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# Differential Amplifiers and

## common mode feedback

Differential amplifiers
Cancellation of common mode signals
including clock feed-through
Cancellation of even-order harmonics
Increased signal swing

Symbol:

## Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In,

Differential-Out Op Amp

peak-to-peak
output voltage
2OCMR

## Output common mode range (OCMR)

= VDD-VSS - VSDPsat - VDSNsat

## Able to actively source and sink output current

Output quiescent current poorly defined

## Cascode Op Amp with DifferentialOutputs, push-pull output

Differential-Output, FoldedCascode

Quite limited

Folded-Cascode

Stabilization
Common mode
drift at output
causes
differential
signals move
into triode
region

## Common Mode feedback

All fully differential amplifier needs CMFB
Common mode output, if uncontrolled,
moves to either high or low end, causing
triode operation
Ways of common mode stabilization:
external CMFB
internal CMFB

## Cause of common mode problem

Unmatched quiescent currents
Vbb

I2
Vo1

Vin

Vbb=VbbQ+

Vin=VinQ

Vbb=VbbQ
Vo2

I1

Vo1Q
Vin=VinQ+Vin

Vo1
actual Q point
M2 is in triode

If Vo VOCM I y i.e. V yy
Vxx

Ix

If Vo VOCM I y i.e. V yy

Vo
VOCM

Vin

Ix(Vo)

Iy(Vo)
Vyy

Iy
Vo

Vo+ +Vo-

Vo+
CM
Vo-

vb

measurement

CMFB

Voc

VoCM
+

desired
common mode
voltage

Vo+ +Vo-

Vo+
CM
Vo-

vb

measurement

CMFB

Voc

VoCM
+

## Find transfer function from e to Voc, ACMF(s)

Find transfer function from an error source to Voc A
Voc error due to error source: err*Aerr(0)/ACMF(0)

example
Vb2

CC
Vi+

ViVCMFB

CC

Vo+

Vo-

Vb1

VCMFB

Voc
+

Vo+
Vo-

Example

Voc

VoCM

VDD
M7A
75/3

150/3 M2A

150/3 M2B
BIAS4

75/3

M3B

BIAS3
300/2.25
300/2.25

75/2.25

BIAS2

BIAS1

M13B

M3A

averagerOUT-

OUT+

M1A

20K

Source
M12B
M12A
1000/2.25
1000/2.25
follower

M1B
200/2.25
M10
CL=4pF

200/2.25

20K

300/2.25

IN+

M11
150/2.25
M8
150/2.25

M13A

300/2.25

INM6AB
75/2.25

300/3

1.5pF 1.5pF

M7B

M6C

300/3

4pF

M5

M9A
50/2.25

M9B
50/2.25

M4A
50/2.25

M4B
50/2.25

VSS

## Resistive C.M. detectors:

Vo+

R1

R2

Vo-

Vo Vo
, if R1 R2
2
use R1 , R2 very large
- difficult to achieve
- especially when Vo is
at an cascoded node

Vo.c.

Vo+

Vi+

R1

R1

Vo-

Vi-

## O.K. if op amp is used in a resistive

feedback configuration
& R1 is part of feedback network.
Otherwise, R1 becomes part of g0 & hence

## Buffer Vo+, Vo- before connecting to R1.

Voc
Vo+

VoR1

R1

Simple implementation:
source follower
Vo+

Vo.c.

Vo-

Why not:
Vo+

Vo.c.

Vo-

## * Initial voltage on cap.

C1

C2

Vo Vo
, if C1 C 2
2
Prob : at high freq.
A C diff short

or resistors

Vo+

Vo-

VoCM.

VoCM.

## To increase or decrease the C.M. loop gain:

e.g.

Vo.c.

Vo.c.d.

Vo.c.

Vo.c.d.

VC.M.F.B.
VC.M.F.B.

Another implementation
Use triode transistors to provide isolation
& z(s) simultaneously.
M1, M2 in deep triode.
VGS1, VGS2>>VT

Voc
Vo+

VoM1

can be a c.s.

M2
In that case, circuit above M1,
M2 needs to ensure that M1, M2
are in triode.

Vo Vo
2

Example:
Input state

Vo-

Vb
M1

M2

## e.g. Vo+, Vo-2V at Q & Vb 1V ,

Then M1&2 will be in deep triode.

Vo+

If Vo , Vo
Vo-

Vo+

Voc
VG1 ,VG 2

Vb1
Vb2
VX
M1 M2

RM 1 , RM 2
V X ( I const )
but V X to Vo , Vo
is cascoded C.G.
Vo ,Vo

## Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In,

Differential-Out Op Amp

## M10 and M11 are in deep triode

Vo++ Vo2

VoCM.

VCMFB

Vo Vo
VCMFB
2
gain can be large
Vo+
Vo-

## Note the difference

from the book
accommodates much
larger VoCM range

Example:

IB
M3
Vo+

M1

-i

M4

IB
M2

-i

Vo-

+i

+i
+i

VCM

M5

+i

VCMFB
i=0

2i

-i
-i

## Differential Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo

Common mode Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo

Vo
i g m1
2
1
VCMFB
2i
g m5
k Vo

g m1 g m 2 g m3 g m 4

g m1
k

g m5

IB
M3
Vo+

-i

M1

VCM

M4

IB
Vo-

M2

+i

+i
M5

-i

VCMFB
i=0

2i

i7 M7
+

-2i

M6

-2i

1
gm6

To increase gain :
VG 7

1
2i
g m6

i7 VG 7 g m 7

g m7
2i
g m6

g m7

i5 2i 1
g m6

VCMFB

g m1
g m7
1
Vo

g m5
g m6

Vb2

CC
Vi+

ViVCMFB

CC

Vo+

Vo-

Vb1

VCMFB

Voc
+

Vo+
Vo-

## gain from VCMFB Voc

Vo Vo
2
-gm5vro2

-gm5vro2gm6
Vo
gm5v
v
Poles: p1
p2
z1 same as before

Aocmc

g m5 g m6

g ds 2 g ds 6 g ds 7

VDD
M7A
75/3

150/3 M2A

150/3 M2B
BIAS4

75/3

M3B

BIAS3
300/2.25
300/2.25

75/2.25

BIAS2

BIAS1

M13B

M3A

averagerOUT-

OUT+

M1A

20K

Source
M12B
M12A
1000/2.25
1000/2.25
follower

M1B
200/2.25
M10
CL=4pF

200/2.25

20K

300/2.25

IN+

M11
150/2.25
M8
150/2.25

M13A

300/2.25

INM6AB
75/2.25

300/3

1.5pF 1.5pF

M7B

M6C

300/3

4pF

M5

M9A
50/2.25

M9B
50/2.25

M4A
50/2.25

M4B
50/2.25

VSS

Vo+

VoCM

VoVCMFB

CMFB diff amp.

VDD=+1.65V

M11

M12

M3

M4

Vo1

M26

Vo2
M21

M1C

M22

M23

M2C

IDC=100A

VCM

Vi1

M14

M27

M13
M1

M51

M2

M52

-VSS=-1.65V

Vi2

M25

M24

## CMFB with current feedback

M3

M4
Vo+

Vo-

M1

IB
CM

Voc

detect

M2

VoCM
M6

M7

M5

IB
VDD VSS
desired Q : I 3 I1 , VoCM
4
2
If Vo Vo by Vo , Voc by Vo
i1 , i2 by Vo g m 6
(equivalent to VG1 , VG 2 by Vo )