Chapter 19
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
(Theory and Implementation)
Chapter 19, Slide 1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Learning Objectives
Chapter 19, Slide 2
DFT algorithm.
Conversion of DFT to FFT algorithm.
Implementation of the FFT algorithm.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT Algorithm
The Fourier transform of an analogue
signal x(t) is given by:
X
x t e jt dt
The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of
a discretetime signal x(nT) is given by:
N 1
X k x n e
2
nk
N
n 0
Chapter 19, Slide 3
Where:
k 0,1, N 1
x nT x n
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT Algorithm
N 1
X k x nWNnk
n0
x[n] = input
X[k] = frequency bins
W
= twiddle factors
X(0)
= x[0]WN0 + x[1]WN0*1 ++ x[N1]WN0*(N1)
X(1)
= x[0]WN0 + x[1]WN1*1 ++ x[N1]WN1*(N1)
:
X(k)
= x[0]WN0 + x[1]WNk*1 ++ x[N1]WNk*(N1)
:
X(N1) = x[0]WN0 + x[1]WN (N1)*1 ++ x[N1]WN (N1)(N1)
Note: For N samples of x we have N frequencies
representing the signal.
Chapter 19, Slide 4
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Performance of the DFT Algorithm
The DFT requires N2 (NxN) complex
multiplications:
The DFT also requires (N1)*N complex
additions:
Chapter 19, Slide 5
Each X(k) requires N complex
multiplications.
Therefore to evaluate all the values of the
DFT ( X(0) to X(N1) ) N2 multiplications are
required.
Each X(k) requires N1 additions.
Therefore to evaluate all the values of the
DFT (N1)*N additions are required.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
120
120
Number of Additions
Number of Multiplications
Performance of the DFT Algorithm
100
80
60
40
20
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0
Number of Samples
Chapter 19, Slide 6
10
10
Number of Samples
Can the number of computations required
be reduced?
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
Chapter 19, Slide 7
A large amount of work has been devoted
to reducing the computation time of a
DFT.
This has led to efficient algorithms which
are known as the Fast Fourier Transform
(FFT) algorithms.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
N 1
X k x nWNnk ; 0 k N 1
n 0
[1]
x[n] = x[0], x[1], , x[N1]
Lets divide the sequence x[n] into even
and odd sequences:
Chapter 19, Slide 8
x[2n]
= x[0], x[2], , x[N2]
x[2n+1] = x[1], x[3], , x[N1]
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
Equation 1 can be rewritten as:
N
1
2
N
1
2
n 0
n0
X k x 2nWN2 nk x 2n 1WN 2 n 1 k
[2]
Since:
W N2 nk e
2
2 nk
N
2
nk
N 2
WN 2 n 1 k WNk W Nnk
W Nnk
Then:
X k
N
1
2
n 0
x 2nW Nnk W Nk
2
Y k WNk Z k
Chapter 19, Slide 9
N
1
2
n 0
x 2n 1W Nnk
2
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
The result is that an Npoint DFT can be
divided into two N/2 point DFTs:
N 1
X k x nWNnk ; 0 k N 1
Npoint DFT
n 0
Where Y(k) and Z(k) are the two N/2
point DFTs operating on even and odd
samples respectively:
X k
N
1
2
n 0
x1 nW Nnk W Nk
2
Y k W Nk Z k
Chapter 19, Slide 10
N
1
2
n 0
x2 nW Nnk
2
Two N/2point DFTs
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
Periodicity and symmetry of W can be
exploited to simplify the DFT further:
N
1
2
X k
x1 n W Nnk W Nk
n 0
N
1
2
x2 nW Nnk
n 0
[3]
X k
2
Or:
And:
Chapter 19, Slide 11
WN
N
2
N
1
2
N
n k
x1 n W N 2
n 0
2
WN
2
N
2
2
k
N
2 N
N 2
2
k
N 2
N
1
2
N
k
WN 2
x2
n 0
2
k
N
2 N
N 2 2
e
2
k
N 2
n k
n W N 2
2
2
k
N
W Nk
2
W Nk
: Symmetry
: Periodicity
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
Symmetry and periodicity:
W86
W85
W87
W84
W80 = W88
W83
W81 = W89
WNk+N/2 = WNk
WN/2k+N/2 = WN/2k
W8k+4 = W8k
W8k+8 = W8k
W82
Chapter 19, Slide 12
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
Finally by exploiting the symmetry and
periodicity, Equation 3 can be written as:
N
X k
2
N
1
2
n 0
x1 nW Nnk WNk
2
Y k WNk Z k
Chapter 19, Slide 13
N
1
2
n 0
x2 nW Nnk
2
[4]
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
N
1
2
N
k
Y k WN Z k ; k 0,
1
2
X k Y k WNk Z k ; k 0,
N
X k
2
Chapter 19, Slide 14
Y(k) and WNk Z(k) only need to be
calculated once and used for both
equations.
Note: the calculation is reduced from 0 to
N1 to 0 to (N/2  1).
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
N
1
2
N
k
Y k WN Z k ; k 0,
1
2
X k Y k WNk Z k ; k 0,
N
X k
2
Y(k) and Z(k) can also be divided into N/4
point DFTs using the same process shown
above:
Y k U k W Nk V k
2
N
Y k U k W Nk V k
4
Chapter 19, Slide 15
Z k P k W Nk Q k
2
Z k P k W Nk Q k
4
The process continues until we reach 2
point DFTs.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DFT FFT
x[0]
x[2]
x[4]
N/2 point
DFT
x[N1]
Chapter 19, Slide 16
X[0] = y[0]+W0z[0]
X[1] = y[1]+W1z[1]
y[N2]
x[N2]
x[1]
x[3]
x[5]
y[0]
y[1]
y[2]
N/2 point
DFT
z[0]
z[1]
z[2]
W0
W1
1
1
X[N/2] = y[0]W0z[0]
X[N/2+1] = y[1]W1z[1]
z[N/21]
Illustration of the first decimation in time
FFT.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
X [k ] G[k] WNk H[ K ]
X[k
Chapter 19, Slide 17
N
] G[k] WNk H[ K ]
2
N
k 0 to
1
2
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Chapter 19, Slide 18
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
G[k ] G1[k] W Nk H1[ K ]
2
N
G[k ] G1[k] W Nk H1[ K ]
4
2
Chapter 19, Slide 19
N
k 0 to ( 1)
4
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Chapter 19, Slide 20
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
BUTTERFLY STRUCTURE
Chapter 19, Slide 21
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Chapter 19, Slide 22
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
DecimationInTime FFT Algorithm
Final flow graph for 8point decimation in time
Chapter 19, Slide 23
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
To efficiently implement the FFT
algorithm a few observations are made:
Chapter 19, Slide 24
Each stage has the same number of
butterflies (number of butterflies = N/2, N is
number of points).
The number of DFT groups per stage is equal
to (N/2stage).
The difference between the upper and lower
leg is equal to 2stage1.
The number of butterflies in the group is
equal to 2stage1.
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Example: 8 point FFT
W0
W0
W0
W0
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 25
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
W0
W0
W0
W0
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 26
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 1
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 27
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 2
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 28
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 29
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1:
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 30
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
Block 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 31
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
Block 1
W0
1
Block 2
W0
W0
W0
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 2
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 32
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
Block 1
W0
1
Block 2
W0
1
W0
1
W2
1
Block 3
W0
W0
1
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 3
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 33
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
Block 1
W0
1
Block 2
W0
1
W0
1
W2
1
Block 3
W0
1
Block 4
W0
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 34
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
Block 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 35
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
Block 1
W0
W0
Block 2
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 36
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
Block 1
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 37
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 38
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1:
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 39
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 40
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 1
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 41
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 2
Number of stages = log2N
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 42
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 2
Number of stages = log2N
Stage 3: Nbtf = 1
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 43
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 2
Number of stages = log2N
Stage 3: Nbtf = 2
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 44
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 2
Number of stages = log2N
Stage 3: Nbtf = 3
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Stage 1
W0
W0
W0
W0
FFT Implementation
Stage 2
Stage 3
1
1
1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
Decimation in time FFT:
Chapter 19, Slide 45
Example: 8 point FFT
(1) Number of stages:
Nstages = 3
(2) Blocks/stage:
Stage 1: Nblocks = 4
Stage 2: Nblocks = 2
Stage 3: Nblocks = 1
(3) Bflies/block:
Stage 1: Nbtf = 1
Stage 2: Nbtf = 2
Number of stages = log2N
Stage 3: Nbtf = 4
Number of blocks/stage = N/2stage
Number of butterflies/block
= 2stage1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun,
Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Stage 1
W0
1
W0
1
W0
Chapter 19, Slide 46
Stage 3
1
W0
Start Index
Input Index
Twiddle Factor Index
Stage 2
1
0
1
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
0
2
0
4
N/2 = 4
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Stage 1
W0
1
W0
1
W0
Chapter 19, Slide 47
Stage 3
1
W0
Start Index
Input Index
Twiddle Factor Index
Stage 2
1
0
1
N/2 = 4
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
0
2
0
4
4 /2 = 2
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Stage 1
W0
1
W0
1
W0
Chapter 19, Slide 48
Stage 3
1
W0
Start Index
Input Index
Twiddle Factor Index
Stage 2
1
0
1
N/2 = 4
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
0
2
4 /2 = 2
0
4
2 /2 = 1
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
FFT Implementation
Stage 1
W0
Stage 3
1
W0
1
W0
1
W0
Start Index
Input Index
Twiddle Factor Index
Indicies Used
Stage 2
1
0
1
N/2 = 4
W0
W0
1
W2
1
W0
W0
1
W1
1
W0
1
W2
1
W2
1
W3
1
0
2
0
4
4 /2 = 2
W0
2 /2 = 1
W2
W1
W0
W2
Chapter 19, Slide 49
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments
2004
3
Decimationinfrequency FFT
Regroup the signal samples
butterfly operation
DFT obtained with proper order of frequency index
Chapter 19, Slide 50
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
Assuming that N is a even number.
Divide the data sample into two groups
x (0), x (1), x ( 2)... x ( 2 1)
N
N
x
(
),
x
(
1
),...
x
(
N
1
)
.
2
2
Chapter 19, Slide 51
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
7
X ( k ) x ( n )W
n 0
nk
8
x ( n )W
n 0
nk
8
x ( n )W
n 4
nk
8
We want to do something so that the above
are two 4point DFTs.
Chapter 19, Slide 52
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
For even k, (k=2m)
3
X ( 2m ) x ( n )W
2 nm
8
n 0
x ( n )W
n 0
nm
4
x ( n )W82 nm
n 4
x ( n 4)W
n 0
( n4)m
4
x ( n )W
n 0
nm
4
x ( n 4)W4nm
n 0
x ( n ) x ( n 4)W4nm
n 0
The DFT with even frequency indices can be
obtained as the 4DFT of [x(n) +x(n+4)] (n=0,1,2,3)
Chapter 19, Slide 53
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
For odd k, (k=2m+1)
X ( 2m 1)
x ( n )W
n ( 2 m 1)
8
n 0
W
n 0
W
n 0
n
8
n
8
W
n 0
n
8
nm
4
x ( n )W
nm
4
x ( n )W
W
n 0
( n4 )
8
W
n 0
n
8
x ( n )W
n ( 2 m 1)
8
n 4
x ( n 4)W4( n 4 ) m
x ( n 4)W4nm
x ( n ) x ( n 4)W
nm
4
W x ( n ) x ( n 4)W
3
n 0
n
8
nm
4
The DFT with odd frequency
indices can be obtained
n
as the 4DFT of W8 x ( n ) x ( n 4)
(n=0,1,2,3)
Chapter 19, Slide 54
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)
x(5)
x(6)
x(7)
Chapter 19, Slide 55
X(0)
4point
DFT

W80
W81
4point
W82
DFT
W83
X(2)
X(4)
X(6)
X(1)
X(3)
X(5)
X(7)
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
x(0)
2point
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)
x(5)
x(6)
x(7)
Chapter 19, Slide 56
W40
W41
W80
1
8
W82
W83
W40
W41
X(0)
DFT
X(4)
2point
X(2)
DFT
X(6)
2point
X(1)
DFT
X(5)
2point
X(3)
DFT
X(7)
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Decimationinfrequency FFT
x(0)
X(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)
x(5)
x(6)
x(7)
Chapter 19, Slide 57

W80
W81
W82
W83
W40
W41
W20
X(4)
X(2)
X(6)
X(1)
X(3)
W40
W41
X(5)
X(7)
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
Chapter 19, Slide 58
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
End
Chapter 19, Slide 59
Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2004
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