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Cell Nutrients


What is Nutrients?
A nutrient is a component in foods that an organism uses to
survive and grow.
Can be classified into two categories:
Macronutrients-provide the bulk energy an organism's
metabolic system needs to function
Micronutrients- provide the necessary cofactors for
metabolism to be carried out
Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment

What is Nutrients?
Methods of nutrient intake are different for plants and
Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their
roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves.
Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems
that work to break down macronutrients for energy and
utilize micronutrients for both metabolism and anabolism
(constructive synthesis) in the body.

What is Nutrients?
Organic nutrients consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins
(or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins.
Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals,
water (H2O), and oxygen may also be considered nutrients
A nutrient is considered essential if it must be obtained
from an external source either because the organism cannot
synthesize it or because insufficient quantities are
The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent; shortages are
called deficiencies.

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction
of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to
maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of
an organism. It includes food intake, absorption,
assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion.

History of Nutrition
400 B.C. -- Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", said to his
students, "Let thy food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy
food". He also said *A wise man should consider that health is the
greatest of human blessings.*
400 B.C. --Foods were often used as cosmetics or as medicines in
the treatment of wounds. In some of the early Far-Eastern biblical
writings, there were references to food and health. One story
describes the treatment of eye disease, now known to be due to a
vitamin A deficiency, by squeezing the juice of liver onto the eye.
Vitamin A is stored in large amounts in the liver.

History of Nutrition
1747 - Dr. James Lind, a physician in the British Navy, performed
the first scientific experiment in nutrition.At that time, sailors were
sent on long voyages for years and they developed scurvy (a painful,
deadly, bleeding disorder). Only nonperishable foods such as dried
meat and breads were taken on the voyages, as fresh foods wouldnt
last.In his experiment, Lind gave some of the sailors sea water,
others vinegar, and the rest limes. Those given the limes were saved
from scurvy.As Vitamin C wasn*t discovered until the 1930*s, Lind
didnt know it was the vital nutrient. As a note, British sailors
became known as *Limeys*.

History of Nutrition
1770 -- Antoine Lavoisier, the *Father of Nutrition and Chemistry*
discovered the actual process by which food is metabolized. He also
demonstrated where animal heat comes from. In his equation, he
describes the combination of food and oxygen in the body, and the
resulting giving off of heat and water.
1840 -- Justus Liebig of Germany, a pioneer in early plant growth
studies, was the first to point out the chemical makeup of
carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Carbohydrates were made of
sugars, fats were fatty acids, and proteins were made up of amino

History of Nutrition
1897 - Christiaan Eijkman, a Dutchman working with natives in
Java, observed that some of the natives developed a disease called
Beriberi, which caused heart problems and paralysis. He observed
that when chickens were fed the native diet of white rice, they
developed the symptoms of Beriberi.When he fed the chickens
unprocessed brown rice (with the outer bran intact), they did not
develop the disease. Eijkman then fed brown rice to his patients and
they were cured. He disovered that food could cure disease.
Nutritionists later learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin
B1, also known as thiamine.

History of Nutrition
1912 - E.V. McCollum, while working for the U.S.
Department of Agriculture at the University of Wisconsin,
developed an approach that opened the way to the
widespread discovery of nutrients.He decided to work
with rats rather than large farm animals like cows and
sheep. Using this procedure, he discovered the first fat
soluble vitamin, Vitamin A. He found that rats fed butter
were healthier than those fed lard, as butter contains
more Vitamin A.

History of Nutrition
1912 - Dr. Casmir Funk was the first to coin the term
*vitamins* as vital factors in the diet. He wrote about
these unidentified substances present in food, which could
prevent the diseases of scurvy, beriberi and pellagra (a
disease caused by a deficiency of niacin, vitamin B-3). The
term vitamin is derived from the words vital and amine,
because vitamins are required for life and they were
originally thought to be amines -- compounds derived from

History of Nutrition
1930*s - William Rose discovered the essential amino acids, the
building blocks of protein.
1940*s - The water soluble B and C vitamins were identified.
1940*s - Russell Marker perfected a method of synthesizing the
female hormone progesterone from a component of wild yams called
1950*s to the Present -- The roles of essential nutrients as part of
bodily processes have been brought to light.For example, more became
known about the role of vitamins and minerals as components of
enzymes and hormones that work within the body.


- substances required in relatively large amounts by
living organisms for growth and development
The Three Primary Macronutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats


- substances that provide the body with heat and energy
and are
made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
- they are chains of small, simple sugars that are broken
down and
enter the body as glucose
GLUCOSE source of energy in our brain, heart and
central nervous
- 45-65% of our diet should be carbohydrates


- are the simplest form of carbohydrate

Disaccharides - are formed when two sugar molecules join

Polysaccharides - are made up of many monosaccharide's

molecules joined together


Excessive consumption of carbohydrate

Increased body weight
When too much carbohydrate is consumed and not used for energy
over an extended period of time, it is stored as fat. Building up too
much fat will increase body weight

Lack of carbohydrate
The short term effects of a lack of carbohydrates are weight loss
and lethargy.


- are important biomolecules that consists of
strings of
smaller units called amino acids
known as the "building blocks of proteins
amino acids are linked together in complex
- should consist of about 10 to 35 percent of our

Amino Acids

Amino Acids






Aspartic acid




Glutamic acid











Essential Amino Acids

- amino acids that human body
cannot produce, therefore
must be obtained through the

Non-Essential Amino Acids

- amino acids that human body


proteins that consist all

21 amino acids

proteins that lack one or
more of the amino acids

have high biological


have low biological


found in animal
products such as meat,
fish, eggs, cheese, and

found in cereals, pulses,

some nuts and

Functions of Protein
- its crucial role in our body includes building,
maintaining and repairing body tissues
- all enzymes and hormones, which perform vital
functions, are proteins
- are used to aid in immune process
- is also a source of energy

Protein Deficiency
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) - this
can be seen in infants with stunted
growth or thin arms and legs, and large
distended abdomens
*Marasmus - this condition mainly
affects infants causing them to become
thin and weak. The body adapts to the
shortage of energy and nutrients. All
energy stores are depleted as it is used
to supply vital organs.
*Kwashiorkor - this condition is known
to be the bodys adaption to shortage of
energy and nutrients.




- an oily solid or liquid substance
in food; the soft flesh on the bodies
of people and animals that helps
keep the body warm and is used to
store energy

Main Types of Fats

Saturated fat
- are simplyfatmolecules that have no double bonds between
molecules because they aresaturatedwith hydrogen

Monounsaturated fats
- are goodfats
- liquid at room temperature, they turn solid when they are
- common sources are olive oil, avocados and nuts
- are a healthy alternative to the transfatsand refined
polyunsaturatedfatsyou find in most processed foods

Polyunsaturated fats
- is a type of dietaryfat
- it is one of the healthyfats, along with monounsaturatedfat
- is found in plant and animal foods, such as salmon, vegetable
oils, and some
nuts and seeds

Trans fatty acids

- an unsaturated fatty acid of a type occurring in margarines and
manufactured cooking oils as a result of the
hydrogenation process, having a
trans arrangement of the
carbon atoms adjacent to its double bonds
- consumption of such acids is thought to increase the risk of

Saturated and trans fat should be avoided while

increases levels of unsaturated and the essential fatty

acids, such as omega 3 and omega 6 which are good for
the body

Functions of fats
- is essential for maintaining a healthy body
- one of main functions is protection
- promotes growth and development, as well
maintaining cell membranes
- plays a vital role in the digestion of vitamins
(vitamins A,D,E, & K)


What are Micronutrients?

quantitiestoensurenormalmetabolism, growth
The physiologic roles of micronutrients are as varied as
their composition;
some micronutrients are used in enzymes as either coenzymes or
prosthetic groups
others as biochemical substrates or hormones

Types of Micronutrients
Micronutrients can be classified into two groups:
Trace Minerals


What are

inthe body,or only in insufficient amounts, and are mainly obtained
through food. When their intake is inadequate, vitamin deficiency
disorders are the consequence .
Although vitamins are only
present and require in minute
quantities, compared to the
macronutrients, they are as vital
to health and need to be
considered when determining
nutrition security.

Vitamin A
Provitamin A (Betacarotene)
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Folic Acid
Vitamin K
Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin A and Provitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic
compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and
several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin A has multiple functions: it is important for growth
and development, for the maintenance of the immune system
and good vision.
Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of
retinal, which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin,
the light-absorbing molecule necessary for both low-light
(scotopic vision) and color vision.
Vitamin A also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid
(an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol), which is an important
hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells.

Vitamin A and Provitamin A

Deficiency: Follicular hyperkeratosis and night blindness are
early indicators. Conjunctival xerosis, degeneration of the cornea
(keratomalacia), and de-differentiation of rapidly proliferating
epithelia are later indications of deficiency. Bitot spots (focal
areas of the conjunctiva or cornea with foamy appearance) are an
indication of xerosis. Blindness, due to corneal destruction and
retinal dysfunction, ensues if left uncorrected. Increased
susceptibility to infection is also a consequence.
[F: 700 g; M: 900 g]

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very

few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement.

It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet rays from
sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis.
Vitamin D promotescalciumabsorption in the gut and maintains
adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable
normal mineralization of bone and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany.
It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by
osteoblasts and osteoclasts . Without sufficient vitamin D, bones
can become thin, brittle, or misshapen. Vitamin D sufficiency
prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults
from osteoporosis.

Vitamin D
Deficiency: Deficiency results in disordered bone
modeling called rickets in childhood and
osteomalacia in adults. Expansion of the
epiphyseal growth plates and replacement of
normal bone with unmineralized bone matrix are
the cardinal features of rickets; the latter feature
also characterizes osteomalacia. Deformity of
bone and pathologic fractures occur. Decreased
serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate
may occur.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols
and tocotrienols.
Of the many different forms of vitamin E, -tocopherol is the most
common form found in the North American diet.
As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it interrupts the propagation of reactive
oxygen species that spread through biological membranes or through a
fat when its lipid content undergoes oxidation by reacting with morereactive lipid radicals to form more stable products.
Regular consumption of more than 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of tocopherols
per daymay be expected to cause hypervitaminosis E, with an associated
risk of vitamin K deficiency and consequently of bleeding problems.

Vitamin E
Deficiency: Deficiency due to dietary inadequacy rare. Usually seen
in (1) premature infants, (2) individuals with fat malabsorption, and
(3) individuals with abetalipoproteinemia. Red blood cell fragility
occurs and can produce a hemolytic anemia. Neuronal degeneration
produces peripheral neuropathies, ophthalmoplegia, and destruction
of posterior columns of spinal cord. Neurologic disease is frequently
irreversible if deficiency is not corrected early enough. May
contribute to the hemolytic anemia and retrolental fibroplasia seen
in premature infants. Reported to suppress cell-mediated immunity.
[15 mg].

Vitamin K
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins the
human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that
are prerequisites for blood coagulation that the body needs for
controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
The vitamin K-related modification of the proteins allows them to bind
calcium ions, which they cannot do otherwise.
Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and
uncontrolled bleeding occurs.
Low levels of vitamin K also weaken bones and promote calcification of
arteries and other soft tissues.

Vitamin K
Deficiency: Deficiency syndrome, uncommon except in (1)
breast-fed newborns, in whom it may cause hemorrhagic
disease of the newborn, (2) adults with fat malabsorption
or who are taking drugs that interfere with vitamin K
metabolism (e.g., coumarin, phenytoin, broad-spectrum
antibiotics), and (3) individuals taking large doses of
vitamin E and anticoagulant drugs. Excessive hemorrhage
is the usual manifestation.
[F: 90 g; M: 120 g]

Thiamin (Vitamin
Thiamine is a vitamin, also B1)
called vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 is found in

many foods including yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat. It
is often used in combination with other B vitamins, and found in
many vitamin B complex products.
People take thiamine for conditions related to low levels of thiamine
(thiamine deficiency syndromes), including beriberi and inflammation
of the nerves (neuritis) associated with pellagra or pregnancy.
Thiamine is also used for digestive problems including poor appetite,
ulcerative colitis, and ongoing diarrhea.
Thiamine is also used for AIDS and boosting the immune system,
diabetic pain, heart disease, alcoholism, aging, a type of brain
damage called cerebellar syndrome, canker sores, vision problems
such as cataracts and glaucoma, motion sickness, and improving
athletic performance. Other uses include preventing cervical cancer
and progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Thiamin (Vitamin
Deficiency: Classic deficiency syndrome (beriberi)
described in Asian populations consuming polished rice
diet. Alcoholism and chronic renal dialysis are also
common precipitants. High carbohydrate intake
increases need for B1. Mild deficiency: irritability,
fatigue, and headaches. More severe deficiency:
combinations of peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular
dysfunction, and cerebral dysfunction. Cardiovascular
involvement (wet beriberi): congestive heart failure
and low peripheral vascular resistance. Cerebral
disease: nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia
(Wernickes encephalopathy); hallucinations, impaired
short-term memory, and confabulation (Korsakoffs
psychosis). Deficiency syndrome responds within 24 hr
to parenteral thiamin but is partially or wholly

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Vitamin B2, also called riboflavin, is one of 8 B vitamins.

All B vitamins help the body to convert food

(carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to
produce energy.
These B vitamins, often referred to as B-complex
vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein.
B complex vitamins are necessary for a healthy liver,
skin, hair, and eyes.
They also help the nervous system function properly.
In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin
works as an antioxidant, fighting damaging particles in
the body known as free radicals.
Free radicals can damage cells and DNA, and may
contribute to the aging process, as well as the

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Deficiency: Deficiency is usually seen in
conjunction with deficiencies of other B vitamins.
Isolated deficiency of riboflavin produces
hyperemia and edema of nasopharyngeal
mucosa, cheilosis, angular stomatitis, glossitis,
seborrheic dermatitis, and a normochromic,
normocytic anemia. [F: 1.1 mg; M: 1.3mg]

Niacin (vitamin B3)

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, is an organic
compound with the formula C6H5NO2 and, depending on the
definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients.
Pharmaceutical and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat
hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and pellagra (niacin
deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and
mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness.
The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency
disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin,
vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in
areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition.
Niacin has not been found to be useful in decreasing the risk of
cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin but appears to be
effective in those not taking a statin

Niacin (vitamin B3)

Deficiency: Pellagra is the classic deficiency syndrome and is often
seen in populations in which corn is the major source of energy. Still
endemic in parts of China, Africa, and India. Diarrhea, dementia (or
associated symptoms of anxiety or insomnia), and a pigmented
dermatitis that develops in sun-exposed areas are typical features.
Glossitis, stomatitis, vaginitis, vertigo, and burning dysesthesias are
early signs. Reported to occasionally occur in carcinoid syndrome
because tryptophan is diverted to other synthetic pathways.
[F: 14 mg; M: 16 mg]

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans,
vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also be made in a laboratory.
Pyridoxine is used for preventing and treating low levels of pyridoxine (pyridoxine
deficiency) and the tired blood (anemia) that may result. It is also used for heart
disease; high cholesterol; reducing blood levels of homocysteine, a chemical that might
be linked to heart disease; and helping clogged arteries stay open after a balloon
procedure to unblock them (angioplasty).
Pyridoxine is also used for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell anemia,
migraine headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, night leg cramps, muscle
cramps, arthritis, allergies, acne and various other skin conditions, and infertility.
It is also used for dizziness, motion sickness, preventing the eye disease age-related
macular degeneration (AMD), seizures, convulsions due to fever, and movement
disorders (tardive dyskinesia, hyperkinesis, chorea), as well as for increasing appetite
and helping people remember dreams.

Vitamin B6
Deficiency: Deficiency usually seen in conjunction with other watersoluble vitamin deficiencies. Stomatitis, angular cheilosis, glossitis,
irritability, depression, and confusion occur in moderate to severe
depletion; normochromic, normocytic anemia has been reported in
severe deficiency. Abnormal electroencephalograms and, in infants,
convulsions have also been observed. Some sideroblastic anemias
respond to B6 administration. Isoniazid, cycloserine, penicillamine,
ethanol, and theophylline can inhibit B6 metabolism. [Ages 19-50 yr:
1.3 mg; >50 yr: 1.5 mg for women, 1.7 mg for men]

Folate (Folic Acid)

Folic acid, another form of which is known as folate, is one of the B

It is used as a supplement during pregnancy to prevent neural tube
defects (NTDs).
It is also used to treat anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.More
than 50 countries require fortification of certain foods with folic acid
as a measure to decrease the rate of NTDs in the population.
Long term supplementation is also associated with small reductions
in the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.
It may be taken by mouth or by injection.

Folate (Folic Acid)

Deficiency: Women of childbearing age are most likely
to be deficient. Classic deficiency syndrome:
megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea. The hematopoietic cells
in bone marrow become enlarged and have immature
nuclei, reflecting ineffective DNA synthesis. The
peripheral blood smear demonstrates macro-ovalocytes
and polymorphonuclear leukocytes with an average of
more than 3.5 nuclear lobes. Megaloblastic changes
also occur in other epithelia that proliferate rapidly
(e.g., oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract), producing
glossitis and diarrhea, respectively. Sulfasalazine and
diphenytoin inhibit absorption and predispose to
[400 g of dietary folate equivalents (DFE); 1 DFE = 1

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a vitamin. Some animals can make their own

vitamin C, but people must get this vitamin from food and other
sources. Good sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and
vegetables, especially citrus fruits.
Historically, vitamin C was used for preventing and treating
scurvy. Scurvy is now relatively rare, but it was once common
among sailors, pirates, and others who spent long periods of
time onboard ships.
These days, vitamin C is used most often for preventing and
treating the common cold. Some people use it for other
infections including gum disease, acne and other skin
infections, bronchitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
disease, stomach ulcers caused by bacteria called Helicobacter
pylori, tuberculosis, dysentery (an infection of the lower
intestine), and skin infections that produce boils (furunculosis).

Vitamin C
Deficiency: Overt deficiency is uncommon in developed countries.
The classic deficiency syndrome is scurvy: fatigue, depression, and
widespread abnormalities in connective tissues, such as inflamed
gingivae, petechiae, perifollicular hemorrhages, impaired wound
healing, coiled hairs, hyperkeratosis, bleeding into body cavities.
In infants, defects in ossification and bone growth may occur.
Tobacco smoking lowers plasma and leukocyte vitamin C levels.
[F: 75 mg; M: 90 mg; increase requirement for cigarette smokers
by 35 mg/day]

Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin. This means that the body
requires vitamin B12 to work properly. Vitamin B12 can be
found in foods such as meat, fish, and dairy products.
It is also taken by mouth to treat pernicious anemia, a serious
type of anemia that is due to vitamin B12 deficiency and is
found mostly in older people.
Vitamin B12 is also taken by mouth for memory loss,
Alzheimer's disease, to slow aging, and to boost mood, energy,
concentration, mental function, and the immune system.

Vitamin B12
Deficiency: Lack of Vitamin B12 might lead to heart disease,
clogged arteries and decreasing the risk of re-clogging arteries after
surgery, high triglyceride levels, lowering high homocysteine levels
(which may contribute to heart disease), male infertility, diabetes,
diabetic nerve damage, nerve damage in the hands or feet, sleep
disorders, depression, mental disorders, schizophrenia, weak bones
(osteoporosis), swollen tendons, AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease,
diarrhea, asthma, allergies, a skin disease called vitiligo, and skin
[2.4 g]

Biotin is a vitamin that is found in small amounts in
numerous foods.
Biotin is used for preventing and treating biotin
deficiency associated with pregnancy, long-term tube
feeding, malnutrition, and rapid weight loss. It is also
used orally for hair loss, brittle nails, skin rash in
infants (seborrheic dermatitis), diabetes, and mild

Deficiency: Signs of overtbiotin deficiencyinclude hair
loss (alopecia) and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose,
mouth, and genital area. Neurologic symptoms in adults
have included depression, lethargy, hallucinations,
numbness and tingling of the extremities, ataxia, and

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is
widely found in both plants and animals including meat,
vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk.
People take pantothenic acid for treating dietary deficiencies,
acne, alcoholism, allergies, baldness, asthma, attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome,
yeast infections, heart failure, carpal tunnel syndrome,
respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis,
convulsions, and cystitis.
It is also taken by mouth for dandruff, depression, diabetic
nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic
performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache,
hyperactivity, low blood sugar, trouble sleeping (insomnia),
irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular

Pantothenic acid
Deficiency: Deficiency is rare only reported as a
result of feeding semisynthetic diets or an
antagonist to the vitamin. Experimental, isolated
deficiency in humans produces fatigue, abdominal
pain, vomiting, insomnia, and paresthesias of the
extremities. [5 mg]

Macrominerals and Trace

suringhealth and wellbeing.
nese,seleniumandzinc together with the macro
elements calcium,
magnesium, potassium and sodium.Aswithvitamins,
theyareobtainedfrom a widevarietyoffoods.

Copper works with iron to help the body form red
blood cells. It also helps keep the blood vessels,
nerves, immune system, and bones healthy. Copper
also aids in iron absorption.
Food Sources: Oysters and other
shellfish, whole grains, beans,
nuts, potatoes, and organ meats
(kidneys, liver) are good sources of
copper. Dark leafy greens, dried
fruits such as prunes, cocoa, black
pepper, and yeast are also sources
of copper in the diet.

Side Effects
Normally people have enough copper in the foods they eat. Menkes
disease (kinky hair syndrome) is a very rare disorder of copper
metabolism that is present before birth. It occurs in male infants.
Lack of copper may lead to anemia and osteoporosis.
In large amounts, copper is poisonous. A rare inherited disorder,
Wilson's disease, causes deposits of copper in the liver, brain, and
other organs. The increased copper in these tissues leads to
hepatitis, kidney problems, brain disorders, and other problems.

Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats
and carbohydrates. It stimulates fatty acid and
cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain
function and other body processes. Chromium also
aids in insulin action and glucose metabolism.

Mineral: Chromium
Side Effects
Chromium deficiency may be seen as impaired glucose
tolerance. It occurs in older people with type 2 diabetes
and in infants with protein-calorie malnutrition. Taking
chromium supplements can help manage these
conditions. However, it is not a substitute for other
Because of the low absorption and high excretion rates
of chromium, toxicity is not common.

Mineral: Calcium
Required for the formation of
bone and teeth, for blood
clotting, for normal muscle
function, for the normal
functioning of many enzymes,
and for normal heart rhythm
When you don't get enough
calcium, you increase your
risk of developing diseases
osteopenia, and calcium
deficiency disease

Required for normal nerve and
muscle function
Involved in electrolyte balance
Low potassium is
calledhypokalemia. The
symptoms include severe muscle
fatigue, feeling weak, and muscle
cramps. Potassium affects the
function of all your muscles,
most importantly your heart
muscles. That means low
potassium can lead to heart
arrhythmia or attack, especially
in those who already have heart

Required for the formation of
bone and teeth and for energy
Used to form nucleic acids,
including DNA (deoxyribonucleic
A reduced concentration of
phosphate in the blood serum is
a disorder known as
hypophosphatemia. Phosphorus
deficiency may cause bone
diseases such as rickets in
children and osteomalacia in
adults. An improper balance of
phosphorus andcalciummay
cause osteoporosis

Required for normal nerve and
muscle function
Helps the body maintain a normal
electrolyte and fluid balance
Hyponatremia, also spelled
hyponatraemia, is a low sodium
level in the blood. Signs and
ofhyponatremiainclude nausea
and vomiting, headache, shortterm memory loss, confusion,
lethargy, fatigue, loss of appetite,
irritability, muscle weakness,
spasms or cramps, seizures, and
decreased consciousness or coma

Required for the formation
of bone and teeth, for
normal nerve and muscle
function, and for the
activation of enzymes
Found in bones; needed for
making protein, muscle
contraction, nerve
transmission, immune
system health

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency include
hyperexcitability, muscular symptoms (cramps, tremor,
fasciculations, spasms, tetany, weakness), fatigue, loss of
appetite, apathy, confusion, insomnia, irritability, poor
memory, and reduced ability to learn. Moderate to severe
magnesium deficiency can cause tingling or numbness,
heart changes, rapid heartbeat, continued muscle
contractions, nausea, vomiting, personality changes,
delirium, hallucinations, low calcium levels, low serum
potassium levels, retention of sodium, low circulating
levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and potentially
death from heart failure. Magnesium plays an important
role in carbohydrate metabolism and its deficiency may
worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often precedes


keeps the amount of fluid within and around cells in

helps regulate the pH (acid-alkali / acid-base) balance
of body fluids
maintains proper blood volume and pressure
critical constituent of hydrochloric acid, a key
component of gastric juice secreted by the stomach
that is vital for maintaining the normal acidic
environment needed by pepsin, and aids digestion
and absorption of many nutrients including iron and
vitamin B12
may help conserve potassium

Deficiency of chloride, or when blood levels of it drop too low, is known as

hypochloremia. It is rare, as chloride is part of table salt which is present

in most foods. In fact, people are prone to consuming more chloride than
is really needed, due to salt-laden diets. Hypochloremia can occur however,
for a variety of reasons that include :
heavy sweating, as large amounts of sodium and chloride can be lost in
excessive fluid loss due to prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, or overuse of
coffee or laxatives or diuretics
congestive heart failure
certain kidney disorders
Addisons disease
most often seen in infants on chloride-deficient formulae

Required for the formation of bone and teeth

Deficiency:Intake of <0.1 mg/day in infants and <0.5 mg/day in

children is associated with an increased incidence of dental
caries. Optimal intake in adults is between 1.5 and 4 mg/day. [F:
3 mg; M: 4 mg]

Required for the formation of thyroid

Deficiency : It may result in a goiter,

sometimes as an endemic goiter as well
as cretinism due to untreated congenital
hypothyroidism, which results in
developmental delays and other health

Required for the formation of many enzymes in the body
Is an important component of muscle cells and of
hemoglobin, which enables red blood cells to carry oxygen
and deliver it to the body's tissue

Iron deficiency anemiaoccurs when your body doesn't
have enoughironto produce hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is
the part of red blood cells that gives blood its red color
and enables the red blood cells to carry oxygenated blood
throughout your body.

Required for the formation of bone and the formation
and activation of certain enzymes

A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal

deformation in animals and inhibits the production
ofcollagenin wound healing

Required for metabolism of nitrogen, the activation of
certain enzymes, and normal cell function
Helps break down sulfites (present in foods naturally and
added as preservatives)

Because molybdenum deficiency in humans is extremely

rare, its symptomatology is not well established

Acts as an antioxidant* with vitamin E
Required for thyroid gland function
Seleniumis also necessary for
the conversion of the thyroid
hormone thyroxine (T4) into its
triiodothyronine, and as such
adeficiencycan cause symptoms
extreme fatigue, mental slowing,
goiter, cretinism, and recurrent

Deficiency: Deficiency is rare in North America but has been
observed in individuals on long-term TPN lacking selenium.
Such individuals have myalgias and/or cardiomyopathies.
Populations in some regions of the world, most notably some
parts of China, have marginal intake of selenium. In these
regions Keshans disease, a condition characterized by
cardiomyopathy, is endemic; it can be prevented (but not
treated) by selenium supplementation. [55 g]

Part of many enzymes; needed for making protein and
genetic material; has a function in taste perception,
wound healing, normal fetal development, production
of sperm, normal growth and sexual maturation,
immune system health.

Zinc deficiencyis characterized by growth
retardation, loss of appetite, and impaired
immune function. In more severe cases,zinc
deficiencycauses hair loss, diarrhea, delayed
sexual maturation, impotence, hypogonadism in
males, and eye and skin lesions


A growth medium or
culture medium is a solid
or liquid designed to
support the growth of
microorganisms or cells, or
small plants like the moss
Physcomitrella patens.

Louis Pasteur
Used simplle broths made up of
urine or meat extracts

Robert Koch
father of culture media
Isolation of anthrax organism
Bacillus anthracis; broth made
of sterile beef

used potato as solid medium

nutrient gelatin medium
Louis Pasteur

Robert Koch

Walter Hesse; Fanny Hesse
First used agar as solidifying
F. Hesse
w. Hesse

Richard Petri
Petri Dish glass dish, with
sides that were about 15mm tall
and a diameter of about 100mm
where medium is pour onto

Frederick Loeffler
Adding of peptones, NaCl to the
nutrient broth
R. Petri

F. Loffler

Culture = microbes that grow & multiply in or on
a culture medium
Bacteria have to be grown (cultured) for them to
be identified.
By appropriate procedures they have to be grown
separately (isolated) on culture media and
obtained as pure for study.

1882-Walter Hesse; Angelina Fannie Hesse
Complex polysaccharide
No nutritive value
Used as solidifying agent for culture media in Petri plates, slants,
and deeps

Generally not metabolized by microbes

Liquefies at 100C
Solidifies ~40C

Agar Plate
a Petri dish that contains a growth medium

Two Major Types of Growth Media

1. Growth medium used for cell
culture, which use specific cell
types derived from plants or

2. Growth medium used for

microbiological culture, which
are used for growing
microorganisms (i.e., bacteria or

Defined Medium
vs. Undefined Medium
have known quantities of all
for microorganisms, they
consist of providing trace
elements and vitamins
required by the microbe and
especially defined carbon
sources (eg. Glucose) and
nitrogen sources (NH4 salts,


has some complex

yeast extract or casein
hydrolysate - consist of a
mixture of many chemical
species in unknown
Some microorganisms have
never been cultured on
defined media

Types of Culture Media

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Consistency

1. Solid Media

contains 2% agar
Colony morphology, pigmentation, hemolysis can be

Nutrient agar

Blood agar

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Consistency

2. Liquid Media
no agar
For inoculum
preparation, Blood
culture, for the isolation
of pathogens from a
Eg: Nutrient broth

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Consistency

3. Semi-Solid Medium
0.5% agar
Eg: Motility medium

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Consistency

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Constituents/Ingredients

1. Simple Media/Basal Media

Eg: Nutrient broth, Nutrient agar
NB consists of peptone, meat extract,
NB + 2% agar = Nutrient agar

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Constituents/Ingredients
2. Complex media
Media(other than basal media)
They have added ingredients.
Provide special nutrients

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Constituents/Ingredients
3. Synthetic or defined media

Media prepared from pure chemical

substances and its exact
composition is known
Eg: peptone water 1% peptone +
0.5% NaCl in water

Types of Culture Media:

Based on Constituents/Ingredients
4. Special Media
Enriched media
Enrichment media
Selective media
Indicator media
Differential media
Sugar media
Transport media
Media for biochemical reactions

1. Nutrient Media

contain all the elements that most

bacteria need for growth and are not
used for the general cultivation and
maintenance of bacteria kept in
laboratory culture collections

2. Enriched Media
contain the nutrients required

to support the growth of a

wide variety of organisms;
more fastidious ones
they are commonly used to
harvest as many different
types of microbes as are
present in the specimen



3. Enrichment Media
Liquid media used to isolate
pathogens from a mixed culture.

Media is incorporated with

inhibitory substances to suppress
the unwanted organism.


Selenite F Broth for the isolation of

Salmonella, Shigella

Alkaline Peptone Water for Vibrio


4. Selective Media
used for the growth of only
selected microorganisms
the inhibitory substance is
added to a solid media
used in cell culture to ensure
the survival or proliferation
of cells with certain

antibiotic resistance or the

ability to synthesize a certain

Mac Conkeys medium (for

gram negative bacteria)

4. Selective Media

TCBS (for

LJ medium

Potassium tellurite medium

(Diphtheria bacilli)

5. Indicator Media
These media contain an
indicator which changes its
colour when a bacterium
grows in them.
Blood agar
Mac Conkeys medium
Christensens urease medium

Urease Medium

6. Differential Media
Media that distinguish one microorganism type

from another growing on the same medium

Uses the biochemical characteristics of a
microorganism growing in the presence of specific
nutrients added to the medium to visibly indicate
the defining characteristics of a microorganism

6. Differential Media
Blood agar (used in strep tests) contains bovine heart blood that
becomes transparent in the presence of hemolytic Streptococcus.

Eosin methylene blue is differential for lactose fermentation.

Mac Conkey agar is differential for lactose fermentation.

Granada medium is selective and differential for Streptococcus

agalactiae (group B streptococcus) which grows as distinctive red
colonies in this medium.
Mannitol salt agar is differential for mannitol fermentation.
X-gal plates are differential for lac operon mutants.

6. Differential Media
Mac Conkeys Medium
- Lactose fermenters Pink colonies
- Non lactose fermenters colourless colonies

7. Sugar Media
Media containing any fermentable

Eg: glucose, arabinose, lactose,

starch etc.

Media consists of 1% of the sugar in

peptone water.

Contain a small tube (Durhams

tube) for the detection of gas by the

8. Transport Media
Transport media should fulfill these criteria:
Temporary storage of specimens being transported to the
laboratory for cultivation
Maintain the viability of all organisms in the specimen without
altering their concentration
Contain only buffers and salt
Lack of carbon, nitrogen, and organic growth factors so as to
prevent microbial multiplication
Transport media used in the isolation of anaerobes must be free
of molecular oxygen

8. Transport Media
Examples of transport media include:
Thioglycolate broth is for strict anaerobes.
Stuart transport medium is a non-nutrient soft agar gel
containing a reducing
agent to prevent oxidation, and
charcoal to neutralize.

Certain bacterial
inhibitors are used for
gonococci, and buffered
glycerol saline for enteric

Ramakrishna (VR) medium
is used for V. cholerae

9. Minimal Media
Minimal media are those that contain the minimum nutrients
possible for colony growth, generally without the presence of
amino acids, and are often used by
microbiologists and
geneticists to grow
Minimal media can
also be used to select
for or against
recombinants or

9. Minimal Media
Supplementary minimal media are minimal media that also
contains a single selected agent, usually an amino acid or a sugar.

Minimal medium typically contains:

a carbon source, which may be a sugar such as glucose, or a
less energy-rich source such as succinate
various salts, which may vary among bacteria species and
growing conditions; these generally provide essential elements
such as magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur to allow
the bacteria to synthesize protein and nucleic acids

Type of Media:
Based on Oxygen Requirement

1. Aerobic Media
These media are used to grow organisms that
naturally require oxygen to live .

Type of Media:
Based on Oxygen Requirement

2. Anaerobic Media
These media are used to
grow anaerobic
Eg: Robertsons cooked
meat medium,
Thioglycolate medium.

Oxygen Requirement