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Differential Amplifiers and

common mode feedback

Differential amplifiers
Cancellation of common mode signals
including clock feed-through
Cancellation of even-order harmonics
Increased signal swing

Symbol:

Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In,


Differential-Out Op Amp

peak-to-peak
output voltage
2OCMR

Output common mode range (OCMR)


= VDD-VSS - VSDPsat - VDSNsat

Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In, DifferentialOut Op Amp with Push-Pull Output

Able to actively source and sink output current


Output quiescent current poorly defined

Cascode Op Amp with DifferentialOutputs, push-pull output

Differential-Output, FoldedCascode

OCMR = VDD -VSS - 2VSDP(sat) -2VDSN(sat)


Quite limited

Two-Stage, Differential Output,


Folded-Cascode

M11-M13 and M10-M12 provide level shift

Common Mode Output Voltage


Stabilization
Common mode
drift at output
causes
differential
signals move
into triode
region

Common Mode feedback


All fully differential amplifier needs CMFB
Common mode output, if uncontrolled,
moves to either high or low end, causing
triode operation
Ways of common mode stabilization:
external CMFB
internal CMFB

Cause of common mode problem


Unmatched quiescent currents
Vbb

I2
Vo1

Vin

Vbb=VbbQ+

Vin=VinQ

Vbb=VbbQ
Vo2

I1

Vo1Q
Vin=VinQ+Vin

Vo1
actual Q point
M2 is in triode

If Vo VOCM I y i.e. V yy
Vxx

Ix

If Vo VOCM I y i.e. V yy

Vo
VOCM

Vin

Ix(Vo)

Iy(Vo)
Vyy

Iy
Vo

need neg. feedback from Vo to V yy

Basic concept of CMFB:


Vo+ +Vo-

Vo+
CM
Vo-

vb

measurement

CMFB

Voc

VoCM
+

desired
common mode
voltage

Basic concept of CMFB:


Vo+ +Vo-

Vo+
CM
Vo-

vb

measurement

CMFB

Voc

VoCM
+

Find transfer function from e to Voc, ACMF(s)


Find transfer function from an error source to Voc A
Voc error due to error source: err*Aerr(0)/ACMF(0)

example
Vb2

CC
Vi+

ViVCMFB

CC

Vo+

Vo-

Vb1

VCMFB

Voc
+

Vo+
Vo-

Example

Voc

VoCM

Need to make sure to have negative feedback

VDD
M7A
75/3

150/3 M2A

150/3 M2B
BIAS4

75/3

M3B

BIAS3
300/2.25
300/2.25

75/2.25

BIAS2

BIAS1

M13B

M3A

averagerOUT-

OUT+

M1A

20K

Source
M12B
M12A
1000/2.25
1000/2.25
follower

M1B
200/2.25
M10
CL=4pF

200/2.25

20K

300/2.25

IN+

M11
150/2.25
M8
150/2.25

M13A

300/2.25

INM6AB
75/2.25

300/3

1.5pF 1.5pF

M7B

M6C

300/3

4pF

M5

M9A
50/2.25

M9B
50/2.25

M4A
50/2.25

M4B
50/2.25

VSS

Folded cascode amplifier

Resistive C.M. detectors:

Vo+

R1

R2

Vo-

Vo Vo
, if R1 R2
2
Prob : resistive loading effect.
use R1 , R2 very large
- difficult to achieve
- especially when Vo is
at an cascoded node

Resistive C.M. detectors:


Vo.c.

Vo+

Vi+

R1

R1

Vo-

Vi-

O.K. if op amp is used in a resistive


feedback configuration
& R1 is part of feedback network.
Otherwise, R1 becomes part of g0 & hence
reduces AD.C.(v)

Buffer Vo+, Vo- before connecting to R1.


Voc
Vo+

VoR1

R1

Simple implementation:
source follower
Vo+

Vo.c.

* Gate capacitance is your load to Amp.

Vo-

Why not:
Vo+

Vo.c.

Vo-

* Initial voltage on cap.

C1

C2

Vo Vo
, if C1 C 2
2
Prob : at high freq.
A C diff short

Use buffer to isolate Vo node:

gate cap is load


or resistors

Switched cap CMFB


Vo+

Vo-

VoCM.

VoCM.

To increase or decrease the C.M. loop gain:


e.g.

Vo.c.

Vo.c.d.

Vo.c.

Vo.c.d.

VC.M.F.B.
VC.M.F.B.

Another implementation
Use triode transistors to provide isolation
& z(s) simultaneously.
M1, M2 in deep triode.
VGS1, VGS2>>VT

Voc
Vo+

VoM1

can be a c.s.

M2
In that case, circuit above M1,
M2 needs to ensure that M1, M2
are in triode.

Vo Vo
2

deep triode oper

Example:
Input state

Vo-

Vb
M1

M2

e.g. Vo+, Vo-2V at Q & Vb 1V ,


Then M1&2 will be in deep triode.

Vo+

If Vo , Vo
Vo-

Vo+

Voc
VG1 ,VG 2

Vb1
Vb2
VX
M1 M2

RM 1 , RM 2
V X ( I const )
but V X to Vo , Vo
is cascoded C.G.
Vo ,Vo

Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In,


Differential-Out Op Amp

M10 and M11 are in deep triode

Vo++ Vo2

VoCM.

VCMFB

Vo Vo
VCMFB
2
gain can be large
Vo+
Vo-

Note the difference


from the book
accommodates much
larger VoCM range

Small signal analysis of CMFB


Example:

IB
M3
Vo+

M1

-i

M4

IB
M2

-i

Vo-

+i

+i
+i

VCM

M5

+i

VCMFB
i=0

2i

-i
-i

Differential Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo


Common mode Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo

Vo
i g m1
2
1
VCMFB
2i
g m5
k Vo

g m1 g m 2 g m3 g m 4

g m1
k

g m5

IB
M3
Vo+

-i

M1

VCM

M4

IB
Vo-

M2

+i

+i
M5

-i

VCMFB
i=0

2i

i7 M7
+

-2i

M6

-2i

1
gm6

To increase gain :
VG 7

1
2i
g m6

i7 VG 7 g m 7

g m7
2i
g m6

g m7

i5 2i 1
g m6

VCMFB

g m1
g m7
1
Vo

g m5
g m6

* gain by geometric ratios can be made accurate

CMFB loop gain: example


Vb2

CC
Vi+

ViVCMFB

CC

Vo+

Vo-

Vb1

VCMFB

Voc
+

Vo+
Vo-

gain from VCMFB Voc

Vo Vo
2
-gm5vro2

-gm5vro2gm6
Vo
gm5v
v
Poles: p1
p2
z1 same as before

Aocmc

g m5 g m6

g ds 2 g ds 6 g ds 7

VDD
M7A
75/3

150/3 M2A

150/3 M2B
BIAS4

75/3

M3B

BIAS3
300/2.25
300/2.25

75/2.25

BIAS2

BIAS1

M13B

M3A

averagerOUT-

OUT+

M1A

20K

Source
M12B
M12A
1000/2.25
1000/2.25
follower

M1B
200/2.25
M10
CL=4pF

200/2.25

20K

300/2.25

IN+

M11
150/2.25
M8
150/2.25

M13A

300/2.25

INM6AB
75/2.25

300/3

1.5pF 1.5pF

M7B

M6C

300/3

4pF

M5

M9A
50/2.25

M9B
50/2.25

M4A
50/2.25

M4B
50/2.25

VSS

Folded cascode amplifier

Removing the CM measurement

Vo+

VoCM

VoVCMFB

Directly connect Vo+, Vo- to the gates of


CMFB diff amp.

VDD=+1.65V

M11

M12

M3

M4

Vo1

M26

Vo2
M21

M1C

M22

M23

M2C

IDC=100A

VCM

Vi1

M14

M27

M13
M1

M51

M2

M52

-VSS=-1.65V

Vi2

M25

M24

CMFB with current feedback


M3

M4
Vo+

Vo-

M1

IB
CM

Voc

detect

M2

VoCM
M6

M7

M5

IB
VDD VSS
desired Q : I 3 I1 , VoCM
4
2
If Vo Vo by Vo , Voc by Vo
i1 , i2 by Vo g m 6
(equivalent to VG1 , VG 2 by Vo )