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Dancing Game

Singing Game

TERESA O. LOTEREA
MAED-FILIPINO

Threats to Internal
Validity in
Correlational Research

Jamaica C. Olazo
https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Threats to Internal Validity


- Comprise our confidence in
saying that a relationship
exists between the
independent and dependent
variable.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

What do Correlation Coefficients Tell Us?

The meaning of
a given
correlation
coefficient
depends on how
it is applied.
-

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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Correlation
- The relationship between
things that happen or
change together.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Coefficient

-Any of the factors of a product


considered in relation to a
specific factor; especially a
constant factor of a term as
distinguish from a variable.
Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Correlation Coefficient

- A number or function that indicates


the degree of correlation between two
sets of data or between two random
variables and that is equal to their
covariance divided by the product of
their standard deviation.

Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Correlation coefficients
are used to check the
reliability and validity of
score obtained from tests
and other instruments
used in research
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

When used, they


are called
reliability and
validity
coefficients.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Coefficient
should be at
least .70 or
higher to check
the reliability of
scores.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

When used to check


the validity of
scores, the
coefficient should
be at least .50 and
higher.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Threats to Internal
Validity in
Correlational Research

Jamaica C. Olazo
https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Subject Characteristics
When two or more characteristics
of individuals are correlated,
there exists the possibility that
yet other characteristics can
explain any relationships that are
found. In such cases, the other
characteristics can be controlled
through a statistical technique
known as partial correlation.
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LOCATION
-a location threat is possible
whenever all instruments
are administered to each
subject at a specified
location but the location is
different for different
subjects.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

INSTRUMENTATION

Data Collector Bias

Instrument Decay

Data Collector Characteristics


Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

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INSTRUMENTATION

Instrument
Decay

Instrument decay may


occur if any study
used a particular
instrument many
times.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

INSTRUMENTATION

Data
Collector
Characteristics

Characteristics of data
collectors can create a
threat if different
persons administer both
instruments.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

INSTRUMENTATION
Data Collector
Bias

-this instrumentation
threat can result from
unconscious bias on the
part of the data gatherers
whenever both instruments
are given or scored by the
same person.
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Jamaica C. Olazo

||

https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

TESTING
-the experience of

responding to the first


instrument that is
administered in a
correlational study may
influence subject responses
to the second instrument.
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MORTALITY
-it

is not a problem of internal


validity in correlational studies
since anyone lost must be
excluded from the studycorrelations cannot be
obtained unless a researcher
has a score for each person on
both of the variables being
measured.
Jamaica C. Olazo

||

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https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Thank
You!
Jamaica C. Olazo
https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Hi
Guys!
Dancing
Kindly
make
a
balloon
using
Game
cellophane that Mam Teresa
will give you.
Listen to her instruction and
the mechanics to win the
game.
Are you ready?
Lets now do the dancing game.
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g
n
i
S

G
g
in

e
m
a

Sumisikat na ang araw, sagisag ng


bagong buhay.
Gawain ay nag-hihintay, kayat atin
ng simulan.
Nasaan ang _____?
Nasaan ang _____?
Narito ang ____,narito ang ____.
Narito ang ____, tumutugtog ng
*Tambol.

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Singing Game
*Tambol

- boom boom boom

*Byolin

- ing ing ing

*Gitara

- kring kring kring

*Pompyang - klang klang klang


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