Sunteți pe pagina 1din 59

Engineering Drawing

By: Engr. Farhan Hanif

Chapter 1
Introduction

LEC 01, Introduction

Contents
Engineering drawing
Drawing standards
Drawing sheet
Scale
Lettering
Line types

LEC 01, Introduction

The things you need

LEC 01, Introduction

Items required for drawing Items required for drawing


Drawing board (Available in Drawing Halls)
Drawing sheet (Half Scholar Sheet)
Mini-drafter/drafting machine/T- square(2ft or 3ft)
Instrument box containing compass, divider, etc.
Scales(6in. or 12in.)
Set-Squares & Protractor(30cm)
French curves(not required)
Drawing pencils(A lots of them)
Eraser(smooth)
Drawing clip/pin/adhesive tape
Sharpener
Duster

LEC 01, Introduction

Standard sizes of drawing sheets as per BIS

A2 size

LEC 01, Introduction

Instrument Drawing
Drawing Pencils
High-quality drawing pencils should be used in technical drawing, never ordinary writing pencils.
Many makes of mechanical pencils are available together with refill leads in all grades. Choose a
mechanical pencil that feels comfortable in your hand.

LEC 01, Introduction

Drawing Pencils

Wooden pencils are graded and designated by numbers and letters


Mechanical clutch pencils Not allowed
7B, 6B, 5B, 4B, 3B, 2B, B - in decreasing order of softness and
blackness
HB to F Medium grade
H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H, 9H increasing order of
hardness.

Drawings are done using 2H


LEC 01, Introduction

Grades and designation of w


LEC 01, Introduction

Pencil drawing
In finished drawing, all lines (except construction linesused to construct the drawing) should be dense, clean
and uniform.
Construction line should be drawn very thin and should
be hardly visible in the finished drawing ( they should
not be erased).

LEC 01, Introduction

10

Line types

LEC 01, Introduction

11

Line types.CONTD

LEC 01, Introduction

12

Engineering
Drawing
The words of the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my
mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are
certain signs and more or less clear images which can be voluntarily reproduced and
combined--this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought before
there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which are
communicated to others

--Albert Einstein
Contents

Effectiveness of Graphic Language


1. Try to write a description of
this object.
2. Test your written description
by having someone attempt
to make a sketch or visualize
from your description.
You can easily understand that

The word language is inadequate for describing the size,


size
shape and features completely as well as concisely.
LEC 01, Introduction

14

Graphic Language in
Engineering Drawing
Engineering drawing or blueprint uses lines to
represent the features of an object.
Features of an object are surface (include plane)
plane and
edge.
edge
Surface
Edge

LEC 01, Introduction

15

Ways to Create an
Engineering Drawing
A drawing can be created in 3 ways
1. Freehand sketch
2. Using typical drawing instruments
3. Using a computer

LEC 01, Introduction

16

Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch


The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on a
blank or grid paper.
Example

Pictorial sketch

LEC 01, Introduction

Orthographic sketch

17

Create a Drawing : Using instruments


Drawing instruments are used to
draw straight lines, circles, and
curves concisely and accurately.
accurately
Drawings are usually made to scale.
scale
Example

LEC 01, Introduction

18

Create a Drawing : Using a computer


Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used.
Example

Solid modeling

2D drawing
LEC 01, Introduction

19

Elements of a Drawing
A clear and precise engineering drawing requires both
graphics and word languages.

Graphics language
Describe a shape (mainly).

Word language
Describe an exact size,
location and specification
of the object.
LEC 01, Introduction

20

Text on drawings : Example


Dimensions
&
Notes

General
notes

Title
block
LEC 01, Introduction

21

Knowledge and Skills Require


Engineering Drawing
Word
language

Graphics
language
Geometric
construction
Using line types

Projection
method

Dimensions & Notes

Visualization

Visualization is the ability to mentally picture things that do not exists.


LEC 01, Introduction

22

Contents

Drawing Standard

Drawing sheet

Scale

Lettering

Line types

Contents

Definition and Necessity


Drawing standards are set of rules that govern how
technical drawings are represented.
Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey
the same meaning to everyone who reads them.

LEC 01, Introduction

24

Standard Code
Country
Thailand
USA

Code

Full name

./TIS
ANSI

American National Standard Institute

Japan

JIS

Japanese Industrial Standard

UK

BS

British Standard

Australia

AS

Australian Standard

Germany

DIN

Deutsches Institut fr Normung

ISO

International Standards Organization


LEC 01, Introduction

25

Examples of TIS Standard


Code number

Contents

. 210 2520
:
. 440 .1 2541 1

. 446 .4 2532

.
1473 2540


: http://library.tisi.go.th/data/lib_resources/pdf/catalog-online49/tis/02_ICS.pdf
LEC 01, Introduction

26

Examples of JIS Standard


Contents

Code number
JIS Z 8311

Sizes and Format of Drawings

JIS Z 8314

Scales

JIS Z 8312

Line Conventions

JIS Z 8313

Lettering

JIS Z 8315

Projection methods

JIS Z 8316

Presentation of Views and Sections

JIS Z 8317

Dimensioning

LEC 01, Introduction

27

Drawing Standard
Drawing Sheet

Drawing standard

Contents

Drawing Sheet : Standard size


Trimmed paper of
a size A0 ~ A4.
Standard sheet size
(JIS)
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0

210 x 297
297 x 420
420 x 594
594 x 841
841 x 1189

(Dimensions in millimeters)

A4
A3
A2

A1

A0
LEC 01, Introduction

29

Drawing Sheet : Orientation & Margin


c

1. Type X (A0~A4)

Border d
lines

Sheet size
c

10
10
10
20
20

25
25
25
25
25

Drawing space

A4
A3
A2
A1
A0

c (min) d (min)

Title block
2. Type Y (A4 only)
d
Drawing
space

Title block
LEC 01, Introduction

30

Drawing Standard
Drawing Scale

Drawing standard

Contents

Drawing Scales : Definition


Length, size

Scale is a ratio between the linear dimension of a


drawn representation of an object and the actual object.

Drawing

Actual
LEC 01, Introduction

32

Drawing Scales : Designation


Designation of a scale consists of the word SCALE
followed by the indication of its ratio, as follows
SCALE 1:1 for full size
SCALE X:1 (X > 1) for an enlargement scales
SCALE 1:X (X > 1) for a reduction scales
Drawing scale is commonly found in a title block.

LEC 01, Introduction

33

Drawing Scales : Notes


Dimension numbers shown in the drawing represent
the true size of an object and they are independent of
the drawing scale used.

LEC 01, Introduction

34

Drawing Scales : Standard scale


Standard reducing scales are
1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100
Standard enlarging scales are
2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 100:1

LEC 01, Introduction

35

Drawing Standard
Lettering

Drawing standard

Contents

Recommendation
Texts style on the drawing

Examples

must have the following


2 properties

GOOD
Not uniform in style.

Legibility
- Shape

Not uniform in height.

- Space between letters


- Space between words

Not uniformly vertical.

Uniformity

Not uniform in
thickness of stroke.

- Size (or text height)


- line thickness

Inappropriate space
between letters
LEC 01, Introduction

37

Style (this course)


Gothic vertical style.
Begin the sentence, phrase or word with a capital letter.
Text height 2~3 mm.
Space between lines of text is about of text height.
Height of the lower-case letter is about 2/3 of that of a
capital letter.

LEC 01, Introduction

38

Basic Strokes
Straight

Slanted

Horizontal

Curved

Examples
I letter
1

A letter
2

B letter
1

3
LEC 01, Introduction

39

Upper-caseStrokes
Letters &Sequence
Numerals
Suggested
Straight line
letters

Curved line
letters
&
Numerals

LEC 01, Introduction

40

Lower-case Letters

LEC 01, Introduction

41

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


I

LEC 01, Introduction

42

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


V

LEC 01, Introduction

43

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


N

LEC 01, Introduction

44

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


O

LEC 01, Introduction

45

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


D

LEC 01, Introduction

46

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


1

LEC 01, Introduction

47

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


S

LEC 01, Introduction

48

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


l

LEC 01, Introduction

49

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


v

LEC 01, Introduction

50

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


j

LEC 01, Introduction

51

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


c

LEC 01, Introduction

52

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


g

LEC 01, Introduction

53

Skip section

Word Composition
Space between the letters depends on the adjacent
contour of the letters.
Non-uniform
spacing
Uniform
spacing

DRAWING
DR A W IN G

Word having non-uniform spacing is more readable.


LEC 01, Introduction

54

Word Composition

DRAWING
Contour

Contour can be denoted as straight, slant and curve.


Adjacent contour can be
2. straight-curve (or curve-straight) : IO, QR etc.
3. straight-slant (or slant-straight) : IV, IW etc.
4. curve-curve

: OO, OG etc.

5. slant-curve (or curve-slant)

: VO, WG, VC etc.

6. slant-slant

: VW, VX etc.

LEC 01, Introduction

Spacing

: II, IN, IM, IP etc.

1. straight-straight

55

Sentence Composition
Leave the space between words equal to the space
requires for writing a letter O.
Example

ALL ODIMENSIONS OARE OIN


MILLIMETERS OUNLESS
OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED.
LEC 01, Introduction

56

Drawing Standard
Line Types

Drawing standard

Contents

Basic Line Types &


Name according to application
Thickness

Thick

Thin
Visible line

Style
Continuous
Dash
Chain
1. Visible line

1. Dimension line
2. Extension line
3. Leader line

Hidden line
Center line

represent features that can be seen in the current view.

2. Dimension line
Extension line indicate the sizes and location of features.
Leader line
3. Hidden line

represent features that can not be seen in the current view.

4. Center line

represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles,


LEC 01, Introduction

axis of axisymmetrical parts

58

Example

LEC 01, Introduction

59

Contents