Sunteți pe pagina 1din 31

# TOPIC 8

WAVES

Progressive Wave
Progressive waves distribute energy from a
point source to a surrounding area. They move
energy in the form of
vibrating particles or
fields.

PROGRESSIVE
WAVES

TRANVERSE WAVE

LONGITUDINAL
WAVES

DEFINATIONS

A transverse wave is
a wave that oscillates
perpendicular to the

Longitudinal waves,
also referred to as
compressional
waves or pressure
waves, are waves
that have vibrations
along or parallel to
their direction of travel

Transverse Wave

Example :
Electromagnetic
waves
-gamma waves
-light waves

Longitudinal waves

Example
Sound waves
Seismic wave

## Displacement is the distance a particle

moves from its central equilibrium
position.
Amplitude is the maximum
displacement from the central
equilibrium position.
Wavelength: The distance between
the two adjacent points on the
wavefront which are in phase.
Period: the time required to complete
a full cycle, in seconds/cycle

## Waves can be represented on distance or time

graphs (Note: Look carefully at these graphs.
They have different values on the x-axes):

## This graph shows us how the

displacement (s) of particles varies
along a wave.

## This graph shows us how the

displacement of particles at a point
varies with time. The time period of a
wave can be found by measuring the
time between two identical points
alongthe wave.

## DETERMINNG SPEED, FREQUENCY

AND WAVELENGTH THROUGH

v =f
Where :
v = speed (m/s)
f = frequency (Hz)
= Wavelength
(m)

## You need to be able to derive this equation

from speed = distance/time.
If the time for one complete wave is the time
period, T and the distance is the
wavelength, l, then:

## Q1) Show that the wavelength of the 8.0 kHz

sound waves in sea water is about 0.2 m.
Solution :
speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s-1

f
1500

8000
=0.19m
2.00m

## Q2) The sound waves travel 5.0 km from the

submarine to the buoy.
Calculate the time taken for the sound
waves to
travel this distance.
time taken = ......................... s
t

s
v

5000
1500
=3.3s

Phase Difference

Example:
Q1:A wave of frequency 400 Hz is traveling at
a speed of 320 m/s. Calculate the phase
difference between two points 0.2m apart
on the wave.
Solution:

v 320
wavelength, =
0.8m
f 400
Phase difference of 0.2m apart
0.2
0.2
1
=
(2 )

0.8
2

Wave intensity

## The intensity of a wave (I) is

defined as the power per unit
area
I=power/area
S.I. units are watts per m2.

## For a spherical wave of radius ,

the intensity is given by .
P
I
4r 2

## This is known as the inverse

square law.
Intensity is also proportional to
the square of the wave
amplitude.

1
I 2
r

Properties of
electromagnetic
waves
In a vacuum, they all travel
at the
same speed - the speed of light which is 3 108 ms -1 c=f
They are all transverse waves, with
the oscillations being electric and
magnetic fields. Like all waves, they
can be reflected and diffracted.

Gamma
waves

## These are the most dangerous and penetrating

form of electro-magnetic waves. They have the
shortest wavelengths, and highest frequency.
Gamma rays are emitted by some radioactive
nuclei, and are also produced during supernova
explosions!

X-rays
.

## X-Rays have high energy and such a short

wavelength that they can go right through you.
However, they cannot get through bone as easily as
they can get through muscle.
doctor uses them to look at your bones and your
dentist to look at your teeth.
Produced when high velocity electrons strike a
metallic target.

Ultraviolet
Produced when electrons jump
from a relatively high excited
states to a low excited states
within atoms n molecules
emitted from the sun
UV is partly absorbed by the
ozone layer

Visible light
Produced by atoms n molecules when the
outer electrons, after being excited into
unexcited state.
Made up of monochromatic light with
different wavelength.
longest wavelength light we can see is red
shortest wavelength light we can see is
violet

Infrared
Generated by vibration and
rotation of atoms & molecules.
detectable by our skin as heat
keeps the earth warm

Microwaves
o

## Use in car as adaptive cruise control

longest of all the electro-magnetic waves
used in telecommunications (radio and TV
broadcasts, as well as portable phones and walkie
talkies).
2 ways to transmit radio waves
a) Amplitude modulation (AM)
b) Frequency modulation (FM)
Some radio waves come through the earth's
atmosphere from space

Questions &