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9
Developmental
Psychology

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology
Focuses on development across life span
a field of psychology that focuses on
development across the life span.
Development
More-or-less predictable changes in behavior
associated with increasing age

Nature or nurture?
Nature: behavior unfolds like a plant over time
Nurture: behavior is molded by experiences
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Developmental Psychology

Nature view

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Developmental Psychology

What do they see?

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Developmental Psychology

Basic Processes of Development


Maturation
Biological process of systematic physical
growth
Experience plays a role in specific contexts
McGraws study of toilet training twins

Children change dramatically from birth to


adulthood

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Developmental Psychology

Importance of maturational readiness in


McGraws study of toilet training twin boys

Success in percent

100

Hugh
Hilton

80
60
40
20
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Age in days

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Developmental Psychology

Slide 7

Early Experiences and Critical Periods


Imprinting (Lorenz)
Inborn tendency or instinct
Sensitive period critical period

Early social deprivation


Harlows monkeys, social isolation, and
continuing detrimental effects
Controversy over effects on children
Some abnormal effects may be irreversible
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Developmental Psychology

Variations in Development
Normal for children to be variable in their
development
Discontinuities in development are the rule
Parents make important decisions about raising
children that impacts on development
Raising deaf child
Impact of technology and medicine

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Developmental Psychology

Stage Theories of Development


Stages series of abrupt changes from one
period to another
All children must pass through in same order
Many advocate unfolds over time
More qualitative than quantitative (such as
child mastering physical properties of object)
Decentered thought allows
conservation problem solutions

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Developmental Psychology

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Piagets Developmental Theory


Identified 4 stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage infant experiences world
in sensory information and motor activities
Preoperational stage children sometimes
think illogically by adult standards
Concrete operational stage increased abilities
Formal operational stage use of full adult
logic

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Developmental Psychology

Piagets cognitive development theory


Birth to 2 Sensorimotor
yrs

Uses senses and motor skills, items


known by use; Object permanence

2 - 7 yrs

Pre-operational

Symbolic thinking, language used;


egocentric thinking, imagination/
experience grow, child de-centers

7 - 11 yrs

Concrete
operational

Logic applied, objective/rational


interpretations; conservation,
numbers, ideas, classifications

11 yrs on Formal
operational

Thinks abstractly, hypothetical


ideas; ethics, politics, social/moral
issues explored

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Developmental Psychology

Kohlbergs Theory
Moral development
Three level, six stage theory
Premoral level child has no sense of morality
as adults understand it
Childs moral view based on what others think
until highest level of development creates
independent thinking

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Developmental Psychology

Kohlbergs Theory
Moral development
Gilligan critical of Kohlbergs research
results had her own theory
Morality as Individual Survival
Morality as Self-Sacrifice
Morality as Equality

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Developmental Psychology

Kohlbergs theory of moral development


Level I:
Preconventional
moral reasoning

Level II:
Conventional
moral reasoning

Stage 1 might
Punishment/obedience
makes right orientation: self-interest
Stage 2 look out for Instrumental/relativist
number one orientation: quid pro quo
Stage 3 good girl,
nice boy

Proper behavior for the


social approval

Stage 4 law and


order

Proper behavior of the


dutiful citizen, obey laws

Level III:

Stage 5 social
contract
Postconventional
moral reasoning
Stage 6 universal
ethical
principles
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Mutual benefit to all,


obey societys rules
Defend right/wrong, not
just majority, all life is
sacred (reflective)

Developmental Psychology

Development Across the Life Span


Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
Focuses on the individuals developing
relationships with others in social world
Eight stages - development continues over
life span
Crisis at each stage of development

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Developmental Psychology

Trust vs. Mistrust


Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair

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Eriksons
psychosocial
theory

Developmental Psychology

Development Across the Life Span


Average ages at which changes in
development take place portray
pattern of age-related changes

Neonatal Period
Infancy
Early childhood
Middle childhood
Adolescence
adulthood

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Developmental Psychology

Development in Infancy and


Childhood
Neonatal period
First two weeks of life
Marks transition from womb to independence
Reflexively grasps anything placed in hand

Rooting reflex

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Developmental Psychology

Development in Infancy and


Childhood
Infancy
Age: 2 weeks until 2 years
Time of rapid physical, perceptual, cognitive,
linguistic, social, and emotional growth
During sensorimotor stage infants stare at
interesting visual stimuli
Preference for human faces

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Developmental Psychology

Development in Infancy and


Childhood
Infancy
Physical development
Cognitive development
Object permanence
Telegraphic speech
Rovee-Colliers studies of memory

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Developmental Psychology

Rovee-Colliers
studies tested
the memory of
young infants

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Developmental Psychology

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Development in Infancy and


Childhood
Infancy emotional and social development
Visual cliff and depth perception
Attachment
Strong attachments formed between infants
and caregivers
Separation anxiety
Fear of strangers

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Developmental Psychology

Gibson and Walks visual cliff


tested infant depth perception

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Developmental Psychology

Early Childhood
Growth less explosive and rapid than
during infancy
Lasts 2 to 7 years of age
Cognitive development
Children in preoperational stage show
egocentric thought
Animism
Transductive reasoning

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Developmental Psychology

Early Childhood
Emotional and social development
Most notable changes in peer relationships
and types of play
Solitary play
Parallel play
Cooperative play

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Developmental Psychology

Early Childhood
Cooperative play

Parallel play
Solitary play

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Developmental Psychology

Middle Childhood
Lasts from 7 to 11 years of age
Characterized by slow physical growth
Important cognitive changes occur
Conservation and reversibility
Child decenters allows conservation
problems to be solved; learns some
matter changes shape but not volume

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Developmental Psychology

Middle Childhood
Emotional and social development
Child enters with close ties to parents
Peer relationships become increasingly
important
Friendships more important, last longer
Cliques or groups formed, mostly same
sex
Terms boyfriend and girlfriend have little
meaning at this stage

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Developmental Psychology

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Adolescent Development
Adolescence

Physical changes of puberty


Adolescent growth spurt
Heightened sexual and romantic interest
Peers become more important than parents
Cognitively capable of abstract reasoning
Ponders abstract issues like justice or equality
No clear cut end to adolescence in society
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Developmental Psychology

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Adolescent Development
Physical development
Puberty becomes production of sex hormones
Primary sex characteristics appear
Females menarche: menstruation, ovulation
Secondary sex characteristics appear
Females breasts, pubic hair, wider hips
Males testes and penis growth, facial and
pubic hair, broadened shoulders

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Developmental Psychology

Adolescence
Cognitive development
Formal operations stage entered
Ability to use abstract concepts
Shift to stage varies among individuals;
some never reach this stage, others reach it
in early adulthood
Piagets classic experiment with weights

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Developmental Psychology

Piagets Balance Test - task: make the weight


times the distance equal on both sides of center
4-yr-old

7-yr-old
5 kg

5 kg

5 kg

A
10-yr-old

5 kg

14-yr-old
10 kg

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2 kg

8 kg

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Developmental Psychology

Adolescence
Adolescent egocentrism
Imaginary audience everyone is watching
Personal fable belief that s/he is unique
Hypocrisy okay for one to do it but not
another
Pseudostupidity use of oversimplified logic

Social development
Time of drifting or breaking away from family

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Developmental Psychology

Adolescence
Emotional development
G. Stanley Hall time of storm and stress
Most adolescents are happy, well-adjusted
Areas of problems
Parent-child conflicts
Mood changes - self-conscious, awkward,
lonely, ignored
Risky behavior - aggression, unprotected
sex, suicide, use of substances or alcohol
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Developmental Psychology

Adulthood
Young adulthood through older adulthood
Developmental changes continue throughout
adulthood: not a single phase of life
Taking on adult responsibilities in work and
social relationships
Challenges: love, work, play continue changing

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Developmental Psychology

Adulthood
Physical development
Growth and strength in early adulthood, then
slow process of decline afterwards
Speed and endurance
Vision and ability to see in weak lighting
Hearing and detection of tones
Taste intact until later in life; men tend to
lose hearing and taste earlier than women
Decline affected by health and lifestyles
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Developmental Psychology

Adulthood
Cognitive development
Continues throughout adulthood; some abilities
improve while others decline
Fluid intelligence peaks in 20s, declines
therafter
Crystallized intelligence improves until 30s;
then declines slowly afterwards
Overall, individual rates vary depending on
lifestyle and health

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Developmental Psychology

Adulthood
Emotional and social development
Many aspects of personality are fairly stable
over time, and changes are predictable
On average, adults become
less anxious and emotional, socially
outgoing, and creative
People become more dependable, agreeable,
and accepting of lifes hardships
Gender differences lessen over time
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Developmental Psychology

Adulthood
Emotional and social development
Much disagreement about when and how
changes occur during aging differences
between stages of infant/child development
and adult development
Not all adults go through every stage
Order of stages can vary for individuals
Timing of stages not controlled by
biological maturation

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Developmental Psychology

Stages of Adult Life


Early adulthood
Erikson
Intimacy versus isolation (17 to 45 years)
Levinson - Early adulthood has three stages
Entry into early adulthood (17-28)
Age 30 transition (28-33)
Culmination of early adulthood (to age 40)
Challenges of career, marriage, and parenthood
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Developmental Psychology

Middle Adulthood
Erikson
Generativity versus stagnation (40-65 years)
Taking stock of what one has, who s/he is
Some are happy, some are disappointed
Generativity reaching out, not self-centered

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Developmental Psychology

Middle Adulthood
Levinson four brief stages

Midlife transition (early 40s)


Entry to middle adulthood stage (45 to 50)
Age 50 transition
Culmination of middle adulthood

Climactic
Female sexual ability to reproduce declines
Not all adult development timed by social
clock rather than biological clock
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Developmental Psychology

Later Adulthood
Erikson (age 65 and onward)
Integrity versus despair
Looks back over life as a whole: satisfying
existence or merely staying alive

Levinson devotes little to later years


Life expectancy dramatically increased as
have conceptions of old age
many have healthy years after retirement
Second careers and activism launched
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Developmental Psychology

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Evaluating Stage Theories


Gender differences more focus on men
Cultural differences and historical change
Few cultural comparison studies done

Inconsistent evidence
Questions about idea of stage theories
Mid-course correction, not mid-life crises
Predicted changes do not occur at ages indicated

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Developmental Psychology

Causes of Aging
Biological human body deteriorates
Psychological
Happy or unhappy aging
Social activity and slowed intellectual decline or
disengagement and isolation
Maintain healthy or unhealthy lifestyle
Optimism linked to happier, healthier, longer life

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Developmental Psychology

Death and Dying: The Final Stage


Kbler-Ross five stages

Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance

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Developmental Psychology

Application of Psychology: Parenting


Parents play a key role in childrens lives

Parenting and infant attachment


Parenting and discipline style
Effect in childrearing: Two-way street
Common discipline mistakes
Lax parenting, verbosity, overreactivity, and
reinforcement of inappropriate behavior
Sociocultural factors in parenting
Myth of the perfect parent
Day care, divorce, and parenting
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Baumrind: Three Parenting Styles


Style

Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative

Warmth

low

high

high

Discipline

strict
high
high

rare
low
low

moderate
moderate
high

low

high

high

Expected Maturity
Communication:
parent-child
Communication:
child-parent

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Developmental Psychology

9
The End

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