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Chapter 14

Planning Information

Why Plan?
What is Planning?
An IS plan is a statement of how management
foresees its ISs in the future.
IS plan includes:
Activities planner believes will help achieve goals.
Program for monitoring real-world progress.
Means for implementing changes in the plan.

Why Plan?
Business Planning
Define organizations goals and objectives
Determine resources needed to attain objectives
Create policies to govern the acquisition, use,
and distribution of resources
Provide for any changes in objectives

Approaches to Planning
Top-down Planning
Focuses on organizational goals first, then on
the needs of business units

Bottom-up Planning
Focuses on needs of business units first, then on
organizational goals

Approaches to Planning
Planning by Critical Success Factors
Executives define critical success factors first
so planning can address resources to support
those factors
Critical success factor: issues identified as critically
important to business success

Systems Planning
Key elements of an IS Plan
Corporate mission statement
Vision for IT within organization
IS strategic and tactical plans
Operations plan to achieve mission and
Budget to ensure resources are available

Systems Planning
Prerequisites for Information Systems

Recognize IT as an indispensable resource

Understand that IT is a complex resource
Regard IT as owned by the entire organization
Regard IS as a source for gaining strategic goals
View ISs as a tool to control power

Systems Planning
The Corporate and IS Mission
The corporate mission statement
details the purpose of the organization
and its overall goals.
IS mission statement outlines the
purpose of ISs in the organization.

Systems Planning
The IT Vision
Wish list of what IS managers
would like to see in terms of
hardware, software, and
communications, to contribute
to goals of the organization

Systems Planning
Strategic and Tactical IS Planning
IS strategic plan details what is to be
IS tactical plan describes how goals
will be met and by when

Systems Planning
Important Factors in IS Tactical Planning
Total Cost of Ownership

IS Planning Initiatives
Four groups of people who initiate
new or improved ISs from different

Top management
IS professionals
Line managers

The Champion
High-ranking officer who commands
sufficient political clout to include IS
in planning
Most effective champions are not IS

The Champion
A successful champion is a leader who can:
Promote the vision of IT in the organization.
Inspire top management and subordinates alike.
Remove barriers to realizing vision.
Focus on both short-term and long-term objectives.
Be a torchbearer for making change happen.
Drive accountability to lowest organizational level.

The Systems Analyst as an Agent

of Change
Planning almost always deals with change,
which people tend to resist.
Systems analysts must convince users that
the new system will help them in their work.
Explain how a new system will improve business
Train individuals in the use of the new system

Ethical and Societal Issues

Codes of Ethics for IS Professionals
IS professionals can find themselves in
situations where the interests of different
constituencies collide.
Many organizations do not provide
adequate guidelines for resolving
conflicts of interest.

Ethical and Societal Issues

Codes of Ethics for IS Professionals
IS organizations with codes of ethics
Association of Computing Machinery
Data Processing Management
International Federation for Information Processing
British Computer Society
Canadian Information Processing Society
Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals