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Early Western European


1865-1914 The Triumph of Industry

Chapter 8: 1890-1920 The Progressive Era

Section 1: The Drive for Reform

1865-1914 Eastern Immigration and

1890-1920 The Progressive Era
1890-1917 An Emerging World Power
1914-1920 World War I and Beyond
1919-1929 The Twenties
1928-1932 The Great Depression
1932-1941 The New Deal
1931-1942 The Coming War
1941-1945 World War II
1945-1960 The Cold War
1945-1960 Postwar Confidence and
1945-1975 The Civil Rights Movement
1960-1968 The Kennedy and Johnson
1954-1975 The Vietnam Era

Reporting Standard: Historical Knowledge

Learning Target: I can analyze ideas critical to the understanding of
history, including, but not limited toprogressivism
Content Objective(s):
analyze the role journalists played in the Progressive Movement
and explain what Progressives achieved through political reform.
evaluate the tactics women used to force passage of the Nineteen
Reporting Standard: Social Science Analysis
Learning Target: I can examine and evaluate the origins of
fundamental political debates and how conflict, compromise, and
cooperation have shaped national unity and diversity in world, U.S., and
Oregon history.
Content Objective(s):
examine the strategies used by members of other minority groups
to defend their rights.
analyze how President Theodore Roosevelt changed the
governments role in the economy and compare and contrast his
administrative policies with Presidents Taft and Wilson.

What were some lasting effects of Social Progressivism?

Living conditions
Immigrants gain access to
child care and English
Municipal governments are
pressured to improve
sanitation and tenement
Minority groups organize to
fight discrimination
Immigrants Americanize

Working conditions
City and state laws improve
workplace safety
Workers Compensation Laws
provide a safety net to workers
injured at the workplace
Laws limit workday hours (for
Adoption of minimum wage laws

Strike funds form to help

workers demand safe working
Laws regulate safety of foods
and medicine
Minority job seekers gain access
to more and more jobs equal
hiring practices

State and Federal laws
ban child labor,
Supreme Court
overturns ban (child
labor does not end until
the Great Depression of
the 1930s)
laws require children to
attend school
Poor children gain
access to nursery
schools and

What areas did Progressives think were in need of greatest reform?

What did President Roosevelt think government should do for citizens?

How did women of the Progressive Era make progress and win the right to vote?

What steps did minorities take to combat social problems and discrimination?

What steps did Wilson take to increase the governments role in the economy?

CHAPTER 8: Section 1 The Drive to Reform

1. What did citizens involved in this new social movement
called Progressivism believe?

5. What was the Social Gospel and what did Protestant

followers push the federal government to do?

Progressives believed that new ideas and

honest, efficient government could bring
about social justice.

The Social Gospel is a blend of German

Socialism and American Progressivism that
relies on Christianity. They wanted to end
child labor and shorten the work week.

2. What groups comprised or made up the Progressive

Movement which emerged in the 1890s?

6. Who was John Dewey and why was he critical of

American schools?
John Dewey was one of

The Progressives were made up of political

parties, social classes, ethnic groups, and
religions. They came mostly from the middle class
but were joined by industrial workers; also, a few
wealthy Americans joined for the good of society.
3. What were Political Machines and why did Progressive
target them specifically to get rid of them?

Political Machines were corrupt

organizations ran by city officials of
Bosses, that used bribery and violence to
influence voters. They kept public money
for themselves.
4. Who coined the term Muckraker. Where did he get the
term? And what does muckraker as a Progressive term

Theodore Roosevelt used the term to

describe people that liked to see the
ugliest side of things all the time. It is a
tool used to clean animal stable. The
progressive Muckrakers were investigative
journalists and writers that exposed social
problems, corrupt government

Americas foremost educators and education

philosophers. He felt that American schools
focused too much on memorization and less
creativity. He wanted new subjects in schools:
history, geography, cooking and carpentry.
7. What was the ultimate success of the progressive
cause as a result of the horrible tragic events of the
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire?

The government forced businesses to establish

workers compensation laws.
8. Why do you think that the progressives, specifically the
muckrakers, were so effective in bringing about reform?

The Progressive were so effective in bringing

about social, political and economic reform,
especially the muckrakers, because they were
able to distribute their message through the use
of sensational journalism and hundreds of
millions of Americans were able to read and hear
about their stories in newspapers, books and

CHAPTER 8: Section 2 Women Make Progress

1. How would voting help women change the conditions in
which they lived, worked, and tried to raise their families?
Voting would make an incredible difference in the lives of
women. No longer would they be controlled and dominated
by the men in their lives. They could vote for individuals and
for laws that supported their interests and views especially,
social issues involving, working and living conditions.
2. What were some traditional roles for women, historically,
especially when it comes to their obligations as wives
and mothers.

5. What was the significance of the Supreme Court case

Muller v. Oregon (1903)?

The case capped women working hours to ten

hours in that working longer harmed women and
their families. Ironically, it led to women being paid
less for the same job.
6. Briefly describe the efforts of Florence Kelley and the
formation of the National Consumers League (NCL).

Traditionally, women raised children, cooked

meals, cleaned homes, and cared for family

Florence Kelley believed that women were hurt by

unfair prices of goods they had to buy for their
homes. The League gave special labels to goods
and encouraged women to buy them and it
encourage the government to increase inspections.

3. How were women able to achieve their goals of

expanding their roles in the community?

7. Briefly describe the efforts of Florence Kelley and the

Womens Trade Union League (WTUL).

Women expanded their roles in the community

mainly through education. Armed with education
and modern ideas they tackled social problems and
through many organizations lead social reform.

Florence Kelley used the WTUL to improve the

working conditions of female factory workers. It
was ran by women of both the upper class and the
working class. They pushed the government to set
minimum wage, eight hr. work day, a strike fund.

4. What were some hardships faced by working woman at

the turn-of-the-century?

8. Who was Margaret Sanger and why was she so

controversial as a Progressive thinker?

Women working outside of the home faced difficult

jobs, long hours, dangerous conditions. They had
to give their wages to their husbands, fathers or
brothers. They had no education, no political
rights, and were cheated and bullied, exploited.

Sanger believed that womens lives would improve

if they had fewer children. She was 1 od 11. She
opened the first birth control clinic. Jailed several
times for it.

CHAPTER 8: Section 3 The Struggle Against Discrimination

1. Early on, what was an inherent contradiction within the
Progressive leadership when it came to treatment of

5. Who was Booker T. Washington and what were his

views on responding to discrimination? What
organization was he a main proponent of?

2. How did Americanization of immigrants lead Progressive

towards the policy of temperance and the outlawing of

6. Who was W.E.B. Dubois and what were his views on

responding to discrimination? What organization was
he a main proponent of?

The Progressives were mainly WASPs. They were

Washington felt that blacks should avoid
indifferent to minority causes if not hostile to them. confrontation with whites. He advocated for blacks
They wanted America to follow white, middle-class to get skilled and earn equality over time.
ways of life.

Many Progressives desired to Americanize

immigrants (make them loyal and moral) who had
come from countries with consumption of alcohol
as a norm. Progressives saw this as a moral fault.

3. How did whites use scientific theories against minorities?

What did they stop minorities from doing in the South?

Whites used scientific theories that claimed

minorities were less intelligent than whites.
Southern progressives used these theories to
justify laws that kept blacks from voting.
4. What did the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) page 185 allow states across the country to

States began to enforce segregation laws keeping

whites and blacks separate in schools,
communities, work, housing,

Dubois believed in confrontation and agitation. He

felt blacks should get an education and demand
equality and employment.
7. What groups would form the National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). What
was its purpose?

The NAACP formed in 1909 and

was comprised of white and black leaders. It
wanted to reform black causus including
education, employment, civil rights, voting and
equality in generaldecent housing and
8. What Leaguecareers
formed in 1913 in order to curb and
prohibit physical and verbal attacks, even false attacks
against someone for prejudice or discriminatory
purposes especially for being of a different religious
group or as a member of a different ethnic group?

The Anti-Defamation League

CHAPTER 8: Section 4 Roosevelts Square Deal

1. In general, how did Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt change
the Presidency of the United States?

5. What impact did Roosevelts actions have on the

governments role in regulating the Food and Drug
Industries? What was the significance the Meat
As a charismatic figure, Teddy was a real Progressive Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA)?

that wanted to change America and make it more

equal for everyone. He took on big business and
corruption. He strengthened the presidency and
ushered the office into the modern era.
2. How was Theodore Roosevelt chosen to be President
William McKinleys running-mate as vice-president?

TR was chosen by Republican leaders and big

business interests to get him out of New York and
the Governors office there because his
Progressive Reforms were hurting their business.
3. What did Roosevelt want his Square Deal program to

Teddy Roosevelt wanted his Square Deal program

to achieve a lot of things mainly to keep wealthy
and powerful businessmen and corporations from
taking advantage and ruining the small business
owners and the poor.
4. How did President Roosevelt intervene in the Coal Mine
Strike of 1902? What was the result?

Teddy threatened the owners with federal troops to

run the mines. He forced the owners to come to the
table and ultimately give in to the workers
demands with a pay raise, a nine-hour work day.

Both acts led to the formation of the Food and

Drug administration that allows the government
to monitor and regulate the production and
distribution of food and drugs into American
society and make them safe.
6. Who was John Muir and what were his views on the
environment? Compare and contrast Muirs views with
Gifford Pinchot?

John Muir believed that wild areas should be

totally preserved, untouched. Pinchot believed in
rational use and that the government should
maintain wild reserves for public use to the
benefit for all citizens.
7. What Law did Congress pass in 1902 to establish
governmental right to decide where and how water
would be distributed? What did the government
determine to build and maintain to enforce such
control over the nations water supply?

The National Reclamation Act to build dams and

create reservoirs, to generate power and direct
water flow.
8. How did William Howard Tafts policies compare with
Theodore Roosevelts? Why did Roosevelt and Taft
part ways? The Taft Administration busted

many more trusts, including Standard Oil. But

Taft began to give up on Teddys conservationist
policy that angered Teddy greatly.

CHAPTER 8: Section 5 Wilsons New Freedom

1. How did Democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson,
effectively win the Presidency in the Election of 1912?

Wilson became President in 1912 because of a

major split in the Republican Party between Teddy
Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.

5. Briefly describe the events of the Ludlow Massacre


The miners in Colorado wanted to form a union for

safer conditions, and higher pay. The owners
evicted the workers from their homes (a company
town) when they settled in a tent community the
National Guard was called in and fired on them,
killing 26 men, women and children. FAILED UNION

2. What was the name of the Wilsons Administrative policy

that would put more strict governmental control on
American businesses and corporations?

6. What three Progressive ideas, converted to law,

allowed for more voter participation, and voters
influence, at a local level?

New Freedom

The initiative, the referendum, and the recall

3. What kinds of regulations did the Wilson Administration

focus on? How did the Sixteenth Amendment, the Federal
Reserve Act and finally the Federal Trade Commission
(FTC) impact America?

7. Who was the last Progressive President during the

Progressive Era?

They all regulated the American economy and the

U. S. financial and banking system.

Woodrow Wilson

4. How did the Clayton Antitrust Act differ from any other
labor law in the United States?

8. What are some problems that still plague American

society that were attacked by the Progressives for
which they attempted to solve and fix for future
generations but call for our active participation, even
vigilance, today?

The Clayton Antitrust Act made it clear that labor

unions were not trusts and allowed for Workmans
Compensation laws.

Corrupt governmental officials, dishonest sellers

(fraudulent businesses), unfair employment
practices, problems in schools, cities, the
environment, public health through the people,
government can take action and help fix these
problems and more!