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40 Years of Land Surveying in Puerto Rico

(Land Surveying Applications In The


Valenciano River Dam, Reservoir, Water Treatment Plant &
Distribution Lines Project)
February 24, 2009
Professional College of Engineers and Land Surveyors of
Puerto Rico (CIAPR), Hato Rey, PR

Speaker:
Alexis Ocasio Agosto, PLS, EIT, CDT, CSI

Land Surveying Applications


In The Valenciano River Dam,
Reservoir, Water Treatment
Plant & Distribution Lines
Project

Valenciano

Project Description
Construction of :
Raw Water Storage Reservoir
On-stream Dam within the Valenciano
River
Regional Water Treatment Plant
Water Storage Tanks
Booster Pump Stations
Water Transmission Lines.

Valenciano

Valenciano

CHRONOLOGY
Circa 1972 Rafael Domenech, PE prepared the land
acquisition plans for the Embalse del Rio Valenciano
project.
The land area to be acquired was determined based on the
elevation 102 M contour line.
The field establishment of the 102 M elevation contour,
acquisition points was determined by differential leveling
from, available at the time, MSL benchmarks.
Nowadays the vast majority of the previously established
acquisition points, utilized benchmarks or horizontal control
points are missing.

Valenciano
Circa 1972 Rafael Domenech, PE, land acquisition
plans

Valenciano
Circa 1980s The Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority
revisited the project and prepared additional land
acquisition plans for the WTP and dam structures.
The plans are in an arbitrary, non coordinates, bearing and
distance system. Therefore horizontal surveying controls
were unavailable and not the same used decades earlier.
Nowadays the previously established acquisition points are
missing.

Valenciano
Circa 1980s PRASA, land acquisition
plans

Valenciano
Late 1990s The engineering design firm, Black and Veatch
(B&V), requested a photogrammetry of the project area from
Caribbean Aerial Surveys (CAS).
CAS performed the photogrammetry of all the project
areas, (river dam, water reservoir, water treatment plant and
distribution lines).
The CAS photogrammetry was vertically tied to the mean
sea level, NGVD29 and horizontally to second order geodetic
controls referred to the Lambert Projection for Puerto Rico,
State Plane Coordinates System, NAD27.
The horizontal surveying controls were not the same than
the ones used decades earlier.

Valenciano
Late 1990s Caribbean Aerial Survey
Photogrammetry

Valenciano
November 16, 2002 The government of Puerto Rico
adopted by law (Law 264 of 2002) the North American Datum
of 1983 latest revision, NAD83 (Rev. 2002), as the official
horizontal datum for all mapping related products to be
submitted to or by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,
government agencies and municipalities.

Valenciano
2005 CSA Group was awarded the management contract
for the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, East
Region, Capital Improvements Plan. As part of the mentioned
Capital Improvement Plan, the Valenciano Project was
revisited and is actually in the bidding phase.

Valenciano
2007 CSA Group contracted a LiDAR survey for the project.
The purpose of the survey was to analyze an existing
geological fault in the area. The survey was referred to the
NAD83 and MSL.

LiDAR Topographic
Surveying

Definition, ACSM

An instrument which measures distance and direction


to an object by emitting timed pulses of light in a
measured direction and converting to the equivalent
distance the measured interval of time between when
a pulse was emitted and when its echo was received.
Also called laser radar.

What is LiDAR?
(LiDAR) or Light Detection and Ranging technology involves
a scanning and ranging laser system that produces pinpoint
accurate, high-resolution, topographic maps.
The basic components of a LiDAR system are a laser scanner,
a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an Inertial Navigation
System (INS). The laser scanner is mounted within a properly
outfitted aircraft and emits infrared laser beams at a high
frequency.

What is LiDAR?
The scanner records the difference in time between the
emission of the laser pulses and the reception of the
reflected signal.
The position and orientation of the aircraft is determined
using a phase differenced kinematic GPS. GPS systems are
located in the aircraft and at several ground stations within
the area to be mapped. The orientation of the aircraft is then
controlled and determined by the INS.

What is LiDAR?
The round trip travel time of the laser pulses from the
aircraft to the ground are measured and recorded, along
with the position and orientation of the aircraft at the time
of the transmission of each pulse.

What is LiDAR?
After the flight, the vectors from the aircraft to the ground
are combined with the aircraft position at the time of each
measurement and the three dimensional XYZ coordinates of
each ground point are computed.

What is LiDAR?
Typical operating specifications:
Flying speeds of 50-200 knots.
Flying at heights of 100 to 5,000
meters.
Scanning angles up to + 20
degrees.
Pulse rates of 2,000 to more
than 100,000 pulses per second.
These parameters yield enough
data points to create a highly
accurate digital terrain model
(DTM).

Deliveries
Each data point can be identified by type, i.e. ground,
vegetation, building, power line or other object. Once
classified, it is simple to manipulate data, remove layers of
data points and create digital terrain models (DTM).

Deliveries
Each data point can be identified by type, i.e. ground,
vegetation, building, power line or other object. Once
classified, it is simple to manipulate data, remove layers of
data points and create digital terrain models (DTM).

Advantages
Other method of topographic data collection in addition to
traditional land surveying or GPS is photogrammetry. LiDAR
technology has some advantages in comparison to all these
methods.

Higher accuracy
-Vertical accuracy 5-15 cm (1s)
-Horizontal accuracy 30-50 cm

Fast acquisition and processing


-Acquisition of 1000 square kms in 12 hours.
-DEM generation of 1000 square kms in 24
hours.

Minimum human dependence


-As most of the processes are automatic unlike
photogrammetry, GPS or land surveying.

Weather/Light independence
-Data collection independent of sun inclination
and at
night and slightly bad weather.

Advantages
Other method of topographic data collection in addition to
traditional land surveying or GPS is photogrammetry. LiDAR
technology has some advantages in comparison to all these
methods.

Canopy penetration
-LiDAR pulses can reach beneath the canopy
thus
generating measurements of points there
unlike
photogrammetry.

Higher data density


-Up to 167,000 pulses per second. More than 24
points
per square meter can be measured.
-Less interpolation.
-Multiple returns to collect data in 3D.

Cost
-It has been found by comparative studies that LiDAR
data is cheaper in many applications. This is
particularly considering the speed,
accuracy and
density of data.

Advantages
Other method of topographic data collection in addition to
traditional land surveying or GPS is photogrammetry. LiDAR
technology has some advantages in comparison to all these
methods.
Additional data
-LiDAR also observes the amplitude of back
scatter
energy thus recording a reflectance value
for each data
point. This data, though poor
spectrally, can be used f
or classification, as at
the wavelength used some
features may be
discriminated accurately.

GCP independence
-Only a few GCPs are needed to keep reference
receiver for the purpose of DGPS.There is
no
need of GCPs otherwise.
-This makes LiDAR ideal for mapping
inaccessible and featureless areas.

Comparison

LiDAR vs. Traditional Mapping (1=100 Scale Example)


>Compiled Mass Points are more widely spaced: 60 feet vs.
0.6 feet.
>Compiled DTMs use breaklines; LiDAR usually does not
(breaklines can be added from photogrammetric
techniques).
>Compiler can place points; LiDAR is indiscriminate.
>Compiler must be able to see the ground, LiDAR is selfilluminating and looks down into the vegetation.

Comparison

Laser Mapping Benefits


The most obvious advantages of LiDAR technology over
conventional photogrammetric mass-point collection are
efficiencies involving time savings and point density.
Conventional manual stereo-compilation techniques collect
approximately 1,500 points per hour. Lidar collects 10,000
points per second. Lidar-collected data also are available
for DTM generation and topographic mapping, practically
immediately after flight.

Valenciano
2007 - CSA Group identifies the necessity to establish a
uniform horizontal coordinates system for the Valenciano
Project. The system must provide a common reference
frame for :
> 1970s and 1980s land acquisition plans
lines

> 1990s photogrammetry, including distribution


> In compliance with Law 264 of 2002
> 2005 WTP and Dam area survey

> 2007 LiDAR Survey


The baseline or framework chosen for this geodetical
> was
Any the
future
work
adjustment
LiDAR
Topographic Survey of 2007.

Valenciano LiDAR Applications

LIDAR Coverage: 233 km, 214 Quads - (1 by

Valenciano LiDAR Applications


Parameters
Aircraft: Caravan
LiDAR System: 3100
Altitude: 2500 feet
Scan angle: 18 degrees
Scan Frequency: 40 Hz
Flight line Direction: East West
High Resolution: 1 meter horizontal spot spacing with a
0.30 meter horizontal accuracy, vertical 18.3 cm (0.60 feet)
at 95 % Confidence.
Horizontal Datum: North American Datum of 1983,
(NAD83)
Vertical Datum: Mean Sea Level, (MSL)

Valenciano LiDAR Applications


Deliverables:
Ground Last Return
Extracted Features Last
Return
All Shots 1st Return
All Shots Last Return
Model Keypoints
1 Meter Grids

Cloud point file: 1, 079, 000 points by quad LiDAR Data on

Valenciano LiDAR Applications


Processed TIN Surface
from LIDAR post
processed data
(points)

Land Acquisition

Land Acquisition

Land Acquisition
defining boundaries between
properties

Land Acquisition
Acquisition of Parcels for proposed Water Treatment Plant
design

Land Acquisition
Adjusting the foot
print.

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Geology studies and
analisys

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Area and Volume
Calculations

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Contouring
Contours reveal the relief or topography of a region. Light
Detection and Ranging LiDAR data was used to create
detailed contours maps

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Contours Generated from the DEM: Contour interval 1, 5 and
10 m

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis

Biological Assessment
With the use of LIDAR the Coqui Guajn habitat was identified and a
Relocation Protocol will be implemented to save the species and enhance
their habitat. " - Mariely Morales Vargas, M.Sc. Biology

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
To understood and evaluate the area we used LIDAR as a tool to delineate

the Coqui Guajon habitat and other potential habitat areas that will be
enhanced to provide a protection to the species.
The LiDAR helped us ensure that any ,present or future, action authorized,
funded or carried out by PRASA, does not jeopardize the survival of federally
listed endangered or threatened species, or destroy or adversely modify
their designated critical habitat

Mariely Morales Vargas, M.Sc. Biology

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
LiDAR elevations were validated for design by CSA Land Surveying group

and are being utilized for the Design of the Coqui Guajn Mitigation Project.
The project will include the enhancement of creeks, the creation of the
ecological corridor between creeks and the creation of the artificial habitat
(guajonales)
- Deborah Santos, PhD Water Resources Engineering.

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Hydro Analysis
Flow direction analysis and stream network extraction from
DEMs based on LiDAR data for the Design of the Coqui
Guajn Mitigation Project.

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Biological Assessment Conclusion
The topography provided by the LiDAR image proved to be
an excellent tool for the evaluation of the biodiversity of
flora and fauna as well as their habitats. During the
preliminary stages of the study the biologist used the
standard topographic and aerial photographs. Using these
rudimentary tools important habitats such as ephemeral
streams and creeks were not properly surveyed as these
were missed. Forest cover helped conceal these systems
even after performing GIS analysis. Once the LiDAR was
incorporated into the study it revealed important areas that
had been passed as mere forest. These areas were found to
contain several populations of the threatened Coqui Guajn.
Mitigation and protection efforts would have been under
evaluated if not for the availability of the LiDAR technology.
Jos A. Salguero-Fara MS
Wildlife Biologist

GIS-Airborne LiDAR
Analysis
Site Analysis
Sediment or dredged material
disposal

40 Years of Land Surveying in Puerto Rico

(Land Surveying Applications In The


Valenciano River Dam, Reservoir, Water Treatment Plant &
Distribution Lines Project)
February 24, 2009
Professional College of Engineers and Land Surveyors of
Puerto Rico (CIAPR), Hato Rey, PR

Speaker:
Alexis Ocasio Agosto, PLS, EIT, CDT, CSI