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Projection Welding

Projection Welding
Lesson Objectives
When you finish this lesson you will
understand:
The advantages and limitation of
projection welding
Projection design for various
thickness materials
Typical Applications of the process

Learning Activities
1. View Slides;
2. Read Notes,
3. Listen to lecture
4. Do on-line
workbook

Keywords
Projection Welding, Projection Design, Thin Material
Projections, Thick Material Projections

Introduction to Projection
Welding

(a)

(b)

(c)

[Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.566, AWS]

(d)

Examples of Various Projection


Designs
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

[Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.562, AWS]

Examples of Various Projection


Designs (CONT.)

(f)

(g)

(i)

(h)

(j)

[Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.562, AWS]

Considerations for Various Materials

Mild and HSLA Steels:

Both are considered readily projection weldable.


Both can adequately retain projection welding shape until adequate heating
has occurred and are weldable using either embossed or solid projections.
The HSLA steels may, depending on the particular composition, suffer an
array of metallurgical problems.

Galvanized Steels:
Projection welding can offer some major advantages in resistance welding
galvanized steel.
The relatively low contact resistance is a major concern.
The use of a projection can put contact resistance back into the welding
circuit directly at the faying surface. This, in turn, results in lower welding
currents and possibly better electrode-life characteristics as compared to
resistance spot welding.

Considerations for Various Materials


(CONT.)
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys:
They are considered not projection weldable.
Most aluminum alloys are of too low a strength to allow the projection to
survive under the necessary welding forces.
The oxide formed appears to prevent the solid-state bond necessary to
form the type of joint.

High Alloy Steels:


Projection welding is also quite readily applicable to the higher alloy
steels.
The major concern here is material hardenability. Adequate precautions
must be taken to prevent the development of brittle microstructures.

Considerations for Various Materials


(CONT.)
Copper Alloys:
Projection welding has definite implied advantages for resistance
welding copper and its alloys. Just as for the galvanized steels, the
weld circuit resistance can be localized at the faying surface.
Effective projection welding is largely a function of the specific copper
alloy used.
With respect to embossed projection welding, the suitability for
welding appears to vary with the material strength level.
Higher-strength copper alloys are relatively projection weldable.
However, lower-strength alloys appear to have difficulty retaining
projection shape under the applied welding force.
Most copper alloys appear to be weldable with one or more forms of
solid projection welding

Advantages of Projection
Welding
Ease of obtaining satisfactory heat balance for welding
difficult combinations
More uniform results in many applications
Increased output per machine because several welds are
being made simultaneously
Longer electrode life

Advantages of Projection
Welding (CONT.)
Welds may be placed more closely together
Parts are more easily welded in an assembly fixture
Finish, or surface appearance, is often improved
Parts may be projection welded that could not be
otherwise resistance welded

Limitations of Projection
Welding

Requires an additional operation to form projections

Requires accurate control of projection height and


precise alignment of the welding dies with multiple
welds

Requires thickness limitation for sheet metals

Requires higher capacity equipment than spot


welding

Requirements for A Projection in


Sheet Material

Rigid enough to support the initial weld force before current is


applied.
Sufficient mass to raise a spot or weld nugget in the plane
surface to welding temperature. If it is too small it will
collapse before the other surface is heated.
Collapse without extruding between the parts.
Surfaces should be in intimate contact after welding.
Not be partially sheared. Such projections are weak, tear out
easily and are of low shear strength.
Easy to form, so that the punch and die require little
maintenance.
Cause minimal distortion of the part during forming.

Basic Projection Design in Steel


Sheet
Punch
Spherical
Radius

Die

T
H
Projection
D
Wall
Thickness Should
Be at Least 70%
of Sheet Thickness

15
B
Projection Should Blend
into Stock Surface without
Shouldering

Point Radius
R

[Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.563, AWS]

45

Bubble - Button Type Projections


(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

<T

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.3-3, RWMA]

Projections for 0.500-in & 0.250in Stock


120
60
0.15

0.52

45
0.094

0.50

90
0.45

0.25

When the thickness is greater than 0.125-in, the projection will not be
completely forged back

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.3-4, RWMA]

Embossed Annular Projection

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.3-5, RWMA]

Punch & Die Dimensions for


Spherical Dome Projections

[Reference: Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.563, AWS]

Projection Types for Sheet and


Solid Applications

Spherical Projections

Elongated Projections
[Reference: Metals Handbook, Volume 6 (Welding, Brazing and
Soldering), p.503-524, ASM]

Projection Types for Sheet and


Solid Applications (CONT.)

Annular Projections

Pyramidal Projections

Annular Projection on
Pin-and-Tenon Joint

Cross-Wire Weld

[Reference: Metals Handbook, Volume 6 (Welding, Brazing and


Soldering), p.503-524, ASM]

Projection Welded Front Axle and


Radiator Support for Tractors

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.3-4, RWMA]