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THE STATES

OF MATTER

THE STATES OF
MATTER
Substances consist of atoms , ions or molecules.
-Atom: is the smallest part of matter that retains the physical and
chemical qualities of an element.
-Ions: When an atom loses or gains electrons , charged particles
called ions are formed.
-Molecules: Two or more atoms can be combined together to form
a molecule.

ATTRACTION FORCES
They are the forces that hold together the particles of the
same substance and are also known as cohesive forces.

REPULSION FORCES
Those that occurs as a result of the kinetic energy
possessed the particles and kept in constant motion.

States of matter represent how the particles of matter are


grouped and are the result of the relationship between the
forces of attraction and repulsion forces present between the
constituent particles of a material

SOLID STATE
Features: - Intermolecular attraction forces very strong.
- Organized Structure.
- Defined volume.
- Are incompressible.
- Intermolecular spaces are minimal.

LIQUID STATE
-The particles have less cohesion forces compared to the
solids.
- They have a balance between the forces of repulsion and
attraction forces.
- Consistent and defined volume.
-

Take the shape of their container.


Are incompressible.
Superficial Tension.

GAS STATE
-

Attraction forces are minimal.


Have a lot of kinetic energy, expansibility.
High compressibility.
High miscibility.
Have not shape and defined volume .

PLASMA STATE
-

State acquired by the gases when heated to temperatures


of around 10,000 degrees Celsius.

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSED
STATE
-

Occur in certain materials at temperatures near absolute


zero (0 K)

CHANGING STATES OF
MATTER

1. Solidification: change from liquid to solid state


2. Vaporization: passage from liquid to gaseous by
increasing the temperature.
3. Condensation is the transition from gaseous to liquid state
by decreasing temperature or increased pressure.
4. Fusion: the change from solid to liquico state by state
temperature increase.
5. Sublimation: direct change from solid to gaseous state
without passing through the liquid when it happens
otherwise called reverse sublimation.

GASES

CHARACTERISTICS OF GASES
-

25 C and 1atm have not shape and defined volume.


Solubility: The ability of a substance dissolved in a given
medium.

THE PRESSURE AND THE SOLUBILITY OF GASES.


- Henry's Law:
C=k*P
C= Solubility of a gas.
k= constant, depend of the gas.
P= pressure of the gas to be dissolved

MOLECULAR KINETIC THEORY


1. Gases are formed by particles moving in a straight line and
random. Thermal Agitation.
2. The volume of the gas molecules is minimal compared to the
total volume.
3. Temperature increase, thermal agitation too.
4. When the volume is reduced, collisions against the vessel
walls are more frequent and increases the pressure.
5. Constant movement.
6. Attraction forces are weak.
7. Elastic collision.
8. The average kinetic energy of the particles of a gas is
proportional to the absolute temperature.

THEIDEAL AND REALGASES

Ideal gases are those that conform to the statements of the kinetic - molecular
theory.
Real gases are gases at low pressures and high temperatures have an
almost ideal behavior

GAS LAWS
Physical Characteristics
Volume, V

Typical Units
liters (L)

Pressure, P

atmosphere
(1 atm = 1.015x105 N/m2)

Temperature, T

Kelvin (K)

Number of atoms or
molecules, n

mole (1 mol = 6.022x1023


atoms or molecules)

BOYLE-MARIOTTE LAW
ISOTHERMAL PROCESS
Pressure and volume are inversely related at constant
temperature .
PV = K
As one goes up, the other goes down. pressure and volume
are inversely proportional.
P1V1 = P2V2

CHARLES LAW
ISOBARIC PROCESS
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature expressed in Kelvin , when the pressure
remains constant .
V = KT
K= proportionality constant

GAY-LUSSAC LAW

ISOCHORIC
A gas pressure is directly proportional to its temperature if
the volume remains constant.

K= proportionality constant.

COMBINED GAS LAW

Combination of Boyle and Charles Law.


For a mass of any gas , it holds that the product of pressure with
the volume, divided between the value of the temperature is a
constant.

K= proportionality constant.

DALTONS LAW

The total pressure in a container is the sum of the


pressure each gas would exert if it were alone in the
container.

The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.

PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 ...+ Pn

= molar fraction

AVOGADROS LAW
A constant pressure and temperature, the same amount of
particles of an element have the same volume.
The volume (V) is directly proportional to the amount of
gas particles (n) It is independent of the chemical element
forming gas.

Therefore:

GENERAL GAS LAW OR


EQUATION OF STATE
Related variables of pressure, temperature, volume and mass
(number of moles).
Ideal gases possess the following properties:
Gas molecules moving at high speeds but linearly disordered

The speed of the gas molecules is proportional to its absolute


temperature

Gas molecules exert pressure on the walls of the containing


vessel

Clashes between gas molecules are elastic so they do not


lose kinetic energy

The attraction / repulsion between the gas molecules is


negligible

R= UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT


V=22,4 L
P= 1 atm
n= 1 mol
T= 273,15 K (0C)


GRAHAMLAWS
Diffusion - The rate at which two gases mix.
Effusion - The rate at which a gas escapes
through a pinhole into a vacuum. Related with
Kinetic Energy.

1)

and : Rate diffusion of gas.


and

2)
and : Rate diffusion of gas.
and