00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

6 vizualizări100 paginiMethodology used in Social Science and Management about Research Methodology by Prof P Veni, Andhra University.

Nov 16, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Methodology used in Social Science and Management about Research Methodology by Prof P Veni, Andhra University.

© All Rights Reserved

6 vizualizări

00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

Methodology used in Social Science and Management about Research Methodology by Prof P Veni, Andhra University.

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 100

Social Science

and

Management

Prof. P. Veni,

Dept. of Commerce & Management Studies,

Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

Research

Research is collection of information

to test new ideas or disprove old

ones.

In scientific terminology research is

an endeavour to discover facts by

scientific methods and is a course of

critical investigation.

An original investigation to the

existing stock of knowledge, making

for its advancement.

Research (Contd.)

Definition:

A research comprises of defining and

redefining problems, formulating

hypothesis (or) suggesting solutions,

collecting, organising and evaluating data,

making decisions and reaching conclusions

to decide whether they fit the formulating

hypothesis.

Clifford Woody

Nature of Study

Nature/Physical Science Research: Its the

search for knowledge in order to understand the

physical world.

Social Sciences Research: Its the search for

knowledge about individual human beings and

their societies.

Questioning for Growing Importance of Social

Research

Why does a society devote some of its resources to

this business of developing new knowledge about

the social words?

Or

What has motivated the social researchers to

devote their lives to developing the new

knowledge?

Reasons for Such Growing Importance of

Social Science Research

Desire to improve peoples lives.

Societys desire for economic development

Humanitys increasing control over our planet

and its environment.

Research

To enhance understanding of the society

and its functioning;

Provide input for policies, procedures of

socio-economic management and

development

Generate ideas and information that could

be used for teaching of various levels of

education

Growth of disciplined based and technique

oriented research.

1.Various Disciplines

2.Multidisciplinar

y

Behaviour

Science

Geography

History

Law

Linguistics

Psychology

Public

Administrati

on

Social Sciences

3.STEM

Sciences

(Natural/Life)

Commerce

Technology

Management Engineering

Anthropolog Mathematics

y

Economics

Sociology

Political

Studies

Social Work

Education

Demography

4.Humanities

History

Literature

Languages

Library

Studies

Social Sciences & Humanities

Law, Cultural Studies,

Library Sciences, education

Social Sciences & STEM

Geography Psychology,

Health Sciences,

STEM & Humanities (STEAM)

Architecture, Arts

Social Research

Social research examines a societys

attitudes, assumptions, beliefs,

trends, stratifications and rules

Social research is a systematic

method of exploring, analysing &

conceptualising human life in order

to extend, correct or verify

knowledge of human behaviour and

social life.

Science Research

Science: A science is often thought of as

being a coherent body of thought about a

topic over which theres a broad

consensus among its practitioners.

Scientific Research: A research is said to

be scientific, when it follows the two

primary functions

1. The development of theory

2. Testing of substantive hypothesis deducted

from the theory

Science Research (Contd.)

Scientific Research Involves

Use Theory

Modify Theory

Create Theory

Social science research attempts to create

or validate theories through data

collection, data analysis and its goal is

exploration, description and explanation.

Management

Anthropology - work on cultures and social

environments

Economics - concern about the allocation

and distribution of scarce resources

Philosophy - examines the nature of things

Political science - effect of political

environment on individuals and groups

Psychology - seeks to measure, explain, and

change human behavior

Sociology - studies people in relation to their

Areas:: Content Domains

Policy/Strategy

Organization Theory

Organization Behaviour

Human Resource Management

Marketing

Production & Operations Management

Finance

Sciences & Management Research

In any discipline, there will always be a number of underlying

philosophical predispositions in the projects of scientists.

Some of these predispositions involve the nature of social

knowledge itself, the nature of social reality, and the locus of

human control in action. As social scientists, we must

understand the three philosophical assumptions that

influence social research.

1. EPISTEMOLOGY

2. ONTOLOGY

3. METHODOLOGY

1. Epistemology

It concerns clarification of researchers beliefs

about how knowledge is created?

Views on Epistemology

Normative Approach (or) Positivism

Research creates knowledge by building on the

foundations of accepted and rationally defensible

theory

Research must set aside existing knowledge and create

new knowledge from internal coherence.

2. Ontology

It concerns about the nature of the world and

human beings in social contexts (Bryman., 2001)

Ontology assures that social phenomena can be

studied objectively apart from the people who

make it.

In cut-short

Different researchers may have different conclusions

from one study.

3. Methodology

Methodological assumptions focus on analysis of the

methods used for gathering research data.

(Louis Kohen, Lawrence Manion & Keith Morrision, 2001)

solve the research problem.

Researchers need to understand the

assumptions underlying various techniques,

procedures, and their applicability criteria.

3. Methodology (Contd.)

Research Methodology: Approaches

In social sciences research, the researchers commonly had two

basic approaches to conduct their respective research works.

They are:

1. Quantitative Approach

2. Qualitative Approach

Quantitative Approach:

The quantitative approach involves the generation of data in

quantitative form and which can be subjected to rigours

quantitative analysis ina formal and rigid fashion.

Observe & Interpret the Data

3. Methodology (Contd.)

Qualitative Approach:

The qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective

assessment of attitudes, opinions & behaviour.

Research in qualitative approach is a function of researchers insights &

impressions

Investigate into the data

Complexity in Communication of Research

The routes and mechanisms through which research is

communicated to places where it can make a difference are many and

varied. The ways in which the research is then used is also complex.

changes resulting the complexity in communication of

research

Research may directly influence the changes in policies, practices &

behaviour

(or)

Research, in a more subtle way changes peoples knowledge,

understanding and attitudes toward social issues.

Additional Problems

Who are research users?

(Where to look for research impacts)

(When to look for research impacts)

Was this a key factor to the changes observed?

(How to assess the specific contributions made by

the research)

Addressing the problems

Tracking forward from completed research works

to see where and how it is communicated and to

what effect

(OR)

Examining policy choices, organisational

management and professional practice to explore

how research is sought out and used in these

areas and to what effects

Both of the following kinds of researches are

used in decision making

Academic Research: The autonomous research

contributions by social scientists

In Addition to

Inferior Research: Researches sponsored by

govt. Agencies with specific objectives for

performance of policies and programmes

A Dichotomy

There exists a false dichotomy in between

these academic and inferior researches

Academic Research is not used for policy

making

Inferior research didnt come to work on

subjects and choose questions of direct

relevance.

Objectives of Research

Exploratory Research

To gain familiarity with a phenomena

To achieve new insights into it

Descriptive Research

To portray the characteristics of a particular situation

or group

Diagnostic Research

To determine the frequency with which it is associated

with something else, when something occurs.

To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between

variables under the study.

Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

In deductive research, the decisions are

derived and show general to the particular

i.e., some (or) particular inference is made

from general observation of earlier studies

The conclusion follows logically from

premises. Theory

Hypothesis

Observation

Confirmation

Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive research is just opp. of deductive

reasoning.

This research arrives at universal generalisations

from particular facts

Theory

The conclusions are likely

based on premises it

Hypothesis

involves a great

Pattern

degree of

uncertainty

Observation

Its concerned

with the establishment of material truth of universal

propositions

THEORY

DEDUCTIVE

REASONING

INDUCTIVE

REASONING

DATA

Reality: What we observe

Complexity of Social Data

Problems of Concepts

Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause

and effect:

Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena

Problem of maintaining objectivity

Unpredictability

Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences

Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method

Incapability of being dealt through empirical method

Problems of inter-disciplinary research

Methodology and Methods

Methodology is broader and envelops

methods:

Methodology => understanding the entire

research process, including its socialorganizational context, philosophical assumptions,

ethical principles and impact of new knowledge

we use in a study to select cases, measure and

observe social life, gather and analyze data and

report on results.

Triangulation

(McGrath, 1982)

According to McGraths words, it is not possible to do an

unflawed study. Any research method chosen will have inherent

flaws and the choice of that method will limit the conclusions that

can be drawn.

Its therefore, eventual to obtain corroborating evidence from

using variety of methods

Triangulationis a powerful technique that facilitates validation

of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In

particular, it refers to the application and combination of

severalresearchmethods in the study of the same phenomenon.

Triangulation (Contd.)

(McGrath, 1982)

Triangulation is an approach to research that

uses a combination of more than one research

strategy in a single investigation.

Triangulation can be a useful tool for qualitative

as well as quantitative researchers.

Used with care, it contributes to the

completeness and confirmation of findings

necessary in qualitative research investigations.

Types of

Triangulation

Data Triangulation

Time, space, person

Method Triangulation

Design

Data collection

Benefits of

Triangulation

Improves ability of

researchers to draw

conclusions for their

studies

Investigator Triangulation

Recommend their

Theory Triangulation

Multiple Triangulation

clarity & confidence.

by McGrath, 1982

Formal Theory

Sample Surveys

Lab Experiments

Judgement Tasks

Computer Simulations

Experimental Simulations

Field Studies

Field Experiments

Research Methodology:

Validity

Every research must successfully pass

through the following validities

Internal Validity

External Validity

Construct Validity

Statistical Conclusion Validity

Internal Validity

Internal validity of a research is concerned

about the causality.

A cause and effect relationship can only be

asserted if theres a true co-ordination

between the variables under investigation

Data collection procedures used to

demonstrate that the cause preceded the

effect and alternative explanations have

been discarded

External Validity

External validity refers to generalising

across times, settings and individuals.

External validity relies upon establishing

a true representation of the relationship

between two constructs and establishing

that the relationship is generalised to

different populations, measures and

circumstances

Construct Validity

Concerns how well the measures

employed fit the theories for which a test

is designed.

Researcher must test his research work

for measurement flaws.

Measures and manipulations must be

faithful representations of constructs in

order for valid inferences to be made.

Statistical conclusion validity refers to

ability to draw conclusions on the basis

of co-variation as well as prediction.

The application of the appropriate

statistical test or analytical procedure is

more important for statistical conclusion

validity, scince the underlying

assumptions may limit their

applicability.

Has it been explored? If so, by whom and how? If not,

why not?

Who are the stakeholder; who may it harm and/or

benefit and how?

Funding, politics and conflicts of interest.

What are the potential consequences of your work?

How can these risks be avoided, negotiated/ minimised

or justified?

Minimising risks and maximising data

generation

Ethics, validity and triangulation

Action research: data gathering vs.

intervention

If you are deciding to enter someone's 'space',

how are you going to achieve this?

When and where are you going to approach

them?

Again, are there risks involved, and if so, who

does the research place at risk, and how?

What boundaries exist and how can or should

they be overcome?

Do they in fact reveal something more

important?

Informed consent

Maintaining informed consent over time

Clarity and adequacy of explanation

Routines, spiels and scripts

Practicalities of fieldwork. How can you

accurately record information,

especially about social events?

Do your respondents know and approve

of what you have recorded?

Non response and room for silence (in

qualitative and quantitative research)

Storing data

Is your data sensitive?

Can it put people at risk if it falls into the

hands of certain people?

How are you going to protect your data,

your interests and the interests of your

informants?

findings

-Honesty with data and interpretation (biases,

convenient readings etc)

-Participative inquiry/analysis, source checking

-Presenting identities, personal or 'troubling'

information?

-Sharing your results or conclusions with

individuals or organisations?

findings

Ownership of data and publishing

Implications of research & interpretation

Research Methods

Research methods in social sciences are often

divided into two main types:

Quantitative Research

Methods

Qualitative Research

Methods

qualitative research

Source: Quoted from : Maginn, P.J. (2006) Urban Policy Analysis Through a Qualitative Lens: Overview to Special Issue, Urban Policy and Research, Vol 24(1) pp. 1

Franklin, A. (1986) Ethnography and housing studies, Housing Studies, 5(2), pp. 92111.

Punch, K. (1998) Introduction to Social Research (London: Sage).

Spencer, L., Ritchie, J., Lewis, J.& Dillon, L. (2003) Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: A Framework for Assessing Research Evidence,

Occasional Papers Series No. 2 (London: Government Chief Social Researchers Office).

Winchester, H. P. M. (2000) Qualitative research and its place in human geography, in: I. Hay (Ed.) Qualitative Research Methods

n Human Geography, pp. 122 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is the numerical

representation and manipulation of

observations for the purpose of describing

and explaining the phenomena that those

observations reflect. It is used in a wide

variety of natural and social sciences,

including physics, biology, psychology,

sociology and geology

Cohen (1980), quantitative research is

defined as social research that employs

empirical methods and empirical statements.

Quantitative research is rooted in the

positivistic approach to scientific inquiry

each part of a quantitative design is important

if any part is is deficient, the entire design is

weakened

one of the main purposes of quantitative

study is to detect casual relationships between

variables.

Answering Questions

Quantitative Research attempts to

answer questions by

ascribing importance (significance) to

numbers or sizes or reactions and results

Describe how descriptive, casual-comparative,

correctional, and experimental designs differ in

their power to reveal casual relationships

Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages

of the mean and the median

Interpret the meaning of the standard deviation in

relation to the normal curve

Describe how a test of statistical significance is used

to decide whether to reject or accept the null

hypothesis

methods?

The first is when we want a quantitative answer

Numerical change can likewise only accurately be

studied using quantitative methods.

Quantitative research is useful for conducting

audience segmentation.

Quantitative research is also useful to quantify

opinions, attitudes and behaviours and find out how

the whole population feels about a certain issue.

Quantitative research is suitable to explain some

phenomena.

Testing of hypotheses

Pros of Quantitative

Research?

Clear interpretations

Make sense of and organize

perceptions

Careful scrutiny (logical, sequential,

controlled)

Reduce researcher bias

Results may be understood by

individuals in other disciplines

Cons of Quantitative

Research?

Can not assist in understanding

issues in which basic variables have

not been identified or clarified

Only 1 or 2 questions can be studied

at a time, rather than the whole of an

event or experience

Complex issues (emotional response,

personal values, etc.) can not always

be reduced to numbers

Research

Surveys

Custom surveys

Mail/e-mail/Internet

surveys

Telephone surveys

Self-administered

questionnaire

surveys

Correlation

Trend analysis

Exploratory research

Descriptive research

Experimental

research

Analysis

Summarizing Data: variables; simple statistics; effect statistics and statistical models;

complex models.

Generalizing from Sample to Population: precision of estimate, confidence limits,

statistical significance, p value, errors.

Data are a bunch of values of one or more variables.

A variable is something that has different values.

Values can be numbers or names, depending on the variable:

Numeric, e.g. year of migration

Counting, e.g. number of natural disasters

Ordinal, e.g. distance of migration destination(values are numbers/names)

Nominal, e.g. sex or age (values are names)

Model/Test

Effect statistics

numeric

numeric

regression

numeric

nominal

T test, ANOVA

nominal

nominal

chi-square

nominal

numeric

categorical

mean difference

Measurement in quantitative research should fulfill

measuring?

they study. Data collected are free from bias.

results?

information?

Representations

Quantitative representations of our data

Can be:

Descriptive statistics summarize data.

Inferential statistics are tools that indicate how

much confidence we can have when we generalize

from a sample to a population.

Descriptive

objectives/

research questions:

Descriptive

statistics

Comparative

objectives/

hypotheses

Inferential

Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Can be applied to any measurements

(quantitative or qualitative)

data. Does not explain or interpret.

Descriptive Statistics

Number

Frequency Count

Percentage

Deciles and quartiles

Measures of Central

Tendency (Mean,

Midpoint, Mode)

Variability

Variance and

standard deviation

Graphs

Normal Curve

Inferential Statistics

Allows for comparisons across variables

i.e. is there a relation between ones

occupation and their reason for using the

public library?

Hypothesis Testing

Levels of significance

The level of significance is the

predetermined level at which a null

hypothesis is not supported. The most

common level is p < .05

P =probability

< = less than (> = more than)

Error Type

Type I error

Reject the null

hypothesis when it is

really true

Type II error

Fail to reject the null

hypothesis when it is

really false

Probability

By using inferential statistics to make

decisions, we can report the probability

that we have made a Type I error

(indicated by the p value we report)

By reporting the p value, we alert readers

to the odds that we were incorrect when

we decided to reject the null hypothesis

Particular Tests

Chi-square test of independence: two

variables (nominal and nominal,

nominal and ordinal, or ordinal and

ordinal)

Affected by number of cells, number of cases

2-tailed distribution= null hypothesis

1-tailed distribution= directional hypothesis

Cramers V, Phi

Correlationthe extent to which two variables

are related across a group of subjects

Pearson r

-1.00 is a perfect inverse relationshipthe strongest

possible inverse relationship

0.00 indicates the complete absence of a relationship

1.00 is a perfect positive relationshipthe strongest

possible direct relationship

The closer a value is to 0.00, the weaker the relationship

The closer a value is to -1.00 or +1.00, the stronger it is

Spearman rho

More tests

t-test

Test the difference between two sample means for

significance

pretest to posttest

Relates to research design

Perhaps used for information literacy instruction

Analysis of variance

Regression analysis (including step-wise

regression)

More tests

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests the

difference(s) among two or more means

It can be used to test the difference between

two means

So use t-test or ANOVA?

KEY: ANOVA also can be used to test the

difference among more than two means in a

single testwhich cannot be done with a t test

More tests

While correlation and regression both indicate

association between variables, correlation

studies assess the strength of that association

Regression analysis, which examines the

association from a different perspective, yields

an equation that uses one variable to explain

the variation in another variable.

Regression is used to predict the value of one

variable by knowing the value of another

variable

to evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis

about a population

NULL Hypothesis:

NULL (nullus - latin): not any no

differences between means

H0 : m1 = m2

Always testing the null hypothesis

H- Naught

evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis

about a population

Hypothesis: Scientific or alternative

hypothesis

Predicts that there are differences

between the groups

H1 : m1 = m2

H- One

Testing of Hypothesis

S c ie n t i f ic k n o w le d g e

R e a s o n a n d i n t u it io n

Formulate

hypotheses

E m p ir i c a l o b s e r v a t io n

Collect data to

test

hypotheses

Systematic error

Formulate

hypotheses

Collect data to

test hypotheses

CHANCE

Accept hypothesis

Reject hypothesis

or by confidence interval

Testing of hypotheses

Null hypothesis H0 -

there is no difference

the investigator

Types of Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis:

Denoted with (H0 )

This a statement or pressumption which a researcher

is going to consider it in the research and disprove it.

Its a statement written in a negative or opposite

manner to the alternative hypothesis ( H1)

Now a days, this null hypothesis is being coined in

either of the ways i.e., negative or positive

But, when we consider the null hypothesis being

accepted, in research studies, misleads the actual

intentions of the researchers.

Alternate Hypothesis:

Denoted with (H1 )

Also known as Research Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis is an assumption

which is not null.

Its the assumption in the mind and in

words of researcher, which is going to be

happen or result out or found out in his/her

research.

For any quantitative research work, in

order to test hypothesis, the following

five steps must be adopted without fail.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Formulate Hypothesis

Fix Level of Significance ()

Calculate Test Statistic

Note Down the Critical Value

Compare the Calculated Test Statistic with

Standard Critical Value and Make Decision

1. Formulate Hypothesis

Frame null and alternate hypothesis for

your research work

Points to consider while framing research

hypothesis

Predictive Statement

Clear, Precise, Simple Terms,

Limited Scope, Capable of Being Tested,

Consistent With Facts, Reasonable Time Frame

Relationship With Variables

2. Level of Significance ()

Denoted by (Alpha; Greek Alphabet)

the probability of rejecting the null

hypothesis in a statistical test when it is true

aka significance level

For example, a significance level of 0.05

indicates a 5% risk of concluding that a

difference exists when there is no actual

difference.

The significance

level

determines how

far out from the

null hypothesis

value we'll draw

that line on the

graph. To graph

a significance

level of 0.05,

we need to

shade the 5% of

the distribution

that is furthest

away from the

null hypothesis.

how to graph the result of

hypothesis testing and Decision

Making

3. Test Statistic

Every member of the

population has the

same chance of being

selected in the sample

Population

estimation

Random sample

Atest statisticis a standardized value that is calculated

from sample data during a hypothesistest. You can

usetest statisticsto determine whether to reject the

null hypothesis. Thetest statisticcompares your data

with what is expected under the null hypothesis.

The test statistic compares your data with what is

expected under the null hypothesis. The test statistic is

used to calculate the p-value.

A test statistic measures the degree of agreement

between a sample of data and the null hypothesis. Its

observed value changes randomly from one random

sample to a different sample.

A test statistic contains information about the data that

is relevant for deciding whether to reject the null

hypothesis.

The sampling distribution of the test statistic under the

null hypothesis is called the null distribution.

When the data show strong evidence against the

assumptions in the null hypothesis, the magnitude of

the test statistic becomes too large or too small

depending on the alternative hypothesis.

This causes the test's p-value to become small enough

to reject the null hypothesis.

Test Statistic =

Parameter)

Standard Error

4. Critical Value

In hypothesis testing, acritical

valueis a point on the test

distribution that is compared to the

test statistic to determine whether to

reject the null hypothesis. If the

absolutevalueof your test statistic

is greater than the critical value,

you can declare statistical

significance and reject the null

hypothesis.

The critical value approach involves determining

"likely" or "unlikely" by determining whether or

not the observed test statistic is more extreme than

would be expected if the null hypothesis were true.

That is, it entails comparing the observed test

statistic to some cut-off value, called the "critical

value." If the test statistic is more extreme than the

critical value, then the null hypothesis is rejected

in favour of the alternative hypothesis. If the test

statistic is not as extreme as the critical value, then

the null hypothesis is not rejected.

Two-Tailed Curve

5. Decision Making

In hypothesis testing, there are two

ways to determine whether there is

enough evidence from the sample to

reject H0or to fail to reject H0. The

most common way is to compare the

p-value with a pre-specified value of

, where is the probability of

rejecting H0when H0is true.

However, you can also compare the

calculated value of the test statistic

Critical Value Approach

2. Plot the calculated test statistic value on the same graph.

3. If the calculated test statistic value falls in critical region, we use to

reject the null hypothesis, or vice-versa.

P-Value Approach

90

2.5%

80

95%

2.5%

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

23.8

28.8

33.8

38.8

43.8

48.8

53.8

58.8

AGE

If our observed age value lies outside the green lines, the probability of getting a value

as extreme as this if the null hypothesis is true is < 5%

P-Value Approach

p-value = probability of observing a value more

extreme that actual value observed, if the null

hypothesis is true

The smaller the p-value, the more unlikely the null

hypothesis seems an explanation for the data

Interpretation for the example

If results falls outside green lines, p<0.05,

if it falls inside green lines, p>0.05

No study is perfect, there is always the chance for error

- level of significance

PRODUCERS RISK

CONSUMERS Risk

(Contd.)

=0.05

termed "significant" could occur by chance

alone

altering the level of significance.

the risk of a Type II error will be increased

(Contd.)

The probability of making a Type II () can be

decreased by increasing the level of significance.

it will increase the chance of a Type I error

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.