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ECX PLC and

Distributed Control
Systems
Module-I
Internal Structure and Operation of PLC

S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

1.1 Definition, concepts


and Need for PLC

S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

What is PLC?
Specialized

computer used to control


machines and processes.
Solid state device designed to perform
logic functions previously accomplished
by electromechanical relays
Replaces conventional electromechanical
Relays, Timers, and Counters
Electrician friendly industrial computer
Works by looking at its inputs and
depending upon their state, turning
on/off its outputs.
S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

What is PLC? Contd..


Used

in many "real world"


applications,
like
Machining,
packaging, material handling,
automated assembly or number
of other industries.
If you are not using

PLC, you are wasting


money and time.
S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

Where PLC ?
Complex

Process

Sequence

with

process

automation

and

timings
Industrial

control
Industries

like Automobile, Chemical,


Sugar, Cement, Refinery,
Power
stations, Food Processing etc.,
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Benefits
Increased

Reliability
More Flexibility
Lower Cost
Communication Capability
Faster Response Time

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Benefits Contd..
Easier

to troubleshoot
Compact in Size
Simple Programming
Simplified wiring
Maintainability
Lower Power consumption
Ease of Expandability

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1.2 Difference between


PLC and computer, PLC
size and applications

S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

PLC Size
Nano PLC -Micro PLC

16 I/O
32 I/O

Elevator, car washes, mixing machines.

Small

PLC -- 128 I/O and 2KB

Simple to advanced level of machine control

Medium

PLC 2048 I/O and 32 KB

Temperature, Pressure, Flow ,Weight ,position


and any type of Process control

Large PLC16,000 I/O and 2 MB

unlimited applications ,Control individual


production processes or entire plants
S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE

APPLICATIONS
Single-ended

small size PLC

One PLC controls one process.


No communications
Multi

task medium size PLC

One PLC controls several processes


Communication is available.
Control

management- large PLC

One PLC control several PLCs.

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PLC Vs Computer
Architecture

of PLC same as PC
PLC designed to operate in industrial
environment (not affected by Electrical
noise inherent or temperature)
Software and Hardware are designed for
easy use by plant electricians and
technicians
Computers
are
complex
computing
machines capable of executing several
programs or tasks simultaneously in any
order
PLC executes program in an orderly and
sequential fashion from first to last
S.CHARLES RAJA, APEEE, TCE
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Parts Of PLC

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Parts
CPU
I/O

Section
Power Supply & Programming
device

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I/O Module
Input

and Output module

(Interface- field devices are connected)


fixed (small PLC)
modular I/O

Input devices-

Push button, limit switches,


sensors, on-off switch, thumb wheel switch, selector
switch etc.,

Output

devices -Small motors, motor starter,

solenoid valve, indicator light, etc.,

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PLC I/O Connection-Fixed

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PLC I/O ConnectionModular

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Power Supply
DC

small PLC
DC or AC large PLC

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Processor Module
Brain
Microprocessor
Memory

EPROM, EEPROM plus

RAM

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Scan cycle

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Input Module

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Output module

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PLC Programming
Programming

devices
(used to enter the desired
program in the processor
memory)

Hand held programmer


PC based programmer

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Hand held Programmer

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PLC OPERATION
Motor

automatically stir when the


temperature and pressure reach preset
values

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Electrical Relay Diagram

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PLC INPUT Module Connection

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PLC Output Module


Connection

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PLC Ladder Diagram

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Modifying the Operation


Manual

pushbutton control be
permitted to operate at any
pressure, but not unless the
specified temperature setting has
been reached.

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Modified relay ladder


diagram

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Modified ladder logic


diagram

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Exercise

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1.3 PLC I/O, Memory,


Programming Devices,
Data recording and
retrieval

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I/O Section
Eyes,

ears and tongue


Input module
Converts machine signals to PLC
signals.
Output

module

Converts PLC signals to machine


control signals.

Chassis

Hardware assembly
I/O Modules
Processor modules
Power supplies

Different size of chassis - 4,8,12, or 16


slots
Logical

rack

Addressable unit
128 input points and 128 output points
8 words
More than one rack in a chassis

Remote I/O rack

Remote I/O
Locate

I/O modules near to field devices


for minimizing the wiring required.
Communication network
Coaxial cable
Fiber optic cable.
Addressing:

Type - I/p or O/p


Slot physical location of I/O
Word and Bit identify terminal connection

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Bit level address

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Word level address

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I/O Module

Discrete I/O Modules


Common

type.
ON/OFF switching nature.

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Discrete AC I/P Module

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Discrete AC O/P Module

O/p Wiring Connection

Color Coding

For controlling large loads..

Analog I/O Module

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Analog Module With TC


Interface

I/O

have infinite number of states.


Not only ON and OFF; Barely ON,
almost totally ON, not quite OFF etc..
Accept analog signals-convert to
Digital by A/D Converter.
Digital signal- 12 bit binary or BCD
code
Current sensing
Voltage sensing
Unipolar i/p module
Bipolar

Analog I/O Ctrl System

Special I/O Modules


High-Speed

Counter Module
Thumb Wheel Module
TTL Module
Encoder-Counter Module
BASIC or ASCII Module
Stepper-Motor Module
BCD Output Module

Special I/O Module


Contd..
PID

Module
Servo Module
Communication Module
High-Level Language
Module(eg:C,Pascal)
Speech Module

Recap
What

Scan cycle
is PLC?
Where PLC?
Programming
Benefits.
devices
PLC size and
PLC operation
I/O Section in
applications
PLC vs Computer detail
Parts of PLC
Remote I/O

I/O Section Fixed


and Modular
CPU
Power Supply &
Programming
device

Addressing format
Discrete I/O
interposing rely
Analog I/O
Special I/O
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Components Of CPU

The CPU
Processor memory module(s).
Communications circuitry.
Power Supply

Same

type of microprocessor
More than one processor
Control
Logic

Processor Unit

Modes Of Operation
RUN
PROG
REM

RUN Position
Places

the processor in the RUN

Mode
Executes the ladder program and
energises the O/P devices
Prevents You from performing online
program editing
Prevents You from using a
programmer/operator interface
device to change the processor
mode

PROG Position
Places

the processor in the program

mode
Prevents the processor from
scanning or executing the ladder
program and the controller outputs
are de-energised
Allows program entry and editing.
Prevents the programmer/operator
interface device to change the
processor mode

REM Position
Places

the processor in the


Remote mode: either the REMote
Run, REMote program or REMote
Test Mode
Allows To change the processor
mode from a programmer
/operator interface device
Allows online program editing

Memory Design
Physical

space inside the CPU- to


store the program and data.
Storing format- 0s and 1s (bits)
Capacity 1K-1024 bytes

Status table files

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Types
ROM
RAM
PROM
EPROM
EEPROM

Recording and Retrieving


Data
PLC

can have only one program


in memory at a time.

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Exercise

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1.4 Processor Memory


Organization, Program
Scan

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Processor Memory
User program
Organization

Instructions
Logic machine operations
Entering the Programmed logic ladder diagram

Data table

Status of input & output devices


Timer and counter values

Collection

of Program files
and Data files

Program

files

areas of processor memory


where ladder logic
programming is stored
System program (File 0)
System related information
Type of processor,
I/O configuration,
Processor file name and password

Reserved

(File 1)

reserved by the processor


Not accessible to user

Main ladder program (File 2)


Contains user programmed
instructions

Subroutine ladder program (Files


3-255)
Activated according to subroutine
instructions

Data file memory


organisation
Each

data file is made up of


numerous elements
Each element may be one, two or
three words in length ( A word 16 bits)
Three words timer, counter and
control
Two words floating-point
Single word - others

Data files
output

(file 0)

state of the output terminals

Input

(file 1)

status of the input terminals

Status

(file 2)

Troubleshooting controller and program


operation

Bit

(file 3)

Internal relay logic storage

Timer

(file 4)

Timer accumulated and preset values, status


bits

Counter

(file 5)

counter accumulated and preset values, status


bits

Control

(file 6)

Length, pointer position, status bit


Integer

(file 7)

Bit information
Reserved

(file 8)

Not accessible to the user


Network

communications (file 9)

Used for network communications


User-defined

(files 10-255)

Bit, timer, counter, control

Timer

file

Counter

Control

file

file

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Typical input/output image


Table file connection

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Program scan
Each

operating cycle, the processor reads all the


inputs, takes these values and energizes or deenergizes the outputs according to the user
program
Single PLC scan
I/O scan & Program scan
Time

1 -20 ms

Scan process
A

continuous and sequential process of


reading the status of inputs, evaluating
the control logic and updating the outputs

Scanning
Two

basic patterns
to accomplish the
scan function
Horizontal scanning
- Allen Bradely
Vertical scanning AEG Modicon

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Module-II
PLC Peripherals and
Programming

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2.1 PLC programming


languages, Basic I/O devices

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PLC Programming languages

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Textual language

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Graphical language
Ladder

diagram language

Most commonly used PLC


language
Boolean

language

AND, OR and NOT logic gate


functions
Function

Chart

Developed in Europe (GRAFCET)


Use function blocks (steps and
transition units) often controlled
by Boolean expressions

Functional block

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