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TRANSISTORS

The building blocks


of
electronics world

11/29/16

Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

This session will help you to


1.Evolution of transistor

understand
the,
2.Importance of transistor

3.Definition & transistor types

4.Transistor symbol & operation

5.Advantages of transistor
6.Latest in transistor technology
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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

History of transistors
In 1906, an American inventor and
physicist, Lee De Forest, made the
vacuum tube triode or audion as he
called it.
Used in radios
Used in early computers
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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

The first transistor


In 1947, John
Bardeen and
Walter Brattain
deviced - the
first "point
contact"
transistor.

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Moores Law
Its an observation made by Gordon E.
Moore, in which he predicted that the
number of transistors, inside an Integrated
Circuit, could
be doubled every 24
months.
At the density that also
minimized the cost of a transistor.

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Transistor Definition
Transistor is an electronic device

made of three layers of


semiconductor material that can
act as an insulator and a conductor.
The three layered transistor is also

known as the bipolar junction


transistor.
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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Bipolar Junction
Transistors (BJTs)

The term bipolar refers to the use of

both holes and electrons as charge


carriers in the transistor structure
There are two types of BJTs, the NPN

and PNP

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Basic construction

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Regions of a transistor
A transistor has three regions namely,
Emitter- heavily doped
Base- lightly doped
Collector- moderately doped

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

Transistor symbols
Transistor symbols

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

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Transistor operation

force voltage/current
water flow current
- amplification

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

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Transistor biasing
The base-emitter (BE) junction is forward

biased
The base-collector (BC) junction is reverse
biased.

IE=IB+IC

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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

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Operating regions of BJT


Cut off region
Linear region
Saturation
region
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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

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Types of transistor
BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor
UJT- Unipolar Junction Transistor
FET - Field Effect Transistor
MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor
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Tsamarul Hizbi. Transistor

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Transistor applications
Transistor as a switch
When used as an electronic switch, the
transistor is normally operated alternately in
cut-off and saturation regions.

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Transistor as amplifier
Due to the small changes in

base current the collector


current will mimic the input
with greater amplitude

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Future of Transistors
Molecular electronics
Carbon nanotube transistors
Nano inspiration wire transistors
Quantum computing
CMOS devices will add functionality to CMOS

non-volatile memory, opto-electronics,


sensing.
CMOS technology will address new markets
macroelectronics, bio-medical devices,
Biology may provide for new technologies
bottom-up assembly, human intelligence
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Whats new in transistor


technology?
3D Transistor made using
Tri-Gate transistors on its 22nm logic
technology.
Advantage of Tri-Gate Transistors
More than 50% power reduction at
constant performance.
37% performance increase at low voltage
Improved performance and efficiency.
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