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International Marketing

15th edition

Philip R. Cateora, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham

Integrated marketing communications (IMC) are
composed of advertising, sales promotions, trade shows,
personal selling, direct selling, and public relations
All these mutually reinforcing elements of the marketing
mix have as their common objective the successful sale of
a product or service
For most companies, advertising and personal selling are
the major components in the marketing communications
The goal of most companies, large and small, is to achieve
the synergies possible when sales promotions, public
relations efforts, and advertising are used in concert
Roy Philip

Sales Promotions
in International Markets
Sales promotions
Marketing activities that stimulate consumer
purchases and improve retailer or middlemen
effectiveness and cooperation
Short-term efforts directed to the consumer or
retailer to achieve specific objectives

In markets with media limitations the

percentage of the promotional budget allocated
to sales promotions may have to be increased
Product sampling
Roy Philip

Public Relations
Public relations (PR) is creating good
relationships with the popular press and other
To help companies communicate messages to
customers, the general public, and governmental

Bridgestone/Firestone Tires safety recall

Global workplace standards
Building an international profile
Corporate sponsorships
Roy Philip

International Advertising
1. Perform marketing research
2. Specify the goals of the communication
3. Develop the most effective message(s) for the
market segments selected
4. Select effective media
5. Compose and secure a budget
6. Execute the campaign
7. Evaluate the campaign relative to the goals
Roy Philip

Advertising Strategy and Goals

Marketing problems
Require careful marketing research
Thoughtful and creative advertising campaigns
In country, regional, and global markets

Increased need for more sophisticated

advertising strategies
Balance between standardization of advertising
themes and customization
Consumer cultures
Roy Philip

Product Attributes
and Benefit Segmentation
Different cultures usually agree on the benefit of the
primary function of a product or service
Other features and psychological attributes of the
item can have significant differences

Blue Diamond
Assumes that no two markets will react the same
Each has its own set of differences
Each will require a different marketing approach
and strategy
Roy Philip

Regional Segmentation
Pan-European communications media highlights
need for more standardized promotional efforts
Costs savings with a common theme in uniform
promotional packaging and design
Legal restrictions slowly being eliminated

Roy Philip

Legal Constraints

Comparative advertising
Advertising of specific products
Control of advertising on television
Accessibility to broadcast media
Limitations on length and number of
Internet services
Special taxes that apply to advertising

Roy Philip

Linguistic Limitations
Language is one of the major barriers to effective
communication through advertising
Translation challenges
Low literacy in many countries
Multiple languages within a country
In-country testing with the target consumer
group avoids problems caused by linguistic

Roy Philip


Media Limitations
and Production and Cost Limitations
Media limitations may diminish the role of
advertising in the promotional program
Examples of production limitations:
Poor-quality printing
Lack of high-grade paper

Low-cost reproduction in small markets poses a

problem in many countries

Roy Philip


Campaign Execution
and Advertising Agencies
Managed by advertising agencies
Local domestic agency
Company-owned agency
Multinational agency with local branches

Commonly 15 percent throughout the world
Some companies moving to reward-by-results

Roy Philip


International Control
of Advertising Broader Issues

Consumer criticism
Deceptive advertising
Decency and blatant use of sex
Government regulations

Roy Philip


Summary (1 of 2)
An integrated marketing communications (IMC)
program includes coordination among
advertising, sales management, public relations,
sales promotions, and direct marketing
Currently companies are basing their advertising
strategies on national, subcultural, demographic,
or other market segments
The major problem facing international
advertisers is designing the best messages for
each market served
Roy Philip


Summary (2 of 2)
The availability and quality of advertising media
vary substantially around the world
Advances in communication technologies are
causing dramatic changes in the structure of the
international advertising and communications

Roy Philip