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Lecturer: Moez Allidina

PART 4 STAFFING ACTIVITIES:

SELECTION

Chapter 08 &

09:

External Selection 1-2

Copyright © 2015 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

STAFFING ORGANIZATIONS MODEL

Organization Mission Goals and Objectives
Organization
Mission
Goals and Objectives
Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Staffing Policies and Programs
Organization Strategy
HR and Staffing Strategy
Organization Strategy
HR and Staffing Strategy
Staffing Policies and Programs
Support Activities
Core Staffing Activities
Legal Compliance
Planning
Job Analysis
Recruitment: External, Internal
Selection:
Measurement, External, Internal
Employment:
Decision-making, Final Match
Staffing System and Retention Management

PRELIMINARY ISSUES

Logic of Prediction Nature of Predictors Development of the Selection Plan Selection Sequence

LOGIC OF PREDICTION: PAST PERFORMANCE PREDICTS FUTURE PERFORMANCE

LOGIC OF PREDICTION: PAST PERFORMANCE PREDICTS FUTURE PERFORMANCE Not specific enough to make selection decisions: 

Not specific enough to make selection decisions:

Job titles

Number of years of experience

What counts is the specific types of experiences required and the level of success at each

NATURE OF PREDICTORS

Content

Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to

performance

(e.g., personality)

Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to

performance

Criterion: Actual measure of prior performance

Form

Speed vs. Power: How many versus what level

Paper / Pencil vs. Performance: test in

writing or in behavior

Objective vs. Essay: Much like multiple-choice

vs. essay course exam questions

Oral vs. Written vs. Computer: How data are

8-5

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELECTION PLAN:

STEPS INVOLVED

  • 1. Develop list of KSAOs required for job

KSAOs are provided by job requirements matrix

  • 2. For each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection process

  • 3. Determine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO

EX. 8.3 – ASSESSMENT

METHODS BY

APPLICANT

FLOW STAGE

Initial Assessment Methods

EX. 8.3 – ASSESSMENT METHODS BY APPLICANT FLOW STAGE Initial Assessment Methods • Minimize the costs

Minimize the costs associated with substantive assessment methods by reducing the number of people assessed

EX. 8.3 ASSESSMENT METHODS BY APPLICANT FLOW STAGE

Substantive Assessment Methods

EX. 8.3 ASSESSMENT METHODS BY APPLICANT FLOW STAGE Substantive Assessment Methods • Determining who among the

Determining who among the minimally qualified will likely be the best performers on the job

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

A selection plan describes which predictor(s) will be used to assess the KSAOs required to perform the job. What are the three steps to follow in establishing a selection plan?

RESUMES AND COVER LETTERS

Information provided is controlled by applicant

Information needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completeness

Major issues

Large number received by organizations Falsification and misrepresentation of information

Lack of research exists related to:

Validity or Reliability Costs Adverse Impact

OVERVIEW OF APPLICATION BLANKS

Areas Covered:

Educational Experience Training Job Experience

Key Advantage – Organization dictates information provided Major Issue – Information Requested Should:

Be critical to job success and Reflect KSAOs relevant to job

Sample Application Blank – Exh. 8.4

SAMPLE APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT

SAMPLE APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT 8-12
SAMPLE APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT 8-12

APPLICATION BLANKS

Areas of Special Interest

Educational Requirements

Level of Education GPA Quality of School Major Field of Study Extracurricular Activities

Training and Experience Requirements Licensing, Certification, and Job Knowledge Weighted Application Blanks Evaluation --> ŕ = .10 to ŕ = .20

BIOGRAPHICAL

INFORMATION/BIODATA

Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests

“Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior”

Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivation

Measures

Exh. 8.5: Examples of

Biodata Items

Biodata compared with background checks

Background Check

examines an applicant’s background conducted through

records checks and conversations with references

Biodata

used to predict future performance

information is collected by survey

8-14

EXH. 8.5 – EXAMPLES OF BIODATA ITEMS

EXH. 8.5 – EXAMPLES OF BIODATA ITEMS 8-15
EXH. 8.5 – EXAMPLES OF BIODATA ITEMS 8-15

EVALUATION:

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION / BIODATA

Test-retest reliability can be high: .77 to .90

Predictive validity moderate: r = .32 to

.37

Issues

Generalizability beyond first group?

Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear

what these inventories assess

Falsification can be a big problem

REFERENCE REPORTS:

LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION

Problems

Inability to discern more-qualified from less-

qualified applicants

Lack of standardization

Suggestions to improve credibility

Use a structured form

Use a standardized scoring key

REFERENCE REPORTS:

REFERENCE CHECKS

Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact with

Prior immediate supervisor(s) or HR department of current of previous companies

Roughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checks Problems

Same as problems with letters of recommendation

Reluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concerns

Exh. 8.7 – Sample Reference Check

REFERENCE REPORTS:

BACKGROUND TESTING

Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustment

Type of Information Requested

Criminal history Credit information Educational history Employment verification Driver license histories Workers’ compensation claims

Key Issues

Limited validity evidence Legal constraints on pre-employment inquiries

GENETIC SCREENING

Done to screen out people who are susceptible to certain diseases (e.g., sickle cell anemia) due to exposure to toxic substances at work

Genetic screening is not widespread, companies such as Du Pont and Dow Chemical experimented with it to protect their employees

Court decisions have ruled that genetic screening is prohibited under the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)

genetic testing is permissible only when consent has been granted by the applicant or when test results directly bear on an applicant’s ability to perform the job

INITIAL INTERVIEW

Characteristics

Begins process of necessary differentiation

Purpose – Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatches

Limitation – Most expensive method of initial assessment

Video and Computer Interviews

Offers cost savings

EVALUATION OF INITIAL INTERVIEW

Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulness Guidelines to enhance usefulness

Ask questions assessing most basic KSAOs Stick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questions Keep interviews brief Ask same questions of all applicants

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

In what ways are the following three initial assessment methods similar and in what ways are they different: application blanks, biographical information, and reference and background checks?

Describe the criteria by which initial assessment methods are evaluated. Are some of these criteria more important than others?

Some methods of initial assessment appear to be more useful than others. If you were starting your own business, which initial assessment methods would you use and why?

LEGAL ISSUES

Disclaimers – Organization clearly identifies rights it wants to maintain

Employment-at-Will Verification Consent False Statement Warning

Reference Checks Pre-Employment Inquiries

Federal Laws and Regulations

EEOC Guide to Pre-employment Inquiries ADA regulations State laws and regulations

LEGAL ISSUES

Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications – BFOQs

Discrimination based on sex, religion, or national origin, but not race or color, is permitted if it can be shown to be a BFOQ “reasonably necessary to the normal operation” of the business

Note: Race cannot be a…

BFOQ (bona fide occupational qualification) – USA BFOR (bona fide occupational requirement) – Canada GOQ (genuine occupational qualification) – UK

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

How can organizations avoid legal difficulties in the use of pre-employment inquiries in initial selection decisions?

B R E A K

B R E A K 4-27

OVERVIEW OF PERSONALITY TESTS

Current Role of Personality Tests e.g. Role of Big

Five

Describe behavioral, not emotional or cognitive traits May capture up to 75% of an individual’s personality Big Five factors (Personality Characteristics Inventory etc.)

Emotional Stability – calm, optimistic, and well adjusted Extraversion – sociable, assertive, active, upbeat, and talkative Openness to Experience - imaginative, attentive to inner feelings, have intellectual curiosity and independence of judgment Agreeableness – altruistic, trusting, sympathetic, and cooperative Conscientiousness – purposeful, determined, dependable, and attentive to detail

Roughly 50% of the variance in the Big Five traits appears to be inherited

MEASURES OF PERSONALITY TESTS

Surveys

Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) NEO Personality Inventory Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI)

Administration Options

Paper-and-Pencil Interviews Online Forms

EX. 9.1 – SAMPLE ITEMS FROM THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS INVENTORY

Conscientiousness

I can always be counted on to get the job done.

I am a very persistent worker.

I almost always plan things in advance of work.

Extraversion

Meeting new people is enjoyable to me.

I like to stir up excitement if things get boring.

9-30

EX. 9.1 – SAMPLE ITEMS FROM THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS INVENTORY

Agreeableness

I like to help others who are down on their luck. I usually see the good side of people. I forgive others easily.

Emotional Stability/Neuroticism

I can become annoyed at people quite easily (reverse- scored).

At times I don’t care about much of anything (reverse- scored).

My feelings tend to be easily hurt (reverse-scored).

Openness to Experience

I like to work with difficult concepts and ideas. I enjoy trying new and different things. I tend to enjoy art, music, or literature.

EX. 9.2 – IMPLICATIONS OF BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS AT WORK

EX. 9.2 – IMPLICATIONS OF BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS AT WORK 9-32

9-32

CRITICISMS OF PERSONALITY TESTS

Trivial Validities

Correlations for any individual trait with job performance are typically low (around r=.23)

However, when all traits are used simultaneously, correlations are higher

Faking

Individuals answer in a dishonest way

However, tests still have some validity, and it may be that being able to “act” conscientiously may be related to real job performance

Negative Applicant Reactions

Applicants, in general, believe personality tests are less valid predictors of job performance

EXH. 9.3 – THE CORE SELF-EVALUATIONS SCALE

EXH. 9.3 – THE CORE SELF-EVALUATIONS SCALE 9-34

OVERVIEW OF ABILITY TESTS

Definition – Measures that assess an individual’s capacity to function in a certain way

15 to 20% of organizations use ability tests in selection

Two types

Aptitude – Assess innate capacity to function Achievement – Assess learned capacity to function

OVERVIEW OF ABILITY TESTS

Four Classes of Ability Tests

Cognitive: perception, memory, reasoning, verbal, math, expression Psychomotor: thought/body movement coordination Physical: strength, endurance, movement quality Sensory/Perceptual: detection & recognition of stimuli

EXH. 9.4 –

SAMPLE COGNITIVE ABILITY TEST ITEMS

EXH. 9.4 – SAMPLE COGNITIVE ABILITY TEST ITEMS 9-37

OTHER TYPES OF ABILITY TESTS

Psychomotor Ability Tests

Reaction time, arm-hand steadiness, control precision, and manual and digit dexterity

Physical Abilities Tests

Muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, and movement quality

Sensory/Perceptual Abilities Tests

Ability to detect and recognize environmental stimuli

Note: Increasingly, ability tests are being computer administered

EMOTIONAL

INTELLIGENCE

The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action

Self-Awareness: Good at recognizing and understanding one’s own emotions

Other Awareness: Good at recognizing and understanding others’ emotions

Emotion Regulation: Good at making use of or managing this awareness

PERFORMANCE TESTS AND WORK SAMPLES

Definition – Assess Actual Performance

(e.g., fix a car, teach a class, type a document) Types of Tests (should focus on relevant KSAOs)

Performance Test vs. Work Sample (all or some) Motor vs Verbal Work Samples (action or thought) High- vs. Low-Fidelity Tests (level of realism)

Computer Interaction Performance Tests vs. Paper-and-Pencil Tests including Simulations (e.g., The Manager’s Workshop)

All the above can have good validity (.50+) & acceptance

SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TESTS

Place applicants in hypothetical, job-related situations.

Applicants are then asked to choose a course of action from several alternatives

Capture the validity of work samples and cognitive ability tests in a way that is cheaper than work samples and that has less adverse impact than cognitive ability tests

EX. 9.7 –

EXAMPLE OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TEST ITEM

EX. 9.7 – EXAMPLE OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TEST ITEM 9-42
EX. 9.7 – EXAMPLE OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TEST ITEM 9-42

INTEGRITY TESTS

Two Types (Exhibit 9.9)

Clear Purpose

/ Overt

Do you think most people would cheat if they thought they could get away with it?

Do you believe a person has a right to steal from an employer if he or she is unfairly treated?

Personality-based/veiled purpose

Would you rather go to a party than read a newspaper?

How often do you blush?

Scores appear to reflect conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability

INTEREST, VALUES, AND PREFERENCE INVENTORIES

Assess activities individuals prefer to do on & off the job; do not attempt to assess ability to do these

Not often used in selection Can be useful for self-selection into job types Types of Tests

Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB)

Myers-Briggs Type

Evaluation

Inventory (MBTI)

Unlikely to predict job performance directly May help assess person-organization fit & subsequent job satisfaction, commitment & turnover

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

Describe the similarities and differences

between personality tests and integrity tests.

When is each warranted in the selection

process?

How would you advise an organization

considering adopting a cognitive ability test for

selection?

TYPICAL UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

Relatively unplanned and “quick and dirty” Questions based on interviewer “hunches” or “pet questions” to assess applicants Casual, open-ended, or subjective questions Often contains obtuse questions Often contains highly speculative questions Interviewer often unprepared More potential for discrimination and bias Validity typically r=.20

STRUCTURED

INTERVIEWS

Questions based on job analysis Same questions asked of each candidate Response to each question numerically evaluated Detailed anchored rating scales used to score each response Detailed notes taken, focusing on interviewees’ behaviors Validity may be r=.30 or better Surprisingly uncommon in organizations

STRUCTURED

INTERVIEWS (CONTINUED)

Situational – Assess applicant’s ability to project his / her behaviors to future situations. Assumes the person’s goals/intentions will predict future behavior

Experience-based – Assess past behaviors that are linked to prospective job. Assumes past performance will predict future performance

Research is inconclusive regarding which type is best Individual interviews usually more valid than panel interviews

CONSTRUCTING A STRUCTURED INTERVIEW

Consult Job Requirements Matrix Develop the Selection Plan

Exh. 9.10 – Partial Selection Plan for Job of Retail Store Sales Associate

Develop Structured Interview Plan

Exh. 9.11 – Structured Interview Questions, Benchmark Responses, Rating Scale, and Question Weights

Select and Train Interviewers Evaluate Effectiveness

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

Describe the structured interview. What are

the characteristics of structured interviews

that improve on the shortcomings of

unstructured interviews?

SELECTION FOR TEAM ENVIRONMENTS

Types of Teams

Problem-Solving Teams Self-Managed Work Teams Cross-Functional Teams Virtual Teams

Establish steps for selection in team- based environments Who should make the hiring decision? Critical to ensure proper context is in place

SELECTION FOR TEAM ENVIRONMENTS

Interpersonal KSAs

Conflict-Resolution KSAs

Collaborative Problem- Solving KSAs

Communication KSAs

Self-Management KSAs

Goal-Setting and Performance Management KSAs

Planning and Task-Coordination KSAs

EXH. 9.14 – EVALUATION OF SUBSTANTIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS

EXH. 9.14 – EVALUATION OF SUBSTANTIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS 9-53

DISCRETIONARY ASSESSMENT METHODS

Used to separate people who receive job offers from list of finalists (assumes each finalist is considered fully qualified for position)

Often very subjective, relying heavily on intuition of decision maker

Factors other than KSAOs are evaluated Assess person/organization match Assess motivation level Assess people on relevant organizational citizenship behaviors

Should involve organization’s staffing philosophy regarding EEO/AA commitments

CONTINGENT ASSESSMENT METHODS

“We offer you this job contingent upon ….”

Contingent methods not always used

Depends on nature of job and legal mandates

Might involve confirmation of

Drug Test Results

Medical Exam Results

DRUG TESTING

The average drug user

was 3.6 times more likely to be involved in an accident

received 3 times the average level of sick benefits

was 5 times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claim

missed 10 times as many work days as nonusers

31% of all fatal truck accidents were due to alcohol or drugs

Drug testing has decreased in recent years because so few people test positive

FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE DRUG TESTING PROGRAM

Emphasize drug testing in safety- sensitive jobs

Use only reputable testing laboratories, and ensure that strict chain of custody is maintained.

Ask applicants for their consent, and inform them of test results

Use retesting to validate positive samples from the initial screening test

Ensure that proper procedures are followed to maintain the applicant’s right to privacy

Review the program and validate the results against relevant criteria (accidents, absenteeism, turnover, job performance); conduct a cost-benefit analysis

MEDICAL EXAMS

Identify potential health risks in job candidates

Must ensure medical exams are required only when a

compelling reason exists

Ensures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened out

Use is strictly regulated by ADA to ensure disabilities

not job related are not screened out

Usually lack validity as procedures vary by doctor

Not always job related

Often emphasize short- rather than long-term health

New job-related medical standards are specific, job

related, and valid

DISCUSSION

QUESTIONS

What are the most common discretionary and

contingent assessment methods? What are

the similarities and differences between the

use of these two methods?

MEDICAL EXAMS

Identifies potential health risks in job candidates

Important to ensure medical exams are required only when a compelling reason exists

Ensures people with disabilities unrelated to job performance are not screened out

Use is strictly regulated by ADA Lack validity as procedures vary by doctor Not always job related Often emphasizes short- rather than long-term health New approach -- Job-related medical standards