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Chapter 13

Freedom
AND

Independence
(1898 -1899)

THE DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT

Dictatorial form of Government was


to be established
Serious conditions in the Philippines:

Financing a new government


Food for the people
reconstruction of destroyed buildings
and houses including roads and
buildings

Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista


prepared the machinery for a
dictatorial government
May 24, 1898- the formal
establishment of the Dictatorial
government

MABINI ENTERS THE SCENE

Felipe Agoncillo advised to


look for Apolinario Mabini
Aguinaldo summoned Mabini
who was resting in Los Banos,
Laguna
Mabini was sickly in
appearance and paralyzed
from the waist down to his
lower limb
At first Aguinaldo thought it
was mistake sending the man
but after hearing Mabinis
voice, his doubts vanished

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Aguinaldo believed that:


the people would work hard to
protect that independence
the people would contribute to the
stability of the newly established
government
Apolinario Mabini objected
reorganize the government
make it popularly based; and
more stable than dictatorial
On June 5, Aguinaldo ordered
that June 12 is the proclamation
of independence

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Julian Felipe composed


Marcha Filipina Magdalo
On June 12, Aguinaldo
proclaimed the independence
of the Philippines from the
window of his home in Kawit,
Cavite
the Philippine Flag was
officially hoisted

sewn in Hong Kong by Mrs.


Marcela Agoncillo, Delfina
Herbosa, and Lorenza Agoncillo

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista


prepared and read in
Spanish the declaration of
independence

Signed by ninety-eight
persons

Admiral Dewey declined the


invitation to the ceremonies

After June 12, Mabini became


Aguinaldos topmost adviser

LOCAL GOVERNMENT REORGANIZED

Mabini prepared a decree that


stated the first duty of the
government is to interpret
faithfully the will of the
people

Decree of June 18 reorganization of the


government in provinces

Right to vote was given to


men

LOCAL GOVERNMENT REORGANIZED

Popular Assembly was created

President of the assembly..Town Chief


Vice president.Cabeza of the
poblacion or the town justice
Secretary..Delegate for
justice and civil registry

the provincial chief or or governor


and three councillors were elected
by the town chiefs

LOCAL GOVERNMENT REORGANIZED

Provincial council consists


of the provincial chief, the
chief of the capital
province, and the three
councillors

Revolutionary Congress

province elects delegates to


Congress
function of Congress: to
propose measures
concerning the preservation
of internal order and external
security of these islands

THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

Decree of June 20 provided for the


administration of justice
Spanish Penal Code was adopted
The town chief became the town
judge
Creation of Provincial Council

criminal papers were sent


order the accused to appear before the
council to stand a trial

Civil Cases

decisions were made by the Popular Council


decisions are temporary and may be changed
by a higher court

THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT

the form of government was


changed to revolutionary
government in June 23
the title of the chief of state was
changed
to President
Departments:

1. Department of Foreign Affairs,


Navy and Commerce
2. Department of War and Public
Works
3. Department of Police and Internal
Order
4. Department of Finance, Agriculture,
and Manufacturing Industry

THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT

The Congress was provided in


the decree of June 23

not a law-making body, but an


advisory one
advise the president on matters
pertaining to the:

appointed delegates will present


provinces which were still under
the Spaniards

THE MALOLOS CONGRESS

Aguinaldo called the Congress to


meet at Barasoain Church in
Malolos Bulacan
September 4, 1898 Aguinaldo
appointed fifty delegates to
Congress
92 delegates came: 37 delegates
were elected, 57 were appointed
Majority were educated and rich

lawyers, physician, and businessmen


made up 59%
none of the peasants, labor, Muslims,
and other ethnolinguistic groups
were represented

THE MALOLOS CONGRESS

Held in September 15, 1898

Elected officers:

PresidentPedro A. Paterno
Vice President...Benito Legarda
First Secretary..Gregorio Araneta
Second Secretary.Pablo Ocampo

September 29, 1898 the proclamation of


independence in Kawit on June 12 was
ratified
Aguinaldo said in Tagalog, now we
witness the truth of what the famous
President Monroe said to the effect that the
United States was for the Americans; and I
say the Philippines is for the Filipinos.

THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION

Decrees of June 18 and 23 Congress


function as an advisory group
Elites opposed Mabinis idea

believed that it was necessary to have a


modern constitution

Constitutional Plan of the Philippine


Republic

a draft of constitution prepared by Mabini

THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION

Congress did not like the draft of


constitution prepared by Mabini
because it was based on the statutes
of Universal Masonry
Felipe G. Calderon prepared his
version of the constitution
there was a strong opposition to the
article providing a state religion which
was Catholicism
the final version of the constitution
was promulgated by Aguinaldo on
January 21, 1899

THE CONSTITUTION: IMPORTANCE

Malolos Constitution first important


state document

Democratic in its aspects and republican


in orientation

the government that was established


was popular, representative, and
responsible
divided into three branches: the
executive, the legislative, and the
judicial

the Assembly had only one house or


unicameral
the President was selected by the
Assembly, which took the place of the
Congress
the department secretaries were

THE CONSTITUTION: IMPORTANCE

the Malolos Constitution is


unique for three reasons:

1. The Assembly or the legislative


branch was more powerful than the
executive or judicial branch
2. When the Assembly was not in
session, a Permanent Commission,
composed of members of the
Assembly, would sit as a legislative
body
3. the Constitution established a
unicameral legislature

Calderon preferred the oligarchy of


the intellect over the oligarchy of
ignorance

THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

Aguinaldo reorganized his cabinet or


the council for government:

President of the Cabinet and

Secretary of Foreign AffairsApolinario


Mabini

Secretary of the Interior.Teodoro


Sandico

Secretary of War......Baldomero
Aguinaldo

Secretary of FinanceMariano Trias

Secretary of Welfare,
Public Instruction, Public Works,
Communications, Agriculture,

Industry and Commerce..Gracio


Gonzaga

Mabini declared that the cabinet


belongs to no party, nor does it
desire to form one; it stands for

THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

January 23, 1899- Inauguration of


the Republic

EDUCATION

P35,000 was the budget for


education
Decree for the improvement of
curriculum
October 1898 - Literary University
of the Philippines

Dr. Joaquin Gonzales became the


first President, then succeeded by
Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero who
delivered the commencement
address of the school on September
29, 1899.

PERIODICALS OF THE REVOLUTION

El Heraldo de Revolution (came out


Sept. 29, 1898)

official organ of the Revolutionary


Government
later changed to Heraldo Filipino, then to
Indice Official, and finally to Gaceta de
Filipinas
published the decrees of the
government, some news, and Tagalog
poems

La Independencia (came out Sept. 3,


1898)

privately owned newspaper


Filipino writers in Spanish wrote its
columns like Cecilio Apsotol, Fernando
Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma, among others.

THE TREATY OF PARIS

Filipino Diplomats were sent


abroad
Agoncillo was accompanied
to the United States by Sixto
Lopez but failed so he sailed
for Europe
December 10, 1898 -signing
of the Treaty of Paris
Spain turned over the
Philippines to the US for the
sum of $20,000,000

THE TREATY OF PARIS

Agoncillo returned to Washington


D.C. to prevent ratification of the
treaty
Memorial to the Senate was
submitted by Agoncillo to the
senate
February 4, 1899 PhilippineAmerican war started
February 6, 1899 the Senate
voted to pass the treaty of Paris

American Imperialists propagated


falsehood

THE END.

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