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Teleskop dan Optics

NHAS Astro 101

Lens and Mirror Aberrations


SPHERICAL (lens and mirror)
Light passing through different parts of a lens or reflected from
different parts of a mirror comes to focus at different distances from
the lens.
Result: fuzzy image
CHROMATIC (lens only)
Objective lens acts like a prism.
Light of different wavelengths (colors) comes to focus at different
distances from the lens.

Result: fuzzy image

Spherical Aberration in Lenses

Simple lenses suffer


form the fact that light
rays entering different
parts of the lens have
slightly difference focal
lengths. This defect is
corrected with the
addition of a second
lens.

The problem
One focal point
for all light rays

The solution

Spherical Aberration in Mirrors


The Problem

Simple concave mirrors suffer


from the fact that light rays
reflected from different locations
on the mirror have slightly
different locations on the mirror
have slightly different focal
lengths. This defect is corrected
by making sure the concave
surface of the mirror is parabolic

The Solution

All light rays converge


at a single point

Chromatic Aberration in Lenses

Focal point
for blue light
Simple lenses suffer from
the fact that different colors
of light have slightly
different focal lengths. This
defect is corrected by
adding a second lens

The problem

Focal point
for red light
Focal point
for all light

The solution

Coma

Affects Fast Mirrors with deeply curved reflecting surface


Causes elongation in one axis if the object is not near
the center of the FOV
Faster the Mirror the more of an issue.
Its Not a mistake in workmanship
This off-axis distortion is called coma, named after the
term for a comets head

Types of Optical Teleskops

Basic Teleskop Designs


Refractor
Uses a lens to gather the
light to a point
Most rugged design - easy to
care for
Gives the sharpest views especially of planets and the
moon
Most expensive for any
given aperture
Usually the tube is quite
long, although short tube
designs are now available
Inexpensive models suffer
from chromatic aberration
achromatic vs. apochromatic

Basic Teleskop Designs


Reflector
Uses a mirror to gather the
light to a point
Open tube collects dust,
mirror eventually tarnishes
Requires periodic alignment
(collimating) of the mirrors
Least expensive for any
given aperture
Available in both long and
short tube design
Generally no chromatic
aberration
Most bang for the buck

Basic Teleskop Designs


Compound
Schmidt-Cassegrain, Maksutov

Uses mirror and lens to


gather the light to a point
Sharp views, Maksutov are
almost as good as refractors
Closed tube protects optics
Moderate cost for any given
aperture
Tube is shortest for any
given aperture
Most portable for any given
aperture

Refracting Teleskop

Uses lens to focus light from


distant object - the eyepiece
contains a small lens that
brings the collected light to a
focus and magnifies it for an
observer looking through it.

Focal Ratio= FL/Obj Diam

Obj Diam

FL= Focal Length

Types of Reflecting Teleskops

Each design incorporates a small mirror just in front of the prime focus to
reflect the light to a convenient location for viewing.

Focal Length and Focal Ratio


Focal Ratio= Focal Length/Objective Diam
Faster = Shorter= is smaller ratio
Shorter Focal Ratio Optics (F6 and below)
Wider Fields of View
More Compact
More Expensive or More Distorted
Optics must be close to perfect
Fast Optics are difficult to make

Teleskop Specs

100mm F7 Refractor
100mm F10 Refractor
200mm F10 Schmidt Cass
400mm F4.5 Newtonian
16 inch F4.5 Newtonian

The Powers of a
Teleskop
Light Gathering Power: Astronomers prefer *large*
Teleskops. A large Teleskop can intercept and focus more starlight
than does a small Teleskop. A larger Teleskop will produce brighter
images and will be able to detect fainter objects.

Resolving Power: A large Teleskop also increases the sharpness


of the image and the extent to which fine details can be
distinguished.

Magnification: The magnifying power is the ability of the


Teleskop to make the image appear large in the field of view.

Three Fundamental Properties of a Teleskop

Light-Collecting Area
think of the Teleskop as a photon bucket
The amount of light that can be collected is dependent on the mirror
area
A = (D/2)2
Resolution
smallest angle which can be seen
= 1.22 / D
The angular resolution of a reflecting Teleskop is dependent on the
diameter of the primary (D) and the wavelength of the light being
viewed
()
These properties are much more important than magnification which is
produced by placing another lens - the eyepiece - at the mirror focus.

Light Gathering Ability: Size Does Matter

1. Light-gathering
power: Depends on
the surface area A of
the primary lens /
mirror, proportional
to diameter squared:

A = (D/2)2

Angular Resolution

The ability to separate two


objects.
The angle between two
objects decreases as your
distance to them increases.
The smallest angle at which
you can distinguish two
objects is your angular
resolution.

Eyepieces
Used to magnify the image at the focal
plane for viewing by the naked eye
Your image will only be as good as the
weakest chain in your optical system
Many Different designs
All specified with an Eyepiece FL and an
AFOV

Types of Eyepieces
Old designs (limited use)
Huyghenian, Ramsden, Kellner, Erfle
Low Cost, with distortion

Gold Standards, (52deg AFOV)


Plossl, Orthoscopics
Med Cost, without distortion

Widefields, ( up to 82deg AFOV)


Naglers, Panoptics, Radians, Swans
High Cost: Distortion Free AFOV correlates to Cost
More money vs more distortion

Magnifying Power
Magnifying Power = ability of the Teleskop to make the
image appear bigger.
The magnification depends on the ratio of focal lengths of
the primary mirror/lens (Fs) and the eyepiece (Fe):
M = Fs/Fe
A larger magnification does not improve the resolving
power of the Teleskop!
Rule of Thumb- Maximum useful Mag is 50x per inch of
Objective diameter under ideal seeing
- 20x to 30x per inch of Objective is more common in NE

Field of View: FOV


Each eyepiece design has a specified Apparent Field of
View, AFOV
AFOV/ Magnification = effective FOV
Expressed in angular degrees
Ex
A 25mm Plossl with 52deg FOV is being used on a
refractor with a 1000mm FL.
What is the magnification and FOV:
1000mm FL/25mm Ocular= 40x mag
52deg AFOV / 40 Mag = 1.3 deg effective FOV

Examples
100mm F7 Refractor, w 32mm Plossl (52deg AFOV)
Mag
FOV

200mm F10 Schmidt Cass, w 32mm Nagler (82deg AFOV)


Mag
FOV

400mm F4.5 Newtonian, w 32mm Widefield (66deg AFOV)


Mag
FOV

Eye relief
The distance from the last surface of the eyepiece eye
lens (the lens closest to your eye) to where the image is
formed.
Eye relief should be fairly long for comfortable viewing,
if you must wear eyeglasses, you will need a minimum of 15mm
of eye relief to see the entire field of view
Eye relief usually decreases as eyepiece focal lengths get
shorter

More $$ for more eye relief

Barlow Lens
x2 or x3 increase in your mag or a /2
or /3 decrease in your eyepiece FL.
Using a x2 barlow you can make a
32mm eyepiece also serve as a 16mm
eyepiece.
(But you keep the 32mm eye relief)

Slight decrease in image brightness


due to extra elements.

Altitude-Azimuth (Alt-Az)
Simple, mudah digunakan
Tidak mahal
paling portable
Equatorial
Mudah mendapatkan
objek pada medan
pandang
Susah untuk di atur
(setting)
Biasanya berat
Biasanya tergerak
Dobsonian (Dob)
Sangat mudah digunakan
Tidak terlalu mahal
Sangat stabil
Paling penting: kestabilan!

Teleskop Mounts

Banyak mounting
yang bermototr
dan bahkan
terkomputerisasi

Finders
Why? most Teleskops have a 1 to 2 deg
FOV at their lowest magnification
Types
Reflex Sight:
Zero Power
dovetail, red dot, telrad (concentric circles)
Magnifying 30mm, 50mm and 70mm
Correct view
Teleskop view

Finder Protocol
Use a star map to define area to observe
Use the finder to point the scope to the
general area
Use your eyepiece with the widest
effective field to locate your target.
Happy Observing

Filters

Filter Basics
Filters are designed to block
light.
This inherently darkens the
image, so the scope must be
able to pull in enough light to still
allow you to see the object you
are interested in.
Due to this fact, small Teleskop
often do not benefit from filters.
The Moon looks better through a
filter in any size Teleskop.
The Sun can be viewed directly
with the proper filter.

Most filters are threaded for


attaching to the bottom of
eyepieces, the front of
diagonals or to the visual
back of an SCT Teleskop.

Solar Filters
Conventional solar filters come in
two varieties (glass and Mylar film)
and allow us to see sunspots on
the surface of the sun.
Most Mylar filters show the sun as
a blue disk. Glass filters generally
show the sun in yellow. Baader
Solar Film (Mylar) show the sun as
a white disk and has the best
contrast.
H-Alpha filters are expensive, but
allow us to view the flares and
other features in the Suns
chromosphere.

These conventional solar filters


mount on the front of the scope.
Never use a solar filter that mounts
on the eyepiece!

Moon Filters
The Moon is very bright,
especially at lower
magnifications. This makes
it difficult to see fine detail.
A standard lunar filter may
block 80% or more of all
visible light.
A polarizing filter uses two
polarized elements that can
be rotated to vary the
amount of light blocked.

Color Filters

Color filters are mostly used for


the planets.
By blocking certain wavelengths
(colors) of light, they help to bring
out faint details.
To learn what colors work well for
which planets, visit the Learning
Center at www.Teleskop.com.
Other than Jupiter and Venus
(two very bright objects) color
filters will not provide much
benefit for scopes smaller than
4.5.

Deep Sky Filters


Designed to pass only certain
wavelengths of light in order to
show faint objects while
blocking manmade light and
skyglow.
Broadband filters allow most
light to pass, but block
wavelengths commonly
produced by exterior lighting.
They improve most faint
objects.
Narrowband filters block much
more light, but pass the light
emitted by many faint nebulae.

Oxygen III (O-III) filters block


all but the one specific
wavelength common to just
a few nebulae (the Veil
nebula for example).
Hydrogen Beta (H-Beta)
filters block all but the one
specific wavelength common
to just a few nebulae (the
Horsehead and California
nebula for example).
These filters will not provide
much benefit for scopes
smaller than 6.

Credits
Phillip Anderson, University of Texas
Joseph Howard, Info Technology
Michael Swanson, US Naval Hospital Okinawa

Appendix

Snell's Law

Where:
VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in
material 1.
VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in
material 2.
Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the
velocities of the waves. Snell's law equates the ratio of material
velocities VL1 and VL2 to the ratio of the sine's of incident and
refracting angles.

Snell's Law

n=(c/v) where :
C is the velocity
of light and
v is the velocity
of light in that
medium

where 1 and 2 are the angles from the normal


of the incident and refracted waves, respectively.
n1, n2 are indices of refraction of the two media
respectively.

Refracting vs Reflecting Teleskops

Reflecting Teleskops are primary astronomical tools used for research:


1. Lens of refracting Teleskop very heavy - must be placed at end of
Teleskop - difficult to stabilize and prevent from deforming
2. Light losses from passing through thick glass of refracting lens must be very high quality and perfectly shaped on both sides
3. Refracting lenses subject to chromatic aberration