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PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

Submitted by:
Javeriya Siddiqui
M.Tech(Env. Engg.)
2nd year
Roll no.6104206008

INTRODUCTION
The term plastics includes materials composed of various
elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine,
and sulphur.
Plastics are macromolecules, formed by polymerization and having
the ability to be shaped by the application of reasonable amount
of heat and pressure or any other form of forces.
It is one of the few new chemical materials which pose
environmental problem.
Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the
manufacturing of plastics.

BACKGROUND

Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrial growth have


led to severe problem of waste generation in urban centres.

The waste quantities increased from 46 million tones in 2001 to


65 million tones in 2010.

Report says that per capita per day production will increase to
0.7 kg in 2050.

The characteristics of waste depends on various factors such as


food habits, traditions, lifestyle, climate etc.

TYPES OF PLASTIC MATERIALS


Plastics,

depending on their physical properties, may be


classified as thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic materials.

Thermoplastic

materials can be formed into desired shapes


under heat and pressure and become solids on cooling. If they
are subjected to the same conditions of heat and pressure, they
can be remoulded.

Thermosetting

materials which once shaped


softened/ remoulded by the application of heat.

Out

cannot

be

of total uses of plastic, 80% are Thermoplastic and 20% are


Thermosetting.

CATEGORIZATION OF PLASTIC

SOURCES OF PLASTIC WASTE

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ON DISPOSAL OF


PLASTIC WASTE

Plastic pollute beaches & oceans.

Plastic bags litter the landscape.

Plastic bags kill animals.

During product manufacturing various types of gases are


released.

Indiscriminate plastic waste disposal on land makes the land


infertile due to its impervious nature.

Burning of plastics generates toxic emissions such as Carbon


Monoxide, Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxin, Furans, Amines,
Nitrides, Styrene, Benzene, 1, 3- butadiene, CCl4, and
Acetaldehyde.

Sub-standard plastic bags, films etc. pose problem in


collection and recycling.

Littered plastics give unaesthetic look and choke the


drain.

Garbage mixed with plastics interferes in waste processing


facilities and also cause problems in landfill operations.

Lead and Cadmium pigments, commonly used in LDPE,


HDPE and PP as additives are toxic and are known to leach
out.

Non-recyclable plastic wastes poses disposal problem.

PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

Disposal of plastic waste is a serious concern in India. New


technologies have been developed to minimize their
adverse effect on the environment.

Figure 1: Co-processing of plastic waste plastic Waste Management

CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR


PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

Recycling of plastics through environmentally


sound manner

Plastics recycling technologies have been historically divided into


four general types- primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

Steps Involved in the Recycling Process:

Selection: The recyclers/reprocessors have to select the waste


/scrap which are suitable for recycling/ reprocessing.

Segregation: The plastics waste shall be segregated as per the


codes mentioned in the BiS guidelines.

Processing: After selection and segregation of the preconsumer


waste (factory waste) shall be directly recycled. The post consumer
waste (used plastic waste) shall be washed, shredded,
agglomerated, extruded and granulated.

Landlling

Landll is the conventional approach to waste


management, but space for landlls is becoming scarce in
some countries.

A well-managed landll site results in limited immediate


environmental harm beyond the impacts of collection and
transport, although there are long-term risks of
contamination of soils and groundwater by some additives
and breakdown by products in plastics, which can become
persistent organic pollutants.

A major drawback to landlls from a sustainability aspect


is that none of the material resources used to produce the
plastic is recovered.

Incineration

Incineration reduces the need for landll of plastics waste,


however, there are concerns that hazardous substances
may be released into the atmosphere in the process.

Incineration can be used with recovery of some of the


energy content in the plastic.

The useful energy recovered can vary considerably


depending on whether it is used for electricity generation,
combined heat and power, or as solid refuse fuel for cofuelling of blast furnaces or cement kilns.

NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASTIC WASTE

MANAGEMENT

Polymer Blended Bitumen Road

A brief description of the technique used in laying road


using plastic waste is given in figure.

Co-processing of Plastic waste in Cement Kiln

Co-processing of plastic waste as Alternative Fuel and


Raw Material (AFR).

Co-processing indicate substitution of primary fuel and raw


material by waste.

Waste material such as plastic waste used for co-processing are


referred to as alternative fuels and raw material (AFR).

One of the advantage of recovery method used in existing facility


is eliminating the need to invest on other plastic waste practices
and to secure land filling.

Plasma Pyrolysis Technology (PPT)

Pyrolysis is the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous


material in oxygen-starved atmosphere.

The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of


Plasma Pyrolysis technology enable it to dispose of all
types of plastic waste including polymeric, biomedical and
hazardous waste in a safe and reliable manner.

When optimized, the most likely compounds formed are


methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen carbon dioxide and
water molecules.

Conversion of Plastics Waste into liquid fuel

The entire process is undertaken in closed reactor vessel


followed by condensation, if required.

Waste plastics while heating upto 2700 to 3000 C convert


into liquid-vapour state, which is collected in
condensation chamber in the form of liquid fuel.

The tarry liquid waste is topped-down from the heating


reactor vessel.

The organic gas is generated which can be used in dual


fuel diesel generator set for generation of electricity.

Figure 2: Schematic flow diagram of process.

CONCLUSION

Plastic Waste Management has assumed great significance


in view of the urbanisation activities.

Various strategies are being devised to mitigate the impact


of plastic waste in India.

Some significant challenges still exist from both


technological factors and from economic or social
behaviour issues relating to the collection of recyclable
wastes, and substitution for virgin material.

Thank you for your attention