
strikes a fibrous surface. The fibers provide acoustic friction
for the sound wave. The wave does not slow down due to the
friction, it keeps it's same speed but it does lose energy and
gets quieter.

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Reflection

-Sound waves that strike a surface and bounce off are reflected
sounds. They bounce off the wall, changing directions but keeping
the same angle off the wall as they had when they approached the
wall.

Acoustics

Parallel reflective surfaces


generates unwanted reverberation

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Diffraction

-The sound that squeezes through


When an obstacle is the same size as the wavelength or
less, the sound can bend around obstacles or flow
through small openings, and continue onward

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Refraction

-the bending of sound rays in a non-uniform medium

Acoustics

BASIC SOUND WAVE BEHAVIOR


Diffusion

- is described as the process of spreading or dispersing


radiated energy so that it is less direct or coherent.

Acoustics

MOBILTY OF SOUND
PHYSICAL DISTURBANCE
(SOUND SOURCE)
PRESSURE WAVES
(COMPRESSION
RAREFACTION)
DIRECT SOUND

CONDUCTOR
(VIBRATING MEDIUM)
REFLECTIONS
RESONANCE
REVERBERATION
DIFFUSION
DEFRACTION
REFFRACTION
ABSORPTION

HUMAN EAR

Acoustics

Direct Sound
Since sound travels in all directions from the source,
each listener will hear just the segment if the overall
sound wave that is traveling in a direct line to his hear
(in a space free from reflecting surfaces). As the
distance from the source increases, the sound pressure
at the listener's ear will decrease proportionately.
(Example: good Headphones)

Acoustics

MOBILTY OF SOUND
PHYSICAL DISTURBANCE
(SOUND SOURCE)
PRESSURE WAVES
(COMPRESSION
RAREFACTION)
DIRECT SOUND

CONDUCTOR
(VIBRATING MEDIUM)
REFLECTIONS
RESONANCE
REVERBERATION
DIFFUSION
DEFRACTION
REFFRACTION
ABSORPTION

HUMAN EAR

Acoustics

3 COMMON ELEMENTS OF ACOUSTIC


SYSTEM
1. Source- can be made louder & quieter.
2. Transmission path- Can be made to transmit
more or less sound
3. Receiver- the listeners perception of sound
also maybe influenced

Acoustics

Reverberation time must match


room function
Pure speech requires short reverberation time
Symphony blends notes with longer
reverberation time

Acoustics

Acoustics

Studies based on the audibility of speech and


music reveal that the most desirable
reverberation times generally fall within the
ranges shown below. These values are based on
a sound frequency of 500 Hz (approximate pitch
of male speech).
Reverberation time in seconds
Speech
Small offices
0.50 to 0.75
Classrooms/lecture rooms
0.75 to 1.00

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Acoustics

Sabin
The amount of sound absorbed is measured in
sabins. One sabin is equal to the sound
absorption of one square foot of perfectly
absorptive surface. The sound absorption
equivalent to an open window of one square
foot.

Acoustics

Airborne Sound

Airborne sound includes conversation, outdoor


noises, music and machine noises (machines
usually also produce impact sound). It is the major
source of intruding sound from rooms on the same
floor and from the outdoors. It is controlled by:
1.
Mass (weight),
2.
Isolation (decoupling),
3.
Absorption
4.
Limpness of Construction.

Mass

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Acoustics

STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND

sound traveling through solid components such as walls,


floors and systems such as structural, plumbing and duct
work