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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1

DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW
HRM MODEL
Framework
&
Challenges

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Employee
Relation
&
Assessment

Preparation
&
Selection
OBJECTIVES
Societal
Organizational
Functional
Personal
Development
& Evaluation

Compensation
&
Protection

Orientation, placement,
& separation
Training & development
Career Planning
Performance Appraisal

SOCIETAL

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PARTS TO BE STUDIED

PART 1 - Challenges & Framework


PART 2 - Preparation & Selection
PART 3 - Development & Evaluation

PART - 1

DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION


CHAPTER 9 - Orientation , Placement &
Separation
CHAPTER 10 -

Training & Development

CHAPTER - 9

ORIENTATION , PLACEMENT
&
SEPARATION

DEFINITIONS
1.ORIENTATION An introductory stage in
the process of new assimilation & a part of his
or her continuous socialization process in an org
2.PLACEMENT
The process of finding someone a place where
they can live,work, or study
3.SEPARATION The process of managing
people in orgs in a structured & thorough
manner. The place at which a division or parting
occurs

ORIENTATION, PLACEMENT & SEPARATION

SALIENT ASPECTS
1. When starting a new job, many people wonder:a)
Will I be able to do the job?
b)
Will I fit in around here?
c)
Will the boss like me?
2.These first-day jitters may be natural, but they reduce a new
employees satisfaction & ability to learn
3.Psychologists say that initial impressions are strong & lasting
because new comers have little else by which to judge
4.To help an employee become a satisfied & productive
member, the manager & the HR dept must make those initial
impressions favorable

ORIENTATION PROGRAM TO ACHIEVE

ORIENTATION PROGRAM
Orientation Programs It familiarize new employees with their roles, the org,
its policies, & other employees.
Socialization
1.HR depts efforts help integrate newcomers into the org & enable
socialization to take place that helps the org meet its need for productive
employees while enabling new employees to meet their needs
2.Socialization is the ongoing process through which an employee begins to
understand & accept the values, norms, & beliefs held by others in the org
3.Finally the newcomer becomes fully integrated to the org, after which
acceptable levels of satisfaction, productivity & stability of service are more
likely (book page 256,Figure -9-3)

Content & Responsibility for Orientation


.
Employee Handbook
Formal orientation programs
usually rely on the HR dept & the supervisor. This twotiered orientation program is used because the issues
covered in an orientation fall into two broad categories:- General topics of interest to most new employees
- Specific, job-related issues of concern only to specific
jobholders

Supervisory Role
In addition to the HR depts
presentation, the orientation is continued by employees
supervisor, who handles the job-related introductions
1.This tier of the orientation program should include
introducing new employees to their coworkers & others
who work in different depts
2.Job duties & related issues are equally important which
are normally explained by supervisor. Supervisory level
orientation reviews job & its objectives
3.Information/topics about the task, safety requirements,

ORIENTATION PROGRAM

Buddy System
1. A helpful supplement to the newcomer orientation is the assignment of
buddy
2. Under the third tier, the buddy system of orientation, an experienced
employee asked to show the new worker around, conduct the introductions
for the supervisor & answer the newcomers questions
3. The buddy system is a supplement to the supervisors orientation efforts.
excellent opportunity to establish open communications with new
employees.
4. Both , EPT & supervisors are responsible to see that the employee is not :
+
+
+
+
+

Over whelmed with too much to absorb in a shirt time


Over whelmed with forms to complete
Given only mental tasks that discourage job interest & complete loyalty
Ask to perform tasks with a high chance for failure
Push into the job with a sketchy orientation under mistaken belief that
trial by fire is the best orientation
+ Forced to fill in the gaps between a rod orientation by the EPT and a

PLACEMENT OBSTACLES TO PRODUCTIVITY


Quitting Early One obstacle to a productive & satisfied
workforce is that employees are more likely to quit during their
first few months than at any other time in their employment. It
may even be beneficial if it occurs among new hires who sense
that the org or the job is not right for them
Dissonance Reduction Realistic job previews close the
psychological gap between what newcomers expect & what they
find. If dissonance is too high, people take action. For new
employees, that may mean quitting
New Employee Turnover The turnover is expensive. Besides
recruiting & selection expenses, the costs as associated with
creating new employee records in the HR dept. Establishing
payroll records in accounting, giving new employees training &
providing them with safety equipment are lost when employees
leave

Benefits of Orientation Program


1.Although research on orientation programs is limited,
several benefits are commonly reported. Most of these
benefits revolve around reducing employees anxieties.
With less anxieties newcomers can learn their duties
better
2.Well-oriented newcomers need less attention from
coworkers & supervisors, perform better & are less
likely to quit
Orientation Follow-up
1.HR dept often uses a prescheduled meeting or a
simple checklist that asks the employee to critique the
weaknesses of the orientation program
2.Checklist also serves as feedback to help the HR dept
to identify the parts of the program that are strong
3.Face-to-face meetings between the employee &
supervisor are the most important type of orientation
follow-up
International Implication

ORIENTATION PROGRAM
Opportunities & Pitfall
Weakest Part The weakest part of most orientation programs occurs at
the supervisory level, even when the HR dept has designed an effective
orientation program & trained supervisors to conduct their part of It. The
reasons may involve:- Supervisors are more pressed with problems at their part
- Supervisors view thing familiar & nothing seem an important thing to
learn
Check List To help & ensure a systematic orientation, the supervisors
maybe given a check list of topics to cover that focuses on the introduction
and job duties (book page 257, Figure 9-4). The main heads of the topics
include:- Org issues
- Employment benefits
- Introductions
- Job duties

EMPLOYEE PLACEMENT
SALIENT ASPECT
1.Placement is the assignment or reassignment of an employee
to a new job
2.Most placement decisions are made by line managers Usually
the employees supervisor, in consultation with higher levels of
line mangt, about the future placement of each employee
3.HR depts role is to advise the line managers about the
companys policies & provide counseling to the employees
4.Each decisions should be coupled with an orientation &
follow-up whether the placement is caused by:- Downsizing
- Merger, acquisition
- Another change in internal staffing needs

TYPE OF PLACEMENT

PROMOTIONS
Salient Aspects
A promotion occurs when an employee is moved from a job to another
position that is higher in pay, responsibility, and/or orgl level. Generally, given
as a recognition of a persons past performance & future promise
Promotions usually are based on merit and/or seniority:Merit-based Promotion These occur when an employee is
promoted because of superior performance in the current job. When
promotion is mostly a reward for past efforts and successes, two problems
may encountered:+ Whether the decision maker can distinguish strong performance from
weak one
+ Good performance in one job is no guarantee of performance in another

Seniority-Based Promotion In some situations, the most senior


employee gets the promotion ( however , HR experts have the concern on
the competency of those promoted).
+ Advantage of this approach is that it is objective
+ All one has to do is compare the seniority records of the candidates to
determine who should be promoted

TYPE OF PLACEMENT
TRANSFERS & DEMOTION
1. Transfers & demotions are the other two major placement actions
available to the org :2.
- Transfer occur when an employee is moved from one job to another
position that is relatively equal in pay, responsibility, and/or orgl level
3. - Demotion occur when an employee is moved from one job to another
position that is lower in pay, responsibility and/or orgl level
4. Decision makers must be able to reallocate people to meet internal &
external challenges & a common tool here is the employee transfer
5. By moving people into jobs that are neither a promotion nor a demotion,
managers may be able to improve the utilization of their human resources
6. Transfers may even be beneficial to jobholders, since the experience
may provide a person with new skills & different perspective that makes that
person a better performer now & a better candidate for promotion in the
future

TYPE OF PLACEMENT

JOB POSTING PROGRAM


1. The job posting programs inform employees about
unfilled job openings & qualifications & invites qualified
employees to apply
2. The notices usually are posted on company bulletin
boards, in the company newspaper, or in the firms
electronic bulletin boards via
E-mail
3. The posted qualifications & other facts typically are
drawn from the job analysis information
4. Self-nominations or the recommendation of a
supervisor, employees who are interested in the posted
opening report to the HR dept & apply
5.
Many orgs hire recent college graduates for
management training programs
6. After the employees rotation is completed, the

ISSUE IN PLACEMENT
EFFECTIVENESS The effectiveness of a placement decision depends on
minimizing disruption to the employee & the org:1. Promotions & Transfer To reduce disruption, promotions & transfer
decisions should be made in accordance with the selection steps
2. Demotions Similarly, demotions should be well documented & follow the
rules of effective discipline
3. Orientation Once the placement has been made, the new employee
should get an orientation to reduce personal anxieties & speed up the
socialization & learning processes
LEGAL COMPLIANCE For many years employment relationships that were
not based on a formal written contract were considered to be employment at
will/discretion Relationships by mutual agreement
Will Doctrine The employs historical right to terminate an employee at any
time without cause became known as the Employment- at - Will Doctrine,
which lately was limited by the Govt & courts

ISSUE IN PLACEMENT
Restrictions Consistent to above, the courts have looked to employee
handbooks, management promises & other sources to find Implied
employment contracts. Additionally, dismissal is restricted by the:1.Conditions controlled by equal opportunity laws, such as race, religion,
national origin, sex, pregnancy & age (more than forty)
2.Union activities, as determined by law
3.Refusal to Ignore Occupational Safety & Health Act violations
4.The right to refuse to perform an unusual work assignment that the
employee believes is hazardous or even life-threatening
5.The right to refuse to perform an act that is clearly in violation of law, such
as cooperating in a price-fixing scheme
Challenge Other employment restrictions may also apply , depending on
circumstances & local laws. In general , a dismissal may be challenged if it
is arbitrary & unjust
Reversion The courts have forced the employers to reverse their
placement decisions because company procedures were not followed

ISSUES IN PLACEMENT
PREVENTION OF SEPARATIONS
One of the creative areas of HR mangt involves the prevention of
separations
HR depts can prevent their orgs from losing valuable Human
Resourses & the
money invested in the :- Recruitment, selection,
- Orientation & training
Through active programs ,the losses of employees can be reduced
from following
factors:- Voluntary Resignation It can be reduced by a satisfying work
environment, a
challenging job, high quality supervision & opportunities for
personal growth
- Death It can be done through safety, preventive health care &
wellness
programs designed to keep employees healthy
- Layoffs It is minimized in some firms by careful HR planning
while projecting
employment needs several years into the future

SEPARATIONS
SALIENT ASPECT
Role & Reasons HR depts role is to find the most
satisfactory method of conducting the separation in a
way that minimizes the harm to the org & the individual .
It & may be motivated following reasons :a) Disciplinary
b) Economic
c) Business
d) Personal

FORMS OF SEPARATION

Temporary Leaves of Absence Employees sometimes


need to leave their jobs temporarily. The reasons may
include :a)
Medical (Caring for an ill spouse/Serious health
condition)
b) Family (Child, or parent/Birth or adoption )

FORMS OF SEPARATION

Attrition It is loss of employees who leave an orgs

employment. It is normal peoples separation from an org as a


result of resignation, retirement, or death
1.It is initiated by the individual worker, not by the company. In
most orgs, the key component of attrition is resignation, which is
a voluntary separation
2.A special form of attrition that the HR dept can actively control
is early retirement. Early retirement plans encourage longservice workers to retire before the traditional age of 65
3.One advantage is that early retirements can start a chain
reaction of promotions for several layers or junior workers

SEPARATIONS
Layoffs It entail the separation of employees from the org for
economic or
business reasons:- A layoff most often refers to a termination decision that is
based on:+ Economic conditions
+ Lack of work
+ Corporate restructuring or similar issues that usually apply
to a broader
group of workers
+ Layoffs can either be temporary of permanent
- The separation may last only a few weeks if its purpose is to
adjust inventory
levels or allow a factory to retool for a new product
- When caused by a business cycle, layoffs may last many
months or years
- If occurs due to restructuring, such as downsizing or mergers
& acquisitions,
a temporary layoff may become permanent

THANKS