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Etiologic
agent = Cornebacterium diphtheriae
Reservoir = Human carriers are the reservoir
for C. diphtheriae, and are usually
asymptomatic
Portal of Exit = Respiratory droplets;
aerosolized secretions of infected individuals
Mode of Transmission = person-to-person
spread.
Portal of Entry = mucus membranes in the
respiratory tract
Susceptible Host = immunocompromised
individuals
PREDISPOSING FX PRECIPITATING FX
RACE Known exposure,
AGE current epidemic, and
GENDER travel to endemic areas
increases risk.
Compromised host,
individuals
Cornebacterium
Diphtheria
2 S2 THECTER2
CR ECTER2 

2 HTHER2E ave.incubation
periodof -7days)

SECRET2 S
THEEXTX2 S

2 H22T2 THE
RTE2 
SY THES2S
2 CT2T2 
M
22CT2 
EYCELLULR
C ST2TUE TS

CELL
DETH
      
  
      
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MUSCULOSKELETAL GASTROINTESTINAL
fatigue SYSTEM
edema
HEENT paralysis of the palate
Sore throat hypopharynx
Swelling throat or
dysphagia
bull neck
Headache nausea and vomiting
Double vision INTEGUMENTARY
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
SYSTEM
low blood pressure chills and fever
cardiomyopathy exposed erythematous
peripheral neuropathy mucosa or lesions
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
dyspnea

Erythromycin orallyorbyinjection)for
daysmg gperday ithamaximumof
g d),or
Procainepenicillin givenintramuscularly
fordays,U dforpatients
eighinggand,U dforthose
eighingg).Patients ithallergiesto
penicillinorerythromycincan
use rifampin or clindamycin.
diphtheriaanti-toxin - Thepatientmust
betestedforsensitivitybefore
antitoxinisgiven.
throatculture
throatculture isa
techniquefor
identifyingdisease
bacteriainmaterial
taenfromthethroat.
 RESULT:gram
bacteria,
ornebacterium
diphtheriae

 
dministerxygen
 asobstructioninthethroatmayrequire
intubationandtracheostomy)
Encouragebedrest
Providesafety
Monitorvitalsignsesp.HR)
dministermedicationsasindicated
2SLT2 
The diphtheria vaccine is an
inactivated toxin called a toxoid. 2t is
made by gro ing the bacteria in a
liquid medium and purifying and
inactivating the toxin.
2n the s, diphtheria toxoid as
combined ith pertussis vaccine and
tetanus toxoid to mae the
combination DTP vaccine.
The DTaP, DT, Td, and Tdap preparations
are all given as an injection in the
anterolateral thigh muscle for infants and
young toddlers) or in the deltoid muscle for
older children and adults).
The usual schedule for infants is a series of
four doses given at t o, four, six, and -
months of age.  fifth shot, or booster dose,
is recommended at - years of age, unless
the fourth dose as given late after the
fourth birthday).
2mmunochromatographicStripTestforRapid
DetectionofDiphtheriaToxin:Descriptionand
MulticenterEvaluationinreasofLo andHigh
PrevalenceofDiphtheria
 !       !"# 
        
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