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TOPIC 8

WAVES

Progressive Wave
Progressive waves distribute energy from a
point source to a surrounding area. They move
energy in the form of
vibrating particles or
fields.

PROGRESSIVE
WAVES

TRANVERSE WAVE

LONGITUDINAL
WAVES

DEFINATIONS

A transverse wave is
a wave that oscillates
perpendicular to the
direction it advances

Longitudinal waves,
also referred to as
compressional
waves or pressure
waves, are waves
that have vibrations
along or parallel to
their direction of travel

Transverse Wave

Example :
Electromagnetic
waves
-radio waves
-gamma waves
-light waves

Longitudinal waves

Example
Sound waves
Seismic wave

Displacement is the distance a particle


moves from its central equilibrium
position.
Amplitude is the maximum
displacement from the central
equilibrium position.
Wavelength: The distance between
the two adjacent points on the
wavefront which are in phase.
Period: the time required to complete
a full cycle, in seconds/cycle

A Reminder of the Basics!

Waves can be represented on distance or time


graphs (Note: Look carefully at these graphs.
They have different values on the x-axes):

This graph shows us how the


displacement (s) of particles varies
along a wave.

This graph shows us how the


displacement of particles at a point
varies with time. The time period of a
wave can be found by measuring the
time between two identical points
alongthe wave.

DETERMINNG SPEED, FREQUENCY


AND WAVELENGTH THROUGH

v =f
Where :
v = speed (m/s)
f = frequency (Hz)
= Wavelength
(m)

You need to be able to derive this equation


from speed = distance/time.
If the time for one complete wave is the time
period, T and the distance is the
wavelength, l, then:

Q1) Show that the wavelength of the 8.0 kHz


sound waves in sea water is about 0.2 m.
Solution :
speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s-1

f
1500

8000
=0.19m
2.00m

Q2) The sound waves travel 5.0 km from the


submarine to the buoy.
Calculate the time taken for the sound
waves to
travel this distance.
time taken = ......................... s
t

s
v

5000
1500
=3.3s

Phase Difference

Example:
Q1:A wave of frequency 400 Hz is traveling at
a speed of 320 m/s. Calculate the phase
difference between two points 0.2m apart
on the wave.
Solution:

v 320
wavelength, =
0.8m
f 400
Phase difference of 0.2m apart
0.2
0.2
1
=
(2 )
(2 ) rad

0.8
2

Wave intensity

The intensity of a wave (I) is


defined as the power per unit
area
I=power/area
S.I. units are watts per m2.

For a spherical wave of radius ,


the intensity is given by .
P
I
4r 2

This is known as the inverse


square law.
Intensity is also proportional to
the square of the wave
amplitude.

1
I 2
r

Properties of
electromagnetic
waves
In a vacuum, they all travel
at the
same speed - the speed of light which is 3 108 ms -1 c=f
They are all transverse waves, with
the oscillations being electric and
magnetic fields. Like all waves, they
can be reflected and diffracted.

Gamma
waves

These are the most dangerous and penetrating


form of electro-magnetic waves. They have the
shortest wavelengths, and highest frequency.
Gamma rays are emitted by some radioactive
nuclei, and are also produced during supernova
explosions!

X-rays
.

X-Rays have high energy and such a short


wavelength that they can go right through you.
However, they cannot get through bone as easily as
they can get through muscle.
doctor uses them to look at your bones and your
dentist to look at your teeth.
Produced when high velocity electrons strike a
metallic target.

Ultraviolet
Radiation (UV)
a dangerous type of radiation
Produced when electrons jump
from a relatively high excited
states to a low excited states
within atoms n molecules
emitted from the sun
UV is partly absorbed by the
ozone layer

Visible light
Produced by atoms n molecules when the
outer electrons, after being excited into
higher energy levels, return to their
unexcited state.
Made up of monochromatic light with
different wavelength.
longest wavelength light we can see is red
shortest wavelength light we can see is
violet

Infrared
Radiation
Generated by vibration and
rotation of atoms & molecules.
detectable by our skin as heat
radiation
keeps the earth warm

Microwaves
o

very short wavelength.


Used in radar, communications,
broadcasting and preparation of food.

Use in car as adaptive cruise control

Radio waves
longest of all the electro-magnetic waves
used in telecommunications (radio and TV
broadcasts, as well as portable phones and walkie
talkies).
2 ways to transmit radio waves
a) Amplitude modulation (AM)
b) Frequency modulation (FM)
Some radio waves come through the earth's
atmosphere from space

Questions &
Answers
Q: Which end of the spectrum
has the longest wavelength?
A: Radio waves
Q: Which end of the spectrum
has the highest energy ?
A: Gamma rays