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Creep & Wear

High Temperature
Irreversible Deformation

Objectives

Identify the primary mechanisms of


creep deformation
Determine the threshold temperature
for creep for an alloy of known
melting temperature
Use creep data to determine creep
model parameters
Read and apply a creep rupture curve

Creep
Time dependant permanent
deformation

At constant stress, strain


continues to increase

Creep
Stress

Strain

Time

Mechanisms of Creep

High rates of diffusion permit


reshaping of crystals to relieve stress
Diffusion significant at both grain
boundaries and in the bulk
High energy and weak bonds allow
dislocations to climb around
structures that pin them at lower
temperature

Mechanisms of Creep

Creep Test

Usually a tensile bar

Dead load applied

Strain is plotted with time

Test usually ends with rupture


(failure)

Classical creep curve

Application of Classical
Curve

Steady state creep rate determined


from straight section (secondary
creep)
Ahrennius model captures
temperature dependence (diffusion!)
Several tests at different
temperatures & stress levels can be
used to determine material model
parameters

Creep Constitutive
Models
d = K2 n exp (-QC / RT)
dt
For T = constant
d = K 1 n
dt

Creep Rupture Method

When rupture (catastrophic failure)


is the only concern (eg boiler tubes)
a simpler method will do

Maps of time to rupture as a


function of stress and temperature
are used to determine the expected
life

Stress Rupture Curve


(Applied stress vs. time to
rupture)

Threshold for Creep


The Critical Temperature for
Creep is 40% of the Melting
Temperature.
If T > 0.40 TM Creep Is Likely

Example
Will Lead Creep at Room
Temperature?
TM = 327 C = 600 K
TROOM = 23 C = 296 K

Creep Example
Will Lead Products Creep at Room
Temperature?
TM = 327 C = 600 K
TROOM = 23 C = 296 K
100 x 296 / 600 =49.3 % Will
Creep

Creep in Ice
How cold does your freezer need to be
to avoid creep in the ice cubes?

Creep in Ice
How cold does your freezer need to be
to avoid creep in the ice cubes?
0C = 273 K
0.4 * 273 = 109.2K = -163.8 C!
Brrrr!

Creep of Ice

Ice creeps at most


terrestrial
temperatures
People have
studied this for use
in weather models
& ship design

Budd and Jacka, 1989).

How Do We Deal With


Creep ?
1.

Reduce the effect of grain


boundaries

Use Single Crystals

Stress Rupture in Single


Crystals

CMSX-4 & CM 186 (yellow) are


Single Crystals

Advanced Materials & Processes


April 1995

Single Crystal Turbine


Blade
Allison AE 2100
Turboprop engine

First Stage vane


doublet from
CMSX-4 alloy

Advanced Materials & Processes


April 1995

How Do We Deal With Creep ?


1. Reduce the effect of grain
boundaries
Use Single Crystals

2. Change Materials

How Do We Deal With Creep ?


1. Reduce the effect of grain
boundaries
Use Single Crystals

2. Change Materials
3. Change Operating Conditions

Wear

Three Mechanisms
1.
2.
3.

Adhesive
Abrasive
Fretting

Adhesive Wear

Compatible
Materials
Special coatings
Welding of
Asperities
Welds break
during translation
of surfaces

How Do you Prevent


Adhesive Wear?

Incompatible
materials
Lubricate
Polish

Fundamentals of Machine
Component Design, Juvinall &
Marshak, Wiley

Abrasive Wear
Three body wear
Contamination or
wear debris does
much of the damage
Why you use an oil filter.

Fretting Wear

Parts in Contact
Small relative motion
Microwelding causes spot damage