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Tomislav Skračić, MA

Undergraduate English Course for MARINE ENGINEERS

Essential reading:

4th Semester

SPINČIĆ, A., PRITCHARD, B, An English Textbook For Marine Engineers 2, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2009.

LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2003.

LESSON 6

CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES

Lesson 6

Cylinder Head and Valves

KEY WORDS

cylinder head cylinder cover outer cylinder cover cylinder cover-insert valve stud (n.) firing loads metallic joint shim (n.) borehole (n.)

- glava cilindra - glava / poklopac cilindra - vanjska glava cilindra (velika)[1] - unutarnja glava (mala) - ventil - usadni vijak, "pržunjer" - opterećenja izgaranja / ekspanzije - metalni spoj / brtva - podloška, "bajlaga" - izvrtani / izbušeni otvor

[1] Na starijim Sulzerima, danas većina motora ima 1 glavu.

Lesson 6

Cylinder Head and Valves

VALVES

starting v.

air starter / starting air v. injector / fuel injection v.

- uputni ventil, v. uputnog zraka - ventil uputnog zraka - v. goriva, ubrizgač

safety v. = relief v. indicator v. exhaust v. air inlet v. = intake v.

- sigurnosni, odušni ventil, "šigureca" - indikatorski v. / pipac - ispušni v. - usisni ventil

Lesson 6

Cylinder Head and Valves

tension (n.) tension stud clamp down cylinder cover stud with the aid of sealing ring control bore in turn sequence (n.) bring down

- napon, napetost - pritezni vijak - pritegnuti, stisnuti - vijak glave cilindra, "pržunjer" - uz pomoć, pomoću - brtveni prsten - kontrolni kanal / otvor - naizmjenice, redom - redoslijed, slijed - sjesti, prilegnuti, spustiti (se)

Lesson 6

Cylinder Head and Valves

tightening (n.) crosswise tightening torque wrench stretch of a stud nozzle (n.) tangentially

- stezanje - unakrsno stezanje - moment-ključ - rastezanje / vlak vijka - mlaznica, sapnica - tangencionalno, pod kutem

inspection of the cooling water spaces

- pregled, nadzor

circumference (n.) via

conducting pipe insert (n.) outlet pipe

- obujam, opseg, periferija - putem (e.g. Split–Šibenik via Boraja / news via satellite) - provodna cijev - umetak - ispusna cijev

1. DEFINITION

Cylinder head is a casting that covers the top of a cylinder

2. FUNCTION to close tightly / seal off the top of cylinders. to form the combustion chamber, together with the piston crown or, in some cases, with the liner itself. to carry the injector and the valves

3. VALVES

All internal combustion engines (2- or 4-stroke) have:

an air starting valve which admits compressed air into the cylinder for starting purposes;

a safety or relief valve is a spring loaded valve set to a safe limit which releases excessive pressure;

an indicator cock which is used as a point of the indicator mechanism attachment.

4-stroke engines have inlet and exhaust valves.

Spring loaded non-return safety valve

Spring loaded non-return safety valve

Exercise 1 – Name the parts of the cylinder head:

Exercise 1 – Name the parts of the cylinder head:

4.

STRESSES

High pressure and temperature due to combustion

  • 5. REQUIREMENTS

Strong, sturdy construction / manufacture Carefully cooled

  • 6. COOLING

Is executed by F.W. circulation, as excessive temperature may give rise to damage by cracking

  • 7. MATERIAL

Cast or forged steel Special cast iron

Cooling of the cylinder head

Cooling of the cylinder head

Cooling of the cylinder head

Cooling of the cylinder head

8. DESIGN – not simple. It has valve bores and passages.

o RND-M

One piece steel block with cooling bores.

o B & W (K-GF Type)

Two parts: outer cover and inner

insert. The head is a solid steel plate with radial cooling water bores. The insert contains a bore for the exhaust valve cage and mountings for fuel valves, a safety valve and an indicator valve.

o B & W (K-GF Type) cooling water drillings.

One piece of forged steel with

o Sulzer Z40

The double bottom water cooled

cylinder head made of special cast iron. It has two inlet

and two exhaust valves as well as a centrally arranged fuel valve.

9. HEAD SECURING

By studs made of alloyed steel with close-pitch thread.

The heads are held in place / held against the cylinder liner top collar by:

studs screwed into the cylinder block studs attached to the cylinder frame studs tightened by hydraulic tools.

Studs are made of special steel alloyed with 0.8% of carbon

Studs are made of special steel alloyed with 0.8% of carbon

Exercise 2 – Answer the following questions:

  • 1. Name the valves that may be accommodated in the cylinder head.

  • 2. Are the cylinder heads fitted with inlet and exhaust valves in all marine engines?

  • 3. What is the purpose of the relief valve?

  • 4. What is the function of the studs?

  • 5. Why should the studs be tightened evenly?

  • 6. How are the studs tightened?

  • 7. What is the purpose of the control bore?

  • 8. How can the injector be arranged?

  • 9. What else does the cylinder head accommodate?