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Microwave Fundamentals

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Slide 1

Microwave Fundamentals

Radio Propagation
Terminologies.
Polarization.
Microwave Frequency Bands.
Free space Loss.
Antenna .
Fresnel Zone
Modulation Technologies (QAM).
SDH,PDH,E1

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Slide 2

Radio Propagation

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Slide 3

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
a. Radio Wave Propagation & Its Characterstics
i) Definition of Microwave :
Microwaves in a descriptive term used to identify electromagnetic waves in the frequency
spectrum ranging approx from 1 GHz to 30GHz. This corresponds to wavelength 30cm
to 1 cm. Since the wavelength is small the phase varies rapidly with distance, thus a
signal reaching to a point from two different routes may cause constructive or destructive
interference. Moreover these frequencies contain two energies (Electric and Magnetic)
so also known as ELECTROMAGNATIC WAVES. Propagations of this waves happens
in such a way that direction of propagation, Electric field and Magnetic field always
remains perpendicular to each other. Microwaves frequencies characteristics are very
much similar to light. The same is shown in the figure:

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Slide 4

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
E
H

Depending on the topography and the meteorological conditions, radio waves propagate
In different ways causing attenuation to the original wave. Following propagation
mechanisms come into play:

ii) Reflection :
When electromagnetic waves incide on a surface they may be reflected depending on
the smoothness of the surface. When the surface is smooth and its size is greater than
the wavelength of the wave then it is Reflected.

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Slide 5

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
i

Where i = incident angle


r = reflected angle

Glazy Surface

iii) Refraction :
Bending of waves when passing through one media to other media of different refractive
index is called REFRACTION. Radio waves travel with different velocities in different
medium depending on their dielectric constants. The dielectric constant of the
atmosphere decrease with altitude. Thus the waves travel slower in the lower part of
atmosphere where dielectric constant is greater and faster in the upper part where
dielectric constant is lower thus refracting the beam downwards.
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Slide 6

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
RI1 Medium 1

Where RI1 = Refractive index of medium 1


RI2 = Refractive index of medium 2
RI2

Medium 2
RI1 < RI2

iv) K-Factor & Effective Earth Radius:


In a horizontally homogeneous atmosphere where the vertical change of dielectric
constant is gradual, the bending or refraction is continuous, so that the ray is slowly
bent away from the thinner density air towards thicker, thus making the beam tend to
follow the earths curvature. This bending can be directly related to the radii of
spheres. The first sphere being the earth itself (radius =6370 km) and the second

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Slide 7

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics

sphere is formed by the curvature of the ray beam with its center coinciding the
earths center. The K- Factor thus can be defined as the ratio of the radius, r, of the
ray beam curvature to the true earth radius r.
i.e. K = r / r, where K is called effective earth radius factor and r is the effective earth
radius.
Effective Radio

For K = infinity

Optical Line of sight

For K = 1

Transmitter Antenna

Receiver
For K = 0.5

Effective Earth

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Slide 8

Antenna

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
v) Scattering :

When Electromagnetic waves incide on a rough surface having rough edges whose
dimension is less than the wavelength of the wave, it is scattered in different
directions. Scattering is a phenomenon which causes vector distribution of energy as
shown in the figure.
Incident wave

Scattered waves

vi) Absorption :
At frequencies above 10 GHz the propagation of radio waves through the atmosphere
of the earth is strongly affected by the resonant absorption of electromagnetic energy
by molecular water vapour and oxygen. The amount of water vapour in the
atmosphere strongly varies from place to place according to the local meteorological
conditions.
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Slide 9

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
vii) Attenuation :
As the EM waves travels it losses its energy, this is due to attenuation. Attenuation is
due to presence of other field (Magnetic or Electric), Due to fog, Due to Rain etc.

P1

P2
Attenuation = 10 log (P2/P1) db

Rain Attenuation : Scattering and absorption of the radio wave by raindrops causes
attenuation. Although all frequencies are subject to these effects, rain attenuation is
of practical importance for frequencies above 10 GHz. Due to the random
behaviour of the rain events the same is not included as a contribution to the Link
Budget calculation.
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Slide 10

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics
viii) Fading :
Fading is defined as any time varying of phase, polarization, and/ or level of a
received signal. The most basic propagation mechanism involved in Fading are
reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering, attenuation and guiding(ducting).
i.

Multi path Fading :

It is a common type of fading encountered in LOS radio links. This type of fading
results due to the interference between direct rays and component of ground
reflected wave & partial reflection from atmosphere.
ii.

Fading due to Earth Bulge :

iii.

Duct & Layer fading : Atmospheric ducts consisting of superrefractive and a

subrefractive layer or vice versa.


iv.

Surface duct fading on over water path : It is a combination of multi path fading

due to water body and fading due to atmospheric duct.

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Slide 11

Radio Wave Propagation & Its


characteristics

Effective Earth

Effective Earth
Multi path fading

Atmospheric duct

Effective Earth
Fading due to earth bulge

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Water Body
Surface duct

Slide 12

Trunk Radio Characteristics

Long distance

Therefore lower frequencies

Therefore subject to Multipath fading

Diversity route compensation

Lower frequencies less effected by rain

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Slide 13

Wave Propagation in Atmosphere


With Atmosphere

No Atmosphere

The highest index of refraction is near the surface of the


earth, the waves are bent towards the ground

K-Value is a common used value to indicate ray bending


with respect to the physical radius of the earth

For a normal atmosphere K value equals 4/3

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Slide 14

Multipath

Multipath propagation occurs when there are more


then one ray reaching the receiver

Multipath transmission is the main cause of fading

Direct beam

Delayed beam

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Slide 15

Diffraction

Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with


sharp irregular edges

Waves bends around the obstacle, even when line of sight does not
exist

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Slide 16

Fade Margins
Fading depends on atmospheric conditions, path climatic
conditions and path terrain (need a path profile)
Rx signal level
Rx signal level - rain

Thermal
Fade

Flat
Fade
Margin

Margin

Flat
fade
Margin
Rain
Rx Threshold level + interference
Rx Threshold level

Effective
Fade
Margin

RSL

Flat Dispersive
Fade
Fade
Margin Margin

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Slide 17

Rain Fading

Rain Outage due to water absorption


Increases with frequency

Depends on amount of water in path


Rain rate (mm/hr)

Depends on rain region


How often does that mm/hr occur

Rain falls as flattened droplet


V better than H

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Slide 18

Polarization
i) Electromagnetic Waves & Fields
Energy in EM waves is in form of Electric and Magnetic field. Energy of any MW wave
is vector sum of its all-electrical and magnetic components. The concept can be better
understood from the following diagrams :

E
M

E16 E1

H12 H13

E2
E3

E15

E4

E14

E5

E13

E6

E12
E7

E11
E10 E9

H14
H15

H11

E8

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H16

H10

H1

H9

H2

H8
H3

H7
H6

H5

H4

Slide 19

Polarization
ii) Polarization ( H, V & Circular):
When EM wave contains E and H energies in all direction that is know as circularly
Polarized as shown in the last figure.
When EM waves has got only electrical component perpendicular to Horizon of earth,
is known as Vertical Polarized wave.
When EM waves has got electrical component parallel to Horizon of earth, known as
Horizontally polarized wave.
Vertically polarized wave travels longer distance as compare to horizontally polarized
wave.

P=V

P=H

Earth
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Slide 20

Microwave Frequency
Band

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Slide 21

i) Microwave Frequency Bands as per ITU Radio Regulation :


Radio Waves are defined by Radio Regulations of the International telecommunication
Union.The radio spectrum allocated for Microwave are UHF,SHF and EHF as
mentioned below in the table:

Band Number
4
5

Symbol
VLF
LF

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

MF
HF
VHF
UHF
SHF
EHF

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Metric
Corresponding Abbreviations for
Frequency Range Metric Subdivision
the band
3 to 30 kHz
Myriametric waves
B. Mam
30 to 300 kHz
Kilometric waves
B. km
300 to 3000 kHz Hectometric waves
3 to 30 MHz
Decametric waves
30 to 300 MHz
Metric waves
300 to 3000 MHz Decimetric waves
3 to 30 GHz
Centimetric waves
30 to 300 GHz
Milimetric waves
300 to 3000 GHz Decimilimetric waves

Slide 22

B. hm
B. dam
B. m
B. dm
B. cm
B. mm

Microwave frequency bands

Band Designator

Frequency (GHz

Wavelength in Free
Space (centimeters)

L band

1 to 2

30.0 to 15.0

S band

2 to 4

15 to 7.5

C band

4 to 8

7.5 to 3.8

X band

8 to 12

3.8 to 2.5

Ku band

12 to 18

2.5 to 1.7

K band

18 to 27

1.7 to 1.1

Ka band

27 to 40

1.1 to 0.75

V band

40 to 75

0.75 to 0.40

W band

75 to 110

0.40 to 0.27

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Slide 23

Prefix

Factor

Symbol

atto

10-18

fempto

10-15

pico

10-12

nano

10-9

micro

10-6

milli

10-3

centi

10-2

deci

10-1

deka

101

Da

hecto

102

kilo

103

mega

106

giga

109

tera

1012

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Slide 24

ii) Microwave Frequency Band used in Practical Systems :


2, 6 and 7 GHz Frequency Bands are used for Intercity Backbone routes.
Nominal Hop Distances 25 40 Km
15,18 and 23 GHz Frequency Bands are used for Access Network
Nominal Hop Distance 1 10 Km.
: Government will allocate spot Frequency. Index of Radios
will be decided by Spot frequency. Channel No will be calculated using allocated spot
frequency. To obtain the same applications have to be forwarded to the following
government bodies :
iii) SACFA (Standing Advisory Committee for Frequency Allocation)
It is a government Wing which allocates frequency and also gives tower ht clearance.
Before allocation Of frequency it checks not to cause interference to existing users.
Before giving tower
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Slide 25

height clearance it checks that it should not cause obstruction to exiting MW link,
should not be in funnel zone of Aircraft etc.
iv) WPC (Wireless Planning Committee) - It is a government wing which takes
charges from operator for use of MW frequency pair. Charges are based on the
and width used and annual gross revenue.

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Slide 26

v) Frequency & Bandwidth :


a) Introduction :
The implementation of digital LOS radio links has accelerated due to transition of
telephone network to an all digital network. The digital network is based on a PCM
waveform, which when compared to analog FDM is wasteful of bandwidth. A nominal
4-kHz voice channel on an FDM baseband system occupies about 4-kHz of
bandwidth. On an FDM/FM radiolink, by rough estimation we can say it occupies
about 16 kHz.
In conventional PCM baseband system, allowing 1 bit per Hz of
bandwidth, a 4-KHz voice channel roughly requires 64kHz (64 kbps) of bandwidth.
This is derived using Nyquist sampling rate of 8000 / sec (4000 Hz x 2) and each
sample is assigned an 8-bit code word, thus 8000 x 8 bits per second or 64 kbps.
Thus it is essential to select modulation techniques that are bandwidth conservative.

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Slide 27

b) Modulation techniques used :


The digital modulation schemes such as FSK, BPSK/QPSk, 8-ary PSK, 4-QAM, 8
QAM and 16-QAM are most commonly used. For eg the table shows comparision of
Analog and digital modulation techniques:
Bandwidth
Voice Channel Capacity
Max Data Capacity
E1 capacity
System Gain

600 channel FM Analog


10 MHz
600
11.52Mbps
10
110.4 dB

16 QAM Digital
10 MHz
384
25 Mbps
12
111.5 dB

c) Bandwidth Requirement :
As per the no. of channel requirements the bandwidth of the system can be decided.
For example for 4mbps I.e. 60 nos of 64 kbps channels I.e. 4 Mbps , bandwidth of of
3.5MHz is required and so on as mentioned below:
7 MHz for 8 Mbps, 14 MHz for 16 Mbps and so on.
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Slide 28

Terminologies

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Slide 29

Terminologies
i.Azimuth and Importance of North direction
It is angle of antenna direction w.r.t. north in clockwise direction. This is also known as
bearing.

ii.AMSL
Above mean sea level. An antenna at AMSL 20m means it is 20meter higher than the mean
sea level.

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Slide 30

Terminologies
iii.db, dbm
db=it is logarithmic ratio
db = 10 log P1/P2.
3db loss of power is power reduced to half.
dbm is the logarithmic ratio of power w.r.t 1. miliwatt
1 mW power in dbm is =10 log 1mW/1mW = 10 log 0 = 0dbm
1 W power in dbm is = 10 log 10W/1mW =30dbm

iv) Antenna Gain and Beam width


Beam width of an antenna is the angle in which antenna radiates energy.
Antenna Gain is measured w.r.t. isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna radiates power in all direction.
In practical system the energy needs to be radiated in the desired direction in desired beam width. Thus
the total energy confined in the smaller aperture. Unit of antenna gain is dbi.
Antenna Gain
= 17.8 + 20 * log10 (f *d) dBi
Where d= Antennae Diameter in Meter and f= Frequency in GHz

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Slide 31

Beam width

Terminologies
v)

AGC

AGC stands for Automatic Gain Control. Media between two antennae in MW system is variable
thus the path loss. MW system is designed in such a way that it can add or reduces the gain to
compensate the variation in path loss. This mechanism is known as AGC system.

vi) Spot frequency


MW system transmits information after
modulation on carrier frequency from one point to another. The carrier frequency is known as spot
frequency. We need to set a spot frequency in MW system (also known as channel number).

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Slide 32

Terminologies
i.

Diversity

ii.

It is used to improve system performance. There are two types of


diversity used.
1. Space Diversity
2. Frequency Diversity
F1
F2

Space
Diversity

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Frequency
Diversity

Slide 33

Free Space Propagation

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Slide 34

Free Space propagation


i.

Free Space Propagation :

As described earlier characteristics of Microwave is very much similar to light waves.


Velocity of Microwaves is same as velocity of light waves. Velocity of the light (C) is
3x 108 meter per second.
Also we know that C = F *

(F=frequency and = wavelength).

As the EM wave travels in free space it looses energy. Free Space transmission loss
is the least possible loss between a transmitter and a receiver. The same can be
defined by the formula:
P loss = 32.4 + 20 log f *d
where f is Frequency in MHz and d is Distance in KM

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Slide 35

Free Space propagation


ii) Importance of Free Space Loss :
As described free space loss is the loss calculated in space thus it is minimum loss
incurred when EM waves travels a distance. Loss when EM waves travels the same
distance in other media will be higher than the loss in free space. Exact loss can be
calculated by giving other external environmental inputs to planning tool.

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Slide 36

Free Space Loss

L fs 92.45 20 log(d f )
Examples

39 GHz
d=1km ---> L = 124 dBm
d=2km ---> L = 130 dBm

26 GHz
d=1km ---> L = 121 dBm
d=2km ---> L = 127 dBm

For 39 GHz, L 118 + 6d

For 26 GHz, L 115 + 6d

For 23 GHz, L 120 + 6d

For 18 GHz, L 112 + 6d

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Slide 37

Antenna Basics

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Slide 38

vi) Antenna Design for Microwave Systems :


a) Introduction :
Antennas form the link between the guided waves and the free space part of a radio
or microwave system. The guided parts are cables or waveguides to and from the
transmitter and receiver.
b) Purpose of Antennas :
The purpose of a transmitting antenna is to efficiently transform the current in a circuit
or waveguide into radiated radio or microwave energy. The purpose of a receiving
antenna is to efficiently accept the radiated energy and convert it to guided form for
detection and processing by a receiver.
c) Types of Antenna :
Antennas for radio and microwave system falls into two broad categories depending
on the degree to which the radiation is confined.
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Slide 39

Microwave and satellite communications use pencil beam antennas where the
radiation is confined to one narrow beam of energy, whereas Mobile communications
and broadcasting use omni directional pattern in the horizontal plane and toroidal
pattern in the vertical plane. At microwave frequencies the most common type of
pencil beam antenna is a medium to large size reflector antenna. This consists of a
reflector, or, mirror which collimates the signal from a feed horn at the focus of the
reflector. These are aperture antennas because the basic radiating element is an
Aperture.

`
Pencil Beam
Toroidal Beam

Reflector Antenna
& Feed Horn
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Slide 40

d) Size and Gain of Microwave Antenna :


The axi-symmetric parabolic reflector with a feed at the focus of the paraboloid is the
simplest type of reflector antenna used in microwave application. The paraboloid has
the property that energy from the feed horn at the focus F goes to the point P on the
surface where it is reflected parallel to the axis to arrive at a point A on the imaginary
aperture plane. The equation describing the surface is :
r 4F( F z ) where F is the focal length. At the
Edge of the reflector the relationship between the
focal length and the diameter D is given by :

F / D = cot (

The depth of the paraboloid is specified by its F/D ratio.


Common sizes for microwave reflector antennas are
between F/D =0.25 which makes = 90to F/D =0.5
which gives = 53

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Slide 41

z
F

The peak gain of the reflector antenna is calculated as :


G = 4X effective aperture area / = ( D / )
Hence more the gain larger will be the size of the antenna used.

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Slide 42

deciBel

Pout mW

Pin mW

G=?
Gain is a referenced Value without
measurements units

When trying to calculate cascade amplifiers in most cases it will


be difficult using the linear way (long numbers and most of the
time not round ones).This is the reason for working in decibels.
G=10Log(Pout/Pin) [dB]

1mW = -30dBW = 0dBm

Log ( A B ) LogA LogB

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Slide 43

Pout

Pin

Power measurements units in a logarithmical world is


dBm (in reference to 1mW) or dBW (in reference to 1W).
1W = 0dBW = 30dBm
A reminder

Pin

Pou

1 =
2 =
3 =
4 =
5 =
6 =
7 =
8 =
9 =
10 =

0
3
4.7
6
7
7.7
8.5
9
9.5
10

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

Antennas Basics

Definition

= wavelength = c/f

f = 3.5 GHz = 8.571 cm

- Transmission line - The device used to guide RF energy from one point to another one, with minimum
attenuation, heat and radiation losses.
Guides the energy
- Radio antenna

- The structure associated with the region of transition between a guided wave and
a free space wave, or vice versa.
Radiates/receives energy

Generator
Transmission line
(spacing between wires is only
a fraction of the wave length)

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Slide 44

Antenna
(separation between wires
is in the range of one or
more wave lengths)

Directivity
- Isotropic antenna (theoretical)

Generator

The energy fed into the antenna is radiated


in the whole space.
A receiver RCV, located in the far field of the
transmitter, gets the basic element of energy
generated by the presence of 17dBm (50mW) in
the whole space.

17 dBm (50mW)

RCV

- Non-isotropic antenna (real)


RCV

Generator

17 dBm (50mW)

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Slide 45

The energy fed into the antenna is radiated only


in part of the space.
A receiver RCV, located in the far field of the
transmitter, gets the basic element of energy
generated by the presence of 17dBm (50mW) in
the defined volume, which is equivalent with the
presence of much more energy isotropically
distributed.

- Non-isotropic antenna (real)


RCV

Generator

For same amount of energy fed into the antenna, a


non-isotropic antenna will transmit its signal over
longer distances.
Non-isotropic antennas are characterized by their
capability to focus the transmitted energy,
expressed by the antenna gain

17 dBm (50mW)

Antenna gain = 10 Log

Generator

17 dBm (50mW)

RCV

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Volume (radiation) of subject antenna


[dBi]
volume (radiation) of isotropic antenna

e.g. - An antenna with 3dBi gain, radiates its energy


into 50% of the space.
Conclusion - A 3dBi antenna fed with
17dBm behaves (in its active field) as an isotropic
antenna fed with 20dBm
Even if, in fact, the antenna radiates only 17 dBm,
it is said that it radiates 20 dBm EIRP (Equivalent
Isotropic Radiated Power)

Slide 46

Radiation Patterns for some


antennas
Gain
(dBi)

Geometry

Radiation Pattern

Half Power Beam


Width (HPBW)
Horizontal

Vertical

18

18

18

35

2.5

2.5

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Slide 47

Antenna Pattern

at 3.500000 GHz
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
-180

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-120

-60

Slide 48

60

120

180

Andrew antenna Specification

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Slide 49

VHP2A-220A-241 is:
ValuLine High Performance, shielded, single
polarized(VHPX Shielded, Dual Polarized)
2 ft (0.6 m) in diameter
Non-compliant to UK RA specifications (blank
Compliant to UK RA Specification)
21.2-23.6 GHz band(142 14.25-15.35 GHz)
A Revision
PBR220, 1.20 VSWR
White antenna, white radome, no flash
Standard
packing
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Slide 50

Fresnel Zone
A family of ellipsoids that can be constructed between a transmitter
and a receiver by joining all the various ways of the destructives
electromagnetic waves, in reference to the direct line of transmission.

The circles indicate the geometric place of


all the waves that passed the way: d'1+d'2

Transmitter

Receiver

d1

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d2

Slide 51

Fresnel Zone
The radius of each of the circles in the figure is
calculated using the following equation:

rn

nd1d 2
d1 d 2
Base Antenna
site

Terminal
Antenna site

rF: 1st Fresnel zone


radius

d2: distance from


Terminal: 1.2Km

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Possible obtructor

d1 distance from Base to


obcstacle: 1.8Km

Slide 52

Fresnel Zone

L = 20 dB

L = 6 dB

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Slide 53

Fresnel Zone Tables

3.5GHz

50

200

700

1200

1700

2200

2700

3200

3700

4200

4700

5200

5700

6200

6700

7200

7700

8200

8700

9200

97

50

1.5

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

200

1.9

2.9

3.7

3.8

3.9

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

700

2.0

3.7

5.5

6.2

6.5

6.7

6.9

7.0

7.1

7.2

7.2

7.3

7.3

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.4

7.4

7.5

7.5

1200

2.0

3.8

6.2

7.2

7.8

8.2

8.4

8.6

8.8

8.9

9.1

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.3

9.4

9.4

9.5

9.5

9.5

1700

2.0

3.9

6.5

7.8

8.5

9.1

9.5

9.8

10.0

10.2

10.3

10.5

10.6

10.7

10.8

10.9

10.9

11.0

11.0

2200

2.0

4.0

6.7

8.2

9.1

9.7

10.2

10.6

10.9

11.1

11.3

11.5

11.7

11.8

11.9

12.0

12.1

12.2

2700

2.1

4.0

6.9

8.4

9.5

10.2

10.8

11.2

11.6

11.9

12.1

12.3

12.5

12.7

12.8

13.0

13.1

3200

2.1

4.0

7.0

8.6

9.8

10.6

11.2

11.7

12.1

12.5

12.8

13.0

13.3

13.5

13.6

13.8

3700

2.1

4.0

7.1

8.8

10.0

10.9

11.6

12.1

12.6

13.0

13.3

13.6

13.9

14.1

14.3

4200

2.1

4.0

7.2

8.9

10.2

11.1

11.9

12.5

13.0

13.4

13.8

14.1

14.4

14.6

4700

2.1

4.1

7.2

9.1

10.3

11.3

12.1

12.8

13.3

13.8

14.2

14.5

14.9

5200

2.1

4.1

7.3

9.1

10.5

11.5

12.3

13.0

13.6

14.1

14.5

14.9

5700

2.1

4.1

7.3

9.2

10.6

11.7

12.5

13.3

13.9

14.4

14.9

6200

2.1

4.1

7.3

9.3

10.7

11.8

12.7

13.5

14.1

14.6

6700

2.1

4.1

7.4

9.3

10.8

11.9

12.8

13.6

14.3

7200

2.1

4.1

7.4

9.4

10.9

12.0

13.0

13.8

7700

2.1

4.1

7.4

9.4

10.9

12.1

13.1

8200

2.1

4.1

7.4

9.5

11.0

12.2

8700

2.1

4.1

7.5

9.5

11.0

9200

2.1

4.1

7.5

9.5

9700

2.1

4.1

7.5

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 54

3.5 GHz vs. 26 GHz Fresenel Zone

100
90

height (m)

80
70

26GHz

60

3.5GHz

50
40
`30
20
10
0

Range (km)
Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 55

10

Modulations Technologies

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 56

Introduction

Examples for modulation techniques:

Quadrate Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)


Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Etc.

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 57

Modulation Techniques - Basic


Techniques

Data bits modulate (modify) a carrier signal


message(t)
Basic modulation techniques

Amplitude
Frequency
Phase

data bits

unmodulated
carrier
Amplitude Modulation
(AM)
Frequency Modulation
(FSK)
(Differential) Phase
Modulation (DPSK)

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 58

carrier

modulator

transmitted
signal

Modulation Techniques - Basic Techniques

Data bits are represented over the transmission


channel by SYMBOLS
Symbol rate is expressed in Baud
Jean Maurice Emile BAUDOT
(1845 - 1903)
- 1874 - Baudot code - 5 bits - for
use with telegraphs (more
economical than Morse
code)
- 1894 - Telegraph multiplexer

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 59

Modulation Techniques
Symbols
Symbol
Is a sinusoidal signal (carrier) with specific parameters
dictated by the bit(s), transmitted for finite period of
time.
Carrier parameters do not change for the duration of
the symbol
Even if the symbol itself is comprised of one single
frequency (the carrier), the fact that it is transmitted
over a finite period of time generates an infinite
spectrum, centered on the carrier frequency.

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 60

Modulation Techniques - Symbols

Time domain

Frequency domain
A

unmodulated
carrier

fc

Modulated
carrier
(symbols)

Proprietary & Confidential

fc

1
T

Slide 61

Modulation Techniques - Quadrature


Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

QAM is a modulation modifying the phase and


the amplitude of the carrier signal
QAM symbols are represented by the carrier
signal being transmitted with specific phase /
amplitude (dictated by the message), for finite
periods of time.

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 62

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


(QAM)

Symbol 1 is a
cosine
waveform of:

Polar Coordinates
A1

Symbol presentation

symbol 1 - amplitude A1
- phase

A
Amplitude distance from origin
Phase Angle from positve x axis

A1 cos t

A1cos t
(phase 0; reference)

Symbol 1 = A1cos(t )

Symbol Generation

For the generation of such symbols, there is a need for an oscillator


able to modify its phase based on the symbol that has to be
transmitted not a very trivial topic.

Symbol reception
To identify the symbol, the receiver needs a reference carrier, in phase with
the carrier used by the transmitter (coherent demodulation).

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 63

Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM)
I/Q coordinates (a bit of trigonometry)
cos(t - ) = cos t*cos + sin t*sin
As is constant :

cos(t - ) = Kc*cos t + Ks*sin t

cos = constant = Kc
sin = constant = Ks

Symbol representation

A cosine waveform of frequency t with any specific phase can be


represented as the sum of a sine and a cosine waveforms of same
frequency t.

The phase of the resultant signal is dictated by the relative amplitudes of


the sine and cosine waveforms, through Kc = cosine amplitude = cos ;
Ks = sine amplitude = sin

By controlling Kc and Ks, any phase of the waveform may be generated.

A cosine waveform may be identified by its


In phase (I) component amplitude, Kc (cosine)
Quadrature phase (Q) component amplitude, Ks (sine)

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 64

Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM)
I/Q coordinates
Examples
Q

=
4

= 0.7
4

Ks = sin = 0.7
4
cos(t - ) = 0.7cos t + 0.7sin t
4
Kc = cos

=
4

=
8

= 0.9
8

Ks = sin = 0.4
8
cos(t - ) = 0.9cos t + 0.4sin t
8
Kc = cos

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 65

Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM)

I/Q coordinates
Symbol Generation
cos(t - ) = Kc*cos t + Ks*sin t
Kc

cos t

Ks

cos t

sin t

symbol

Easier to implement

Symbol reception
The symbol is identified by the relative amplitude of the sine and cosine components.
there is no need for coherent carrier.

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 66

Mapping process

QAM64 has 64 constellation points


Constellation Point
Q

Constelation
point

When the mapping


process received the
6 bits needed to be
transmitted it divide it
to 3 bits for Q signal
and the other 3 bits
for the I signal. Then it choose the right
constellation point which represent the bits needed
to be transmitted.
I

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 67

Mapping process
The bits to be transmitted are 101111.

Q level

I level
Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 68

The bits are divided


Constelation
into
3 bits for Q and 3
bits forpoint
I.
101 -> Q 111 -> I
The Q signal are at a
certain level defined by
the mapping process.
The I signal is handled
in the same manner.

Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM)

nr. of sine
amplitudes

constellation

nr. of
cosine
amplitudes

generated using

phases

number of

amplitudes

bit rate / Baud


rate

number of bits
per symbol

modulation
technique

number of symbols

QAM constellations (patterns)

(3 bits)

(3 bits)

Q
000100 001100 011100 010100 110100 111100

101100 100100

+7
000101 001101 011101 010101 110101 111101

101101 100101

+5
000111 001111

011111

010111 110111

111111

101111

100111

+3
000110 001110 011110

64QAM

64

6/1

52

-7

-5

-3

010110 110110 111110


-1

+1

+1

+3

101110 100110
+5

+7

000010 001010 011010 010010 110010 111010 101010 100010


-1
000011 001011 011011 010011 110011 111011

101011 100011

-3
000001 001001 011001 010001 110001 111001 101001 100001
-5

not all
combinations
are used

Proprietary & Confidential

000000 001000 011000 010000 110000 111000 101000 100000


-7

Slide 69

128 QAM Costellation.

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 70

Q/I formats
Q and I are 90 difference from each other.
Each one of those signals is basically enhanced
(Quadurate) Amplitude Modulation.
Due to the fact the signals have 90 they will not
interfere each other if they are combined.
Combination of those signals will provide us ..

a signal with Amplitude and Phase changes !

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 71

Link Budget
i) Transmit Power, Receiver Sensitivity & Fade Margin
a.

Transmit Power :

This is the RF power which is transmitted by RF unit.

b.

Receiver Sensitivity :

This is the minimum power, which can be sensed by RF unit and signals can be
received.

c.

Fade Margin :

Fade Margin = Receiver Threshold (10E-6) - Actual received power

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 72

Link Budget
ii) Link Budget
The Link Budget sums all attenuations and amplifications of the signal between the
transmitter output and receiver input terminals. This can be illustrated in the figure
below:
Power

Output
Power
Propagation Loss
and attenuation
Feeder
Loss

Antenna
Gain
Antenna
Gain

Feeder
Loss

Received
Power

Receiver
Threshold

Fading
Margin
4dB

Distance

Transmitted & Received Power


Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 73

Link Budget
As illustrated in the figure the received Power in the radio link terminal can be
calculated as follows :
Pin = Pout AF + G ABF A0 AG AL
Where Pin = Received Power (dBm)
Pout = Transmitted Power (dBm)
AF = Antenna Feeder Loss (dB)
G = Antenna Gain (dBi)
ABF = Free space Loss (dB) (between isotropic antennas)
A0 = Obstacle Loss (dB)
AG = Gas Attenuation (dB)
AL = Additional Loss (dB)

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 74

Noise and sensitivity


To every transmitted signal a thermal noise is added, the thermal noise is marked by the
letter N and defined by Boltsman constant [K] ( K 1.38 10 23 ) multiple the temperature in
Kelvin [T] (room temperature equal to 290) multiple the bandwidth in MHz [B]. Or in other
words (in the linear way)

N K T B

in the logarithmical way


Signal to Noise Ration (SNR) defined as the ratio between the signal strength and the noise
strength.
Every active system adds a certain noise to the signal the parameter which described it call
Noise Figure (NF). Noise figure defined as the ratio between the input SNR to the output
SNR.

NF SNR SNR
NF S IN N IN SNROUT
S IN N IN NF SNROUT
IN

IN

OUT

114 10 LogB NF SNROUT

N 10 Log ( K T ) 10 LogB 114 10 LogB


Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 75

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)

Power
received

Power
received

Required
received
power

Sensitivity

Sensitivity

SNR

SNR

SNR

External
interference
Noise floor

Noise floor
{thermal
noise +
implementation
noise (NF)}

Calculating receiver sensitivity

)Note: SNR is a function of rate; values range from 5 dB to 30 dB(

:For correct operation Pr interference + SNR


Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 76

2 Mbps Signal
1.

Construction of 2Mbps signal


i.

Voice frequency

ii.

Sampling

iii.

Qunatization

iv. Digitization
v.

64 kbps signal Multiplexing.

vi. PDH
vii. SDH

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 77

Voice Frequency

Energy

Frequency in Hz
0

300

Proprietary & Confidential

3400

Slide 78

4000

Sampling

Voltage
Time

Voltage
Time

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 79

Quantization

Before Quantization

After Quantization

Fixed
256nos
Voltage
levels

Time

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 80

Digitization

Each sample will be


represented by 8 bits

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 81

64 kbps Multiplexing

0
1
2
3
4

Mu
ltip
lex
er

25

2Mbps stream

26
27
28
29
30
31

Proprietary & Confidential

27

Slide 82

28

29

30

31

PDH

2Mbps stream
1

2/8
Multiplexer

2
3
4

8Mbps stream

8 / 32
Multiplexer

3
4

32 Mbps stream

32 / 140
Multiplexer

3
4

M=Multiplexer
Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 83

140 Mbps stream

SDH

2Mbps stream

2Mbps stream
1

1
2

STM-1

STM-1

ADM

20
21

20
21

2Mbps stream

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 84

PDH- Plesynchronous Digital


Hierarchy
i.

Level
0
1
2
3
4

Rate(Mb/s)
0.064
2.048
8.448
34.368
139.264

Proprietary & Confidential

E1
1
4
16
64

Slide 85

SDH-Synchronous digital Hierarchy

Level
STM-1
STM-4
STM-8
STM-16
STM-64

Proprietary & Confidential

Rate(Mb/s)
155.52
622.08
1244.16
2488.32
~10GHz

E1
63
252
504
1008
4032

Slide 86

Some popular 50 Ohms Coax cable

Type

Frequeny
MHz

Power*
Watts

Loss dB
per 100 ft

Diameter
inches

Rel. cost

RG58

0-3000

45

15-20

0.2"

low

RG8/RG2
13

0-3000

190

9-10

0.4"

moderate

Belden
9913

0-1000

275

4-5

0.4"

moderate

Times
LMR400

0-2000

350

3.5-4

0.4"

moderate

1/2" Alum.

0-3000

650

3-3.5

0.6"

moderate

1/2" Heliax

0-8000

900

2-2.5

0.6"

high

7/8" Heliax

0-5000

2,000

1.25-1.5

1.0"

high

*
Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 87

Proprietary & Confidential

Slide 88