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WELCOME TO ENGLISH FOR

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CLASS


Dr. Marjito, M.Pd
0813 20 792 604, marjitompd@yahoo.co.id
Perumahan Gading Junti Asri, Blok X1/ 14 Katapang,
Bandung

Rules in the Classroom


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Be on time and dont be late. (late for more than


15 minutes)
Be active in the classroom.
Bring dictionary.
Your attendance should be14 meetings).
Dont use laptop, gadget unless youre asked to.
Silence your phones tone.
Dont ever try to cheat in quizzes or exams.

SCORING
1.

2.
3.

Assignments +quizzes + participation+


Attendance+ Presentation = 35%
Mid Academic Test (UTS) = 30%
Final Academic Test (UAS) = 35%

FUNGSI TO BE (are, am, is)


to be
are
N
: adalah
am
Adj.
: TMA
S + is + Adverb of Place : ada/ berada
was
V- ing
: sedang (me)
were
to infinitive : Harus
V3
: di
being + V3 : sedang di

EXAMPLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

She is a sanitarian
Contaminated wells are another sanitation problem
Everyone admired Lucy because she was tall and slim
There were ten people waiting in the teacher's room.
She was observing the environmental health when I was there
I am to leave right now because of being late
My file was deleted yesterday
the strategy for this year's World Water Day is designed to
increase substantive awareness, ideally leading to decisive
actions in support of improved sanitation
9. Insomnia is not disease, but it is a symptom that has many
causes, such as emotional disorders, physical disorders and the
use of drugs.
10. If the MDG sanitation target is to be achieved, innovative
approaches need to be developed to reduce the time span from
policy making to services delivery.

SANITARIAN

A sanitarian is a person who is trained in the sanitary


sciences, biology, chemistry, geology, physics, and math,
and who operates as an inspector or health official in the
public sector or private industry, reviewing programs and
enforcing local laws to protect the public's health. She or he
is a public health professional whose responsibilities may
include food sanitation and safety; air, water, and
environmental protection; inspection of water-well and
sewage-disposal systems; control of insect pests, and
animals; disease control and epidemiology; housing,
occupational, and institutional safety and sanitation; and
nuisance control. Many states require sanitarians to be
registered and to maintain registration and continuing
education

S + V1(s/es)/ V2

Many people do not realize the health and economic benefits to the
individual, the community and to society from improving sanitation
She didnt go to the office this morning
He never helps me.
They decided to leave the place yesterday.

APAKAH 1

Are noun
Am adj.
Is
+ S + adverb of place+(O) + ? Apakah
Were to infinitive: apakah harus
Was V-ing: apakah sedang me

berada

V3 : apakah .di
being + V3: apakah .sedangdi

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Are you a sanitarian ?


Is your mother at home now?
Are they to take sanitation engineering course?
Are you writing a paper?
Were you interviewed yesterday?
were you being interviewed when I was at your of fice?

APAKAH 2
Do
Does + S + Verb1+ O + Adverb + ?
Did

Example:
Did you take my pen yesterday?
Does she go to the office everyday?
Do you come from Jakarta?

WH + APAKAH 1
When
(n)
Where
are
adj.
Why
am
adverb
Who
+ is + S + v-ing
+?
How
was
to infinitive
What (n)
were
V3
Which (n)
being + V3
Whose (n)
How long

Example
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

What are you?


How are you to day?
Why were you late the last Tuesday?
What are you doing now?
When are they to check out?
Who was sent to the jail?
why is she being interviewed now?
What is the size of the problem?
What diseases are associated with poor
sanitation?
What are the options for controlling excreta?

WH + APAKAH 2

When
Where
Why
how + do, does, did+ S +V1 + (O) + (adverb)+?
What (n)
Which (n)
Who + V1(s/es)/ V2

EXAMPLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What do you think of this program?


How do you come here?
Which book do you like best?
Where do you come from?
Who held the meeting the last week?
What subject does she take?
What do we mean by "sanitation"?
How does sanitation prevent disease?
How does sanitation affect the environment?

Writing YES / NO questions in English


1.
1.

2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
8.
9.
9.
10.
10.

11.
11.
12.
12.
13.
13.
14.
14.
15.
15.

Many
Many students
students from
from the
the environmental
environmental health
health dept
dept are
are taking
taking final
final exams
exams these
these
days.
days.
He
He will
will be
be a
a professional
professional sanitarian.
sanitarian.
All
All of
of my
my friends
friends want
want to
to pass
pass this
this class
class with
with good
good grades.
grades.
Victor
Victor and
and his
his parents
parents visited
visited the
the zoo
zoo last
last November.
November.
Last
Last year,
year, many
many employees
employees complained
complained about
about the
the working
working conditions.
conditions.
The
The students
students understand
understand these
these skills
skills very
very well.
well.
Helen
Helen travels
travels to
to Spain
Spain every
every summer.
summer.
The
The children
children have
have played
played more
more video
video games
games today
today than
than yesterday.
yesterday.
Your
Your uncle
uncle has
has traveled
traveled five
five times
times to
to Italy
Italy this
this year.
year.
The
The professor
professor and
and the
the students
students had
had decided
decided to
to cancel
cancel the
the class
class because
because of
of the
the
weather.
weather.
Victor
Victor and
and Miguel
Miguel play
play basketball
basketball at
at school
school every
every afternoon.
afternoon.
We
We need
need better
better computers
computers in
in this
this laboratory.
laboratory.
Some
Some professors
professors teach
teach their
their classes
classes on
on line.
line.
My
My sister
sister and
and II take
take the
the bus
bus to
to school
school every
every morning.
morning.
During
During the
the Holy
Holy Week
Week recess,
recess, many
many students
students go
go to
to the
the beach.
beach.

Writing Information questions in English based on the


underlined information for each one.
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
8.
9.
9.
10.
10.
11.
11.
12.
12.
13.
13.

The
The information
information came
came later
later in
in the
the afternoon
afternoon
The
The players
players were
were practicing
practicing the
the new
new techniques
techniques selected
selected by
by their
their coach.
coach.
All
All the
the schools
schools closed
closed their
their doors
doors because
because of
of the
the government
government crisis.
crisis.
Teachers, supervisors,
supervisors, and
Teachers,
and school
school directors
directors are
are evaluating
evaluating the
the programs
programs carefully.
carefully.
The
The children
children play
play basketball
basketball in
in the
the backyard.
backyard.
The
The boy
boy swam
swam about
about 500
500 meters
meters in
in the
the swimming
swimming pool.
pool.
Women
Women bought
bought more
more books
books than
than men
men last
last year.
year.
This
This exam
exam is
is driving
driving me
me crazy
crazy right
right now.
now.
At the
the park,
park, we
we can
can rent
rent bicycles,
bicycles, skates,
skates, go-carts,
go-carts, and
and many
many other
other things.
things.
At
II must
must reduce
reduce my
my socializing
socializing time
time in
in order
order to
to improve
improve my
my grades
grades
The
The children
children have
have played
played more
more video
video games
games today
today than
than yesterday.
yesterday.
Your
Your uncle
uncle has
has traveled
traveled five
five times
times to
to Italy
Italy this
this year.
year.
The
The professor
professor and
and the
the students
students had
had decided
decided to
to cancel
cancel the
the class
class because
because of
of the
the
weather.
weather.

MODAL + BE
shall/ will
N: akan menjadi
S + can
+ be + Adj.: TMA
must
A of P: harus berada
V3: harus di
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

5.
5.

I shall be there right now.


One of my friends must be here now.
My pc will be fixed as soon as possible
Added value will be realized when the cities use their updated
strategies in formulation of budgets and funding proposals for
further implementation.
The results of poor waste management will also be one of the
sanitation problems

FUNGSI HAVE, HAS


Noun: mempunyai
S + have, has + V3 : telah/ sudah (me)
+ V1 : harus
Example:
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.

6.
6.

to

Three quarters of urban households have a toilet.


Ishell has fixed my pc.
Hably has to repair my pc.
The government has adopted national sanitation goals but without a
strategy for meeting them in urban areas.
Barely 1% of the population has access to sewerage and while most
households have a toilet, many of these discharge into open drains and
water courses.
The government has adopted national sanitation goals but without a
strategy for meeting them in urban areas, and municipalities have had
difficulty accessing funds should they decide to make improvements.

FUNGSI HAVE, HAS + BEEN


N
N
Adj.
Adj.
V3
V3
V-ing
V-ing

5.
5.
6.
6.

1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

::
::
::
::

telah
telah menjadi
menjadi
TMA
TMA S
S+
+ have,
have, has
has +
+ been
been +
+ A
A of
of P
P :: tlh/sdh
tlh/sdh berada
berada
tlh
tlh di/
di/ sdh
sdh di
di
tlh/
tlh/ sdg
sdg (me)
(me)

She
She has
has been
been a
a teacher
teacher for
for two
two years.
years.
They
They have
have been
been here
here since
since 2009.
2009.
My
My blood
blood has
has been
been tested
tested
II have
have been
been teaching
teaching computer
computer for
for three
three years.
years.
WHO
WHO has
has been
been at
at the
the forefront
forefront of
of environmental
environmental sanitation
sanitation and
and hygiene
hygiene action
action
over
the
past
years
and
developed
some
key
materials
intended
for
policyover the past years and developed some key materials intended for policymakers
makers and
and technical
technical people
people dealing
dealing with
with these
these issues
issues
in
in reality,
reality, government
government also
also needs
needs to
to make
make substantial
substantial investments
investments in
in primary
primary
infrastructure,
infrastructure, and
and it
it has
has been
been estimated
estimated that
that a
a tenfold
tenfold increase
increase in
in total
total
sanitation
investments
would
be
needed
to
meet
national
sanitation
targets
sanitation investments would be needed to meet national sanitation targets

TRANSLATION
There are many ways to develop a city-wide sanitation strategy and
the process used in ISSDP is only one. The strategies developed are
not perfect and local stakeholders understand that that there are still
some difficult questions to address and practical details to work out.
The real value of the program, however, lies not so much in the
quality of the strategy documents which will in any case be revised
and updated periodically as in the fact that the municipalities are
making a serious attempt to address a long-neglected issue of critical
importance to public health, and are approaching the problem
systematically, as a collaborative effort by the many stakeholders
involved. The level of ownership of the strategies within the city
sanitation working groups is high, and central government has
realized the importance of comprehensive planning. Not only that, it
has acknowledged the need for strategic action at national level,
especially on sector financing. Sanitation is not a private matter
anymore, and this is an important step forward for the sector.

Verb Tense Overview with Examples


Simple Present
I study English every day.

Simple Past
Two years ago, I studied
English in England.

Continuous
I am studying English now.

Past Continuous
I was studying English when
you called yesterday.

Present Perfect
Past Perfect
I have studied English in several I had studied a little English
different countries.
before I moved to the U.S.

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Simple Future
If you are having problems, I will
help you study English.
I am going to study English next
year.
Future Continuous
I will be studying English when
you arrive tonight. I am going to
be studying English when you
arrive tonight.
Future Perfect
I will have studied every tense
by the time I finish this course. I
am going to have studied every
tense by the time I finish this
course.
Future Perfect Continuous

I have been studying English for I had been studying English for I will have been studying
five years.
five years before I moved to the English for over two hours by
U.S.
the time you arrive. I am going
to have been studying English
for over two hours by the time
you arrive.

Put
Put each
each word
word in
in brackets
brackets into
into a
a suitable
suitable verb
verb form.
form.
Moving
house
Moving house

I come from a very large family, and recently my parents (1) (decide) that they (2)
(spend) long enough living in an overcrowded house in Birmingham. 'We (3) (move) to the
country', my father (4) (announce) one evening. 'I (5) (sell) this house, and we (6) (live) on
a farm.' So last week we (7) (load) all our possessions into two hired vans, and for the last
few days we (8) (try) to organize ourselves in our new home. Yesterday, for example, my
three brothers and I (9)
(start) painting the downstairs rooms. Unfortunately while I (10)
(mix) the paint, one of my sisters (11) (open) the door. Nobody (12)(tell) her that we
(13) (be) in the room, you see. So instead of painting the walls, we (14) (spend) all morning
cleaning the paint off the floor. But worse things (15) (happen) since then. This morning
when I (16) (wake up), water (17)
(drip) through the ceiling next to my bed. We (18)
(spend) today so far repairing the roof. It's not all bad news, though. The school in the village
nearby (19)
(close down) two years ago, and my parents (20) (not find)
..

Urban Water Supplies


Water resources are plentiful in Indonesia, but only 42% of households have
access to a public water supply network and barely one third of urban
residents have access to a house connection from the public utility (PDAM).
Tariffs are well below cost recovery levels and many utilities have outstanding
loans from the Ministry of Finance. As a result, maintenance suffers and in
many cases expansion has been postponed. Water quality from public
networks is often low. Where an adequate public supply is not available,
households use alternative supplies such as private dug wells, Tube wells and
small local distribution networks, or buy water from informal suppliers, some
of whom distribute utility water illegally. In smaller cities, as much as half of
the population accesses water through these alternative routes. Private wells
are severely contaminated with fecal bacteria due to the high proximity of
malfunctioning septic tanks or pits used for human waste disposal. In Blitar
(one of the cities supported by ISSDP) only 10% of households have access to
a piped water supply and roughly two thirds of shallow wells are sited within
ten meters of a septic tank or pit latrine. Belum terbayar, hampir, kegagalan
pemakaian, lubang kakus

SUBJECT
Kata benda
You must keep staff motivated, especially when things get
difficult.
Bentuk ING (ing form)
Analyzing the financial report should be performed monthly.
To infinitive
To analyze the financial report need two hours.
There
There are options given.
There are many ways to develop a city-wide sanitation strategy
IT
It is difficult time to sell new product.
It is estimated that a tenfold increase in total sanitation
investments would be needed to meet national sanitation target

Passive 1

+ are, am, is, was, were + Verb 3+ (by)

+ Object

:di

di
The old machine was repaired by one of my staffs the last week

S+ are, am, is, was, were + being + Verb 3 + (by) + O: sedang di.
Sedang di
New policy is being discussed by them now

S+ have, has + been + Verb 3 + (by) + Object : telah/ sudah di


telah/ sudah di .
New products have been sold by the marketing manager
S+ shall, will, should , would+ be+ Verb 3 + (by) + O : akan di
akan di .
These goods shall be delivered by them by the end of this month
S + is, are, was, were + going + to be + V3 + (by): akan di
akan di
These product are going to be delivered the next Monday.

Passive 2

S + can, could+ be
+ Verb 3+ (by) + O
: dapat di
dapat di ..
New style of marketing strategy can be created
S + must + be + Verb 3 + (by) + O
: harus di
harus di
These goods must be distributed through the world.
Are, am, is, was, were + S+ Verb3 + (by) + O + ?: apakah di
apakah
di
Was the meeting closed yesterday?
Shall/will
akankah . di
Can
+ S + be+ Verb 3 +(by)+ O+? : dapatkah . di
Must
haruskah di
Shall new product be produced by our company

About 2.4 billion people globally live under highly unsanitary conditions and
have such poor hygiene behaviors that their exposure to risks of incidence and
spread of infectious diseases, are enormous. Water stored at home is frequently
contaminated by inadequate water management in the home.

In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects of


human health, disease, and injury that are determined or influenced by
factors in the environment. This includes not only the study of the direct
pathological effects of various chemical, physical, and biological agents, but
also the effects on health of the broad physical and social environment,
which includes housing, urban development, land-use and transportation,
industry, and agriculture. Healthy People 2010,U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services

PASSIVE 3
When
Where
Why
how + are, am, is + S +V3 +(by) + (O) +?
What (n)
was, were
Which+n
Who + are, am, is + V3 + (by) + (o) + ?

EXAMPLE

Who was interviewed yesterday?


Where is your file saved?
When is the meeting held?
How are you admired by him?
Funded by The Netherlands Embassy through Indonesia Water and
Sanitation Program (WASAP) and Swedish Agency for International
Development (Sida), the Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development
Program (ISSDP) is a partnership between the Government of
Indonesia and the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

About 2.4 billion people globally live under highly unsanitary


conditions and have such poor hygiene behaviors that their
exposure to risks of incidence and spread of infectious
diseases, are enormous.

MODAL + BE
Will, shall
Can

Wh2 + must

+ S + be + V3 + (by) + (O) + ?

Should
Where will you be interviewed?
How can it be approved?
Who must be interviewed?

DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Tingkat positive: as_____ as : se
2. Tingkat lebih
. satu atau dua suku kata tambahlah ___ er dan jika
dibandingkan tambahlan than ____.
. lebih dari suku kata tambahlah more____ dan jika
dibandingkan tambahlah than ______.
3. Tingkat Paling
. satu atau dua suku kata tambahlah the _____ est
_____ of/ in_____.
. lebih dari dua suku kata, tambahlah The most _____ of/
in _________ .
. Kekecualian, goodbetter
the best
1.

EXAMPLE
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Heni is as tall as Ani and Ani is shorter than


Maska, so Maska is the tallest of them (Ani and
Heni.)
The red one is as important as the blue one.
The red one is more important than the blue one.
he most important one is how to solve our problem
It is better to call now
For countries with very low access to basic
sanitation,
increasing
the
effectiveness
of
management of excreta at the household level may
have the biggest health implications and it may be
the biggest challenge

_________ YANG_________
People + that, who, + are, am, is , was, were +V3: orang yang dI
People + that, who, which + has, have + been+V3: orang yang telah
di
People + that, who, which + shall, will, can, must + be +V3: orang
yang akan di
People + that, who, + V1/ V2 : orang yang (me)
People + whom+ S: orang yang
Something + that, which + are, am, is, was, were +V3 : benda yang di
Something + that, which + have, has + been+V3 : benda yang telah
di
Something + that, which + are, am, is, was, were + ket. Tempat:
benda yang berada
The woman who was dismissed is my friend.
The goods which have been sent to Jakarta are broken.
She is the only mother whom I love.

.dimana ..
mengapa .
apa
. apakah ..
etc

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

dont know where she lives.


I couldnt hear what he said.
Do you know when they arrive?
I dont know who she is.
I wonder whose house that is.
I dont know whether/if she will come.
I think that he is a good teacher.

WORD FORMATION 1(Perubahan


Kata)
Noun

pe an, ke an

Explain ion
explanation
Develop ment
development
accept ance/ ce acceptance
Difficult ty
difficulty
careless ness
carelessness
member ship
membership

WORD FORMATION 2(Perubahan


Kata)
Adj.
technology
care
spirit
differ
accept

Berkenaan dgn

al
technological
less
careless
full
spiritfull
ent
different
able
acceptable

Discuss with a partner and write the


related Noun for these Adjective!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Proud pride
Disappointed ____
Confused ____
Hopeful ____
Jealous ____
Upset ____
Curious ____
Anxious ____
Scared _____

10. Cheerful ____


11. Miserable ____
12. Depressed ____
13. Moody ____
14. Energetic ____
15. Angry ____
16. Caring ____
17. Stressful ____
18. Obsessed ___

Agree agreement
Argue
argument
Arrange
arrangement
Measure measurement
Adopt
adoption
Connect
connection
Collect collection
Compete competition
Expect expectation
Attend attendance
Differ
difference
Discover
discovery
Deliver delivery
Recover recovery

INVEST
These shares have given me a good return on my ..
Small were advised to hold on to their shares.
LEGAL
Its .to sell such goods without a proper permit.
They questioned the .. of the companys action.
Accept menerima
I am sorry, but this arrangement is totally .to. us.
I' ve just received their letter of ..so we can go a
head.
Act bertindak
The unions have threatened to take industrial
It' s been very .. day on the stock exchange.
The R&D department seems full of .. at the moment.

Add menambah
We will be bringing out several .. to our product line.
There is an bonus if I exceed my sales target by more than 10%.
Analyze menganalisa
We will need a detailed cost before giving final approval.
Most .think we're in for a difficult time.
Apply mengaplikasikan
Unfortunately we can't interview every .
I sent my letter of .and they phoned me the next day.
The regulations are not ..when there are fewer than 10 employees.
Assist
We will need some financial ..to enable us to buy more stock.
He was in a meeting so I spoke to the .. ..manager.
Attract menarik
One of the .of the offer is the free training course.
They were offering a very salary so of course I was interested.

Direct
I enclose a map and to help you to find our office.
The board of .will make the final decision about the scheme.
I found the company by looking in the local trade
I always deal with the manufacturer.
There has been another .from head office about photocopying.
directory petunjuk
Directly secara langsung
Directive intruksi

directions petunjuk
directors

EXAMPLE
1.
2.

3.
4.

Technological development is often described


as technological revolution.
As an active sales man, he always has many
activities, if not, he will be hopeless and
finally, he will be careless sales man.
Her financial adviser is convinced the project will
be a success.
I am looking for temporary employment during
holidays.

TRANSLATION

Ada pelanggan kita yang kecewa bahwa


pipet yang dikirim oleh Hably rusak. Dia
meminta pipet itu harus diganti.
Sebenarnya, pipet itu telah dicek sebelum
dikirm karena saya berada disana dan
melihat sendiri pada waktu itu. Pipet itu
merupakan kompter yang terbaik dan
terbaru dan harganya lebih murah
dibanding dengan yang lain.

EXERCISE 2
1.
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Mengapa anda datang terlambat kemarin?


Dimana anda menyimpan kunci saya?
Seberapa sering anda mengecek laporan keuangan?
Yang mana yang akan anda beli?
file siapa yang berada di atas meja itu?
Berapa lama anda akan tinggal di Jakarata?
Kapan mereka meneyelesaikan tugasnya?
Bagaiman anda bisa memperbaiki laporan keuangan itu jika
tidak belajar?
Mereka telah menyerahkan laporan bulannan.
Dia harus berada di kantor besok pagi.
Bisakah anda menganalisa laporan keuangan setiap bulan?
Apakah mereka membuat kesalahan dalam membuat laporan?
Apakah dia tidak hadir di pertemuan kemarin?
Apakah anda di dtanya kemarin?

EXERCISE 3
1.

2.
3.

4.

Proposal Anda tidak bisa diterima karena tidak


memenuhi persyaratan yang telah ditetapkan
oleh pemimpin projek.
Daerah indusri ditetapkan di pinggiran kota
sedangan daerah pendidikan dilokasikan di kota.
Bantuan keuangan yang menarik akan membantu
pemerintah dalam mengatasi harga barang yang
tidak stabil.
Seandainya, Anda diterima di perusahaan ini, lalu
ada perusahaan lain menawarkan gaji yang libih
menarik dan lebih besar, apakah anda mau
pindah atau tidak?Jika begitu, mengapa?

TRANSLATION

Definition
1.
Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health,
including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical,
biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also
refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling
and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially
affect adversely the health of present and future generations (WHO)
Definition
2.
Environmental health services are those services which implement
environmental health policies through monitoring and control
activities. They also carry out that role by promoting the improvement
of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of
environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors.
They also have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy
areas.

What are the reasons for slow progress on sanitation?

Many people do not realize the health and economic benefits to the individual,
the community and to society from improving sanitation. The high cost of
improving sanitation is often cited as a barrier to implementing sanitation
projects. Improving sanitation is often low on the list of priorities. There are so
many other pressing needs for the attention of governments: food supply,
education, medical treatment and dealing with war and conflict. Most people
are aware that poor sanitation has a health impact, but there is a lack of
awareness of the extent of ill-health that it causes. On the other hand, human
society has developed very different socio cultural responses to the use of
untreated excreta. This ranges from deep disgust to practical preference.
While determined partly by survival economics, these cultural differences
apply to many water poor countries, as well as to water rich areas of the
north. For example, in Africa, the Americas and Europe, excreta use is
generally regarded as culturally unacceptable, or at best with indifference.
This results from the strongly held view that human excreta, especially faces,
are repugnant substances best kept away from the senses of sight and smell.
Products fertilized with raw excreta are regarded as tainted or defiled in some
way. These views are less rigid in the case of using excreta in compost and
sludge for agriculture, but still pose a barrier to use of waste.

How can we achieve sanitation targets?


To

achieve the targets, action must start NOW. Now is the time to act.
Households, communities, local and national governments, civil society, and
private companies all need to work together. Media and public opinion around
the world can influence political leaders to act now. For the principal target
audience of politicians and government officials (particularly aid
administrators), the strategy for this year's World Water Day is designed to
increase substantive awareness, ideally leading to decisive actions in support
of improved sanitation. Related communication also considers the media, in
developed but especially in developing regions, since the media have excellent
capacities to inform the population and guide their opinions. Key areas of
action that could create impact are as follows: making political commitments;
creating legislation and regulations to support improvement in access and
quality of sanitation and hygiene services; bringing together more resources,
having stronger institutions and better trained people; culturally sensitive and
appropriate hygiene education; right choice of technology that are costeffective
and environment-friendly; giving attention to gender and equity; supporting
small-scale entrepreneurs; monitoring progress; and making information flow

Definition: Environment
The circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is
Surrounded or The complex of climatic, seraphic (soil-based), and
biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecologic
community
Public Health Definition of The Environment All that which is
external to the individual host. [It] can be divided into physical,
biological, social, and cultural factors, any or all of which can
influence health status in populations.
Definitions: Health The condition of being sound in body, mind, or
spirit
A flourishing condition or well-beingnot just the absence of
disease
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO)