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# Basic Concepts of Computer

Networks
Network Topology

Lesson Objectives
At the end of this lesson, the learner
should be able to achieve the following
three objectives:
Clearly define the term network topology.
Identify the types of network topologies

## and their individual advantages and

How to properly choose the appropriate

topology
for a given situation.

DEFINITION: What Is a
Topology?
A network topology describes the
arrangement of systems on a
computer network. It defines
how the computers, or nodes,
within the network are
arranged and connected to each
other.
(TechTerms.com, 2007)

## Commonly Used Network

Topologies
The most commonly used network
topologies are:
Bus
Ring
Star
Mesh

## The Bus Topology

The bus topology is the

simplest and
most common.
It is often used when a

network installation is
small, simple, or temporary.
It is a passive topology.

## This means that computers on

the bus only listen to the
data being sent. They are not
responsible for moving the
data from one computer to the
next.

## The Bus Topology

In an active topology network, the

## computers regenerate signals and are

responsible for moving the data through
the network.
On a bus network, all the computers are

## connected to a single cable.

When one computer sends a signal using

## the cable, all the computers on the

network receive the message, but only the
addressee accepts it. The other computers
disregard the message.

Topology
The bus is simple and very reliable

in very
small networks.
The bus network requires the least

## amount of cable to connect the

computers together and is, therefore,
less expensive than other cabling
configurations.
Failure of one network node does not

## effect the rest of the network.

Topology
Heavy network traffic can slow a

bus considerably
A break in the cable or lack of

## proper termination can shutdown the

entire network.
It is extremely difficult to

## troubleshoot a bus if the entire

network shuts down.

## Appropriate Use of a Bus

Topology
The network is small.
The network will not be frequently

reconfigured.
The least expensive solution is

necessary.
Network growth is not predicted.

## In a ring topology, each

computer is connected directly
to the next computer in line,
forming a circle of cable.

## It uses a token to pass the

information from one computer to
the next.

## Each computer is connected to

the next computer in the ring
from the previous computer.

## The message flow around the ring

is unidirectional.

## The ring is classified as an

active topology because there is
no termination point in the
ring.

## Token Passing in the Ring

Topology
Token passing is a method of sending data in

a ring topology.

## If a computer has information to send, it

and data and sends it down the ring.

## until it either reaches its destination or

returns to the sender.

## diameter at a speed of around 10,000 times

per second.

Topology
All the computers have equal access

to the
network.
Even with multiple users, network

## performance is balanced. There is

no bottle neck.
Allows for error checking and

acknowledgement.

Topology
Failure of one computer can affect the

## entire network. Data cannot be

transmitted successfully.
Data packets must pass through every

## computer. This makes the network slower

in nature.
It is difficult to troubleshoot the

ring network.

the network.

## Appropriate Uses of the Ring

Topology
The network must operate reasonably

A higher speed network is required.
The network will not be frequently

reconfigured.

## In a star topology, each device

has a dedicated point-to-point
sometimes referred to as a hub,
server, or host.

## Each computer on a star network

communicates with the central hub
that then resends the message to
the appropriate computer(s).

in nature.

## An active hub regenerates the

electrical signal and sends it to
all the computers connected to
it.

## Hubs in the Star Topology

The type of hub used in a star topology

## is commonly referred to as a multi-port

repeater.
Active hubs require electrical power to

operate.
A passive hub, such as a wiring panel,

## acts as a connection point and does not

amplify or regenerate the signal.
Passive hubs do not require electrical

power to operate.

Topology

computers.

## During the addition or removal of nodes, the

network continues to function normally.

## The central hub can be easily upgraded when

the network capacity is exceeded.

## The central hub provides for centralized

monitoring and management of the network,
thereby increasing security.

## A single computer failure does not necessarily

bring down the entire star network.

Topology
If the central hub fails, then the

## entire network ceases to operate.

The attached nodes are disabled.
There is a larger upfront cost to

## create a star network in terms of

cabling and hardware.
A star network requires a dedicated

server.

Star Topology

## or removal of client computers.

Star network topologies are

## recommended for easy

troubleshooting ability.
The network is large in nature.
The network is expected to grow in

the future.

## The Mesh Topology

In a mesh topology, every

## device has a dedicated pointto-point link to every other

device.
A fully connected mesh

## network has n(n 1)/2

devices.
To accommodate the many

## links, every device on the

network must have n -1
input/output ports.

Topology
Because there is a dedicated link,

## there is no traffic between computers.

Failure of one node computer does not

## affect the rest of the network.

Because of the dedicated link, privacy

## identification and fault isolation

easier to determine.

Topology
Due to the number of cables and

## input and output ports, it can be

more expensive to establish and
maintain.
A large amount of space is

cables.

## Review of Common Network

Topologies

Conclusions
Topologies are the essence of computer

network designs.

## based on the complete knowledge and

understanding of the previously explored
topologies.

## equal importance when determining the

best options for network requirements.

## choosing the wrong topology to fit the

requirements of the network to be built.

References
Web References