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PANGASINAN STATE UNIVERSITY

College of Engineering and Architecture


Department of Civil Engineering
Urdaneta City Campus

BASIC MECHANICAL
ENGG

Refrigeration

Refrigeration

Branch of science which deals with the process of reducing


and maintaining the temperature of a space or material
below the temperature of the surroundings.

It is the process of removing the undesirable heat from a


given body to maintain it at a desired lower temperature.

The standard unit for refrigeration is Ton of Refrigeration


and denoted by symbol TR.

1 TR = 200 BTU/min = 50.4 kcal/min = 211 kJ/min = 3.52 kW

Refrigerants

Refrigerant is the working substance


in a refrigeration system.

It is a substance or mixture, usually


a fluid, used in a heat pump and
refrigeration cycle.

Examples of Refrigerants are:


Fluorinated Refrigerants (e.g.

R134a, R22, R404a, R407c, R410a)

Ammonia NH3
Secondary Refrigerants

Types of Refrigeration System

Vapor Compression Refrigeration (VCR): uses


mechanical energy

Vapor Absorption Refrigeration (VAR): uses thermal


energy

Vapor Compression Refrigeration


Highly compressed fluids tend to get colder when
allowed to expand
If pressure high enough
Compressed air hotter than source of cooling
Expanded gas cooler than desired cold
temperature

Vapor Compression Refrigeration

Two advantages:
Lot of heat can be removed (lot of thermal energy to
change liquid to vapor)
Heat transfer rate remains high (temperature of
working fluid much lower than what is being cooled)

Vapor Compression Refrigeration


Refrigeration Cycle
2
Condenser

High Pressure
Side

Expansion Device

Compressor

Evaporator

Low Pressure
Side

Refrigeration Cycle
VAPORIZING PROCESS.
Low
pressure
liquid
refrigerant in evaporator
absorbs heat and changes
to a gas

2
Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

Expansion Device

Compressor

Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Refrigeration Cycle
COMPRESSING PROCESS.
The superheated vapor
enters the compressor
where its pressure is
raised.

2
Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

Expansion Device

Compressor

Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Refrigeration Cycle
CONDENSING PROCESS.
The high pressure
superheated gas is cooled
in several stages in the
condenser

2
Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

Expansion Device

Compressor

Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Refrigeration Cycle
PRESSURE
REDUCING
PROCESS. Liquid passes
through
expansion
device, which reduces its
pressure and controls the
flow into the evaporator

2
Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

Expansion Device

Compressor

Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration

Generator

Condenser

Hot Side

Evaporator

Cold Side

Absorber

Major Components of Refrigeration


System and their Functions

EVAPORATOR.

This is the
part of the refrigeration
system that is doing the
actual cooling. It is used to
turn any liquid material into
gas. In this process, heat is
absorbed.

Major Components of Refrigeration


System and their Functions

COMPRESSOR. It is used to

pull the low-temperature and


low-pressure vapor from the
evaporator, through a suction
line. Its main function is to
transform a low-temperature
vapor in to a high-temperature
vapor, to increase pressure.

Major Components of Refrigeration


System and their Functions

CONDENSER. Its main purpose is


to liquefy the refrigerant gas
sucked by the compressor from
the evaporator. It removes the
amount of heat that is equal to the
sum of the heat absorbed in the
evaporator and the heat produced
by compression.

Major Components of Refrigeration


System and their Functions

FLOW

CONTROL
DEVICE
(EXPANSION
VALVE).
This
controls the flow of the liquid
refrigerant into the evaporator.
The main purpose of the
expansion valve is to ensure a
sufficient pressure differential
between the high and low
pressure sides of the system.

Air Conditioning

Air Conditioning System

An air conditioning system is an assembly of different part


of the system used produce a specified condition of air
within a require space or building.

It is the simultaneously control of temperature, humidity, air


movement, and the quality of air in a space.

Air conditioning (often referred to as A/C or AC) is the

process of altering the properties of air (primarily


temperature and humidity) to more comfortable conditions,
typically with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to
an occupied space such as a building or a vehicle to
improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality.

MOIST AIR. The binary mixture of dry air and water vapor. It
is the working substance in air conditioning.

DRY AIR. It is the non-condensing components of the


mixture, mainly the nitrogen and the oxygen.

VAPOR. The condensing component of the mixture, the


water vapor or steam which may exist in a saturated or
superheated state.

SATURATED AIR. Air that contains the maximum amount of


water vapor that is possible at the given temperature and
pressure.

UNSATURATED AIR. An air containing superheated vapor.

Principle of Air - Conditioning

The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house


than it is outside.

Refrigeration VS. Air Conditioning System


Refrigeration

Air Conditioning

It only reduces temperature.

It controls temperature, humidity,


purity and flow of air throughout the
area.

It is the cooling process.

It is under Refrigeration system.

Refrigeration systems have gas


installed in a series of tubes.

Air conditioning systems use built-in


chemicals, but also air from the room
or rooms being heated.

Refrigeration units have circulation


Air conditioners have circulation
systems designed to retain coolant in systems designed to project cool air
a confined space.
away from the units
Air conditioners use something called Refrigeration units, on the other
an evaporator to convert a liquid to a hand, cycle HFC into a low-pressure
gas.
chamber designed to boil the gas.

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

Sensible Heating
Sensible Cooling
Humidifying
Dehumidifying
Heating and Humidifying
Cooling and Dehumidifying
Cooling and Humidifying
Heating and Dehumidifying

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

SENSIBLE

HEATING. A process involves heating at


constant humidity ratio (moisture content). Sensible heat
is the energy required to change the temperature of a
substance with no phase change.

SENSIBLE

COOLING. This process involves coiling the


air at constant moisture content. The sensible cooling of
air is the process in which only the sensible heat of the
air is removed so as to reduce its temperature, and there
is no change in the moisture content (kg/kg of dry air) of
the air.

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

HUMIDIFYING.

The process in which the moisture or


water vapor or humidity is added to the air without
changing its dry bulb (DB) temperature. Simply, it is the
process of increasing the water vapor content of a gas.

DEHUMIDIFYING.

The process in which the moisture or


water vapor or the humidity is removed from the air
keeping its dry bulb (DB) temperature constant.

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

HEATING AND

HUMIDIFYING. Air can be simultaneously


heated and humidified by either drawing it through a
spray, or over trays of warm water which is maintained at
temperature higher than the dry bulb temperature of air or
by mixing air and the steam. In heating and humidification
psychrometric process of the air, the dry bulb
temperature as well as the humidity of the air increases.
The heating and humidification process is commonly
used for reducing the dew point temperature of air.

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

COOLING

AND
DEHUMIDIFYING.
Air
can
be
simultaneously cooled and dehumidified by being drawn
over cold surfaces or through sprays of cold water. It is
the process in which the air is cooled sensibly and at the
same time the moisture is removed from. Cooling and
dehumidification process is obtained when the air at the
given dry bulb and dew point (DP) temperature is cooled
below the dew point temperature.

COOLING

AND HUMIDIFYING. In this process the


moisture is added to the air by passing it over the stream
or spray of water which is at temperature lower than the
dry bulb temperature of the air.

Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air

HEATING AND DEHUMIDIFYING. The process in which the


air is heated and at the same time moisture is removed
from. During the heating and dehumidification process
dry bulb temperature of the air increases while its dew
point and wet bulb temperature reduces.

Types of Air Conditioning System

WINDOW AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM


SPLIT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
CENTRALIZED AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

Types of Air Conditioning System


1.

WINDOW AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM


It is one of the most commonly
used and cheapest type of air
conditioners.
Window air conditioner is the
most commonly used air
conditioner for single rooms.
In this air conditioner all the
components are enclosed in a
single box.
This unit is fitted in a slot made
in the wall of the room, or more
commonly a window sill.

Types of Air Conditioning System


2.

SPLIT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

The split air conditioner comprises of


two parts: the outdoor unit and the
indoor unit.
The outdoor unit, fitted outside the
room, houses components like the
compressor,
condenser
and
expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the
evaporator or cooling coil and the
cooling fan. For this unit you dont
have to make any slot in the wall of
the room.

Types of Air Conditioning System


3.

CENTRALIZED AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

The central air conditioning


plants or the systems are used
when large buildings, hotels,
theaters, airports, shopping
malls etc. are to be air
conditioned completely.
Central
air
conditioners
circulate cool air through a
system of supply and return
ducts. Supply ducts and
registers carry cooled air from
the air conditioner to the home.

Types of Air Conditioning System


4.

PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

An HVAC designer will suggest


this type of air conditioner if you
want to cool more than two rooms
or a larger space at your home or
office.
The packaged air conditioners
are available in the fixed rated
capacities of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15
tons.
These units are used commonly
in places like restaurants,
telephone exchanges, homes,
small halls, etc.

Major Components of Air Conditioning


This focuses on Window Type Air
Conditioner

INDOOR SIDE

OUTDOOR SIDE

COMPONENTS:

COMPONENTS:

Cooling Coil
Fan Blower
Capillary Tube
Operation Panel
Filter Drier
Drain Pan

Compressor
Condenser Coil
Propeller Fan
Fan Motor

Major Components of Air Conditioning


and their Functions

COOLING COIL with a air filter mounted on it. The cooling


coil is where the heat exchange happen between the
refrigerant in the system and the air in the room.

FAN

BLOWER. It is a centrifugal evaporator blower to


discharge the cool air to the room.

CAPILLARY

TUBE. It is used as an expansion device. It


can be noisy during operation if installed too near the
evaporator.

Major Components of Air Conditioning


and their Functions

OPERATION PANEL. It is used to control the temperature


and speed of the blower fan. A thermostat is used to sense
the return air temperature and another one to monitor the
temperature of the coil. Type of control can be mechanical
or electronic type.

FILTER DRIER. It is used to remove the moisture from the


refrigerant.

DRAIN

PAN. Used to contain the water that condensate


from the cooling coil and is discharged out to the outdoor
by gravity.

Major Components of Air Conditioning


and their Functions

COMPRESSOR. It is used to compress the refrigerant.


CONDENSER COIL. It is used to reject heat from

the

refrigeration to the outside air.

PROPELLER

FAN. It is used in air-cooled condenser to


help move the air molecules over the surface of the
condensing coil.

FAN MOTOR. It has a double shaft where the indoor blower


and outdoor propeller fan are connected together.

Major Components of Air Conditioning


System

Major Components of Air Conditioning


System