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CHAPTER

16

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Forces and Accelerations

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Seventh

Contents

Introduction

Equations of Motion of a Rigid Body

Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in

Plane Motion

Plane Motion of a Rigid Body:

dAlemberts Principle

Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bod

ies

Problems Involving the Motion of a R

igid Body

Sample Problem 16.1

Sample Problem 16.2

Sample Problem 16.4

Sample Problem 16.5

Constrained Plane Motion

Constrained Plane Motion:

Noncentroidal Rotation

Constrained Plane Motion:

Rolling Motion

Sample Problem 16.6

Sample Problem 16.8

Sample Problem 16.9

Sample Problem 16.10

Seventh

Introduction

In this chapter and in Chapters 17 and 18, we will be

concerned with the kinetics of rigid bodies, i.e., relations

between the forces acting on a rigid body, the shape and mass

of the body, and the motion produced.

Results of this chapter will be restricted to:

- plane motion of rigid bodies, and

- rigid bodies consisting of plane slabs or bodies which

are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane.

Our approach will be to consider rigid bodies as made of

large numbers of particles and to use the results of Chapter

14 for the motion of systems of particles. Specifically,

F ma

and

M H

attached to the mass center and a couple of moment I .

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Seventh

Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body

Consider a rigid body acted upon

by several external forces.

Assume that the body is made of

a large number of particles.

For the motion of the mass center

G of the body with respect to the

Newtonian frame Oxyz,

m

a

respect to the centroidal frame

Gxyz,

M G HG

System of external forces is

equipollent to the

system

consisting of ma and H G .

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Seventh

Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion

Angular momentum of the slab may be

computed by

n

H G ri vimi

i 1

n

ri ri mi

i 1

ri 2 mi

After differentiation,

H G I I

Consider a rigid slab in

plane motion.

bodies which are symmetrical with respect to

the reference plane.

Results are not valid for asymmetrical bodies or

three-dimensional motion.

Seventh

Plane Motion of a Rigid Body: DAlemberts Principle

Motion of a rigid body in plane motion is

completely defined by the resultant and moment

resultant about G of the external forces.

Fx ma x Fy ma y M G I

The external forces and the collective effective

forces of the slab particles are equipollent (reduce

to the same resultant and moment resultant) and

equivalent (have the same effect on the body).

dAlemberts Principle: The external forces

acting on a rigid body are equivalent to the

effective forces of the various particles forming

the body.

The most general motion of a rigid body that is

symmetrical with respect to the reference plane

can be replaced by the sum of a translation and a

centroidal rotation.

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Seventh

Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

a rigid body but but have the same magnitude,

direction, and line of action.

The forces produce the same moment about

any point and are therefore, equipollent

external forces.

This proves the principle of transmissibility

whereas it was previously stated as an axiom.

Seventh

Problems Involving the Motion of a Rigid Body

The fundamental relation between the forces

acting on a rigid body in plane motion and

the acceleration of its mass center and the

angular acceleration of the body is illustrated

in a free-body-diagram equation.

The techniques for solving problems of

static equilibrium may be applied to solve

problems of plane motion by utilizing

- dAlemberts principle, or

- principle of dynamic equilibrium

These techniques may also be applied to

problems involving plane motion of

connected rigid bodies by drawing a freebody-diagram equation for each body and

solving the corresponding equations of

motion simultaneously.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.1

SOLUTION:

Calculate the acceleration during the

skidding stop by assuming uniform

acceleration.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

At a forward speed of 30 ft/s, the truck Apply the three corresponding scalar

brakes were applied, causing the wheels

equations to solve for the unknown

to stop rotating. It was observed that the normal wheel forces at the front and rear

truck to skidded to a stop in 20 ft.

and the coefficient of friction between

the wheels and road surface.

Determine the magnitude of the normal

reaction and the friction force at each

wheel as the truck skidded to a stop.

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.1

SOLUTION:

Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop

by assuming uniform acceleration.

v 2 v02 2a x x0

ft

v0 30

s

x 20 ft

ft

0 30

s

2a 20 ft

a 22.5

ft

s

equivalence of the external and effective forces.

Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

Fy Fy eff

Fx Fx eff

N A NB W 0

FA FB ma

k N A N B

kW W g a

k

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a 22.5

0.699

g 32.2

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.1

Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

M A M A eff

5 ft W 12 ft N B 4 ft ma

1

W W

a

5W 4 a 5 4

12

g 12

g

N B 0.650W

NB

N A W N B 0.350W

N rear 12 N A 12 0.350W

Frear k N rear 0.690 0.175W

N front 12 NV 12 0.650W

N rear 0.175W

Frear 0.122W

N front 0.325W

F front 0.0.227W

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.2

SOLUTION:

Note that after the wire is cut, all

particles of the plate move along parallel

circular paths of radius 150 mm. The

plate is in curvilinear translation.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

The thin plate of mass 8 kg is held in

place as shown.

Neglecting the mass of the links,

determine immediately after the wire

has been cut (a) the acceleration of the

plate, and (b) the force in each link.

equations parallel and perpendicular to

the path of the mass center.

Solve the component equations and the

moment equation for the unknown

acceleration and link forces.

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.2

SOLUTION:

Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the

plate move along parallel circular paths of radius

150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing

the equivalence of the external and effective

forces.

Resolve the diagram equation into components

parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass

center.

Ft Ft eff

W cos 30 ma

mg cos 30

a 9.81m/s 2 cos 30

a 8.50 m s 2

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60o

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.2

Solve the component equations and the moment

equation for the unknown acceleration and link

forces.

M G M G eff

FDF sin 30 250 mm FDF cos 30100 mm 0

38.4 FAE 211.6 FDF 0

FDF 0.1815 FAE

Fn Fn eff

a 8.50 m s 2

60o

FAE 0.1815 FAE W sin 30 0

FDF 0.1815 47.9 N

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FAE 47.9 N T

FDF 8.70 N C

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.3

SOLUTION:

Determine the direction of rotation by

evaluating the net moment on the

pulley due to the two blocks.

Relate the acceleration of the blocks to

the angular acceleration of the pulley.

Draw the free-body-diagram equation

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces on the

complete pulley plus blocks system.

radius of gyration of 8 in. is connected to

Solve the corresponding moment

two blocks as shown.

equation for the pulley angular

Assuming no axle friction, determine the

acceleration.

angular acceleration of the pulley and the

acceleration of each block.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.3

SOLUTION:

Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net

moment on the pulley due to the two blocks.

M G 10 lb 6 in 5 lb 10 in 10 in lb

rotation is counterclockwise.

note:

I mk 2

W 2

k

g

12 lb 8

ft

2

32.2 ft s 12

0.1656 lb ft s 2

acceleration of the pulley.

a A rA

10

ft

12

aB rB

6

12

ft

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.3

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the

equivalence of the external and effective forces on the

complete pulley and blocks system.

Solve the corresponding moment equation for the pulley

angular acceleration.

M G M G eff

6

10 lb 126 ft 5 lb 10

ft I mB aB 12

ft m Aa A 10

ft

12

12

10 6 6 5 10 10

10 126 5 10

0

.

1656

12 32.2 12 12

12

32.2 12

I 0.1656 lb ft s 2

a A 10

ft

s

12

aB

12

ft s

2.374 rad s 2

Then,

a A rA

a A 1.978 ft s 2

aB 1.187 ft s 2

10

ft

2.374

rad

s

12

aB rB

6 ft 2.374 rad s 2

12

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.4

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-diagram equation

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces on the disk.

homogeneous disk of mass 15 kg.

The cord is pulled upwards with a

force T = 180 N.

equilibrium equations for the horizontal,

vertical, and angular accelerations of the

disk.

Determine the acceleration of the cord by

evaluating the tangential acceleration of

the point A on the disk.

center of the disk, (b) the angular

acceleration of the disk, and (c) the

acceleration of the cord.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.4

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the

equivalence of the external and effective forces on

the disk.

Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fx Fx eff

ax 0

0 ma x

Fy Fy eff

T W ma y

T W 180 N - 15 kg 9.81m s 2

ay

m

15 kg

M G M G eff

Tr I

a y 2.19 m s 2

12 mr 2

2T

2180 N

15 kg 0.5 m

mr

48.0 rad s 2

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.4

Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the

tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk.

acord a A t a a A G t

acord 26.2 m s 2

ax 0

a y 2.19 m s 2

48.0 rad s 2

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.5

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-diagram equation

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces on the

sphere.

Solve the three corresponding scalar

equilibrium equations for the normal

reaction from the surface and the linear

A uniform sphere of mass m and radius

and angular accelerations of the sphere.

r is projected along a rough horizontal

Apply the kinematic relations for

surface with a linear velocity v0. The

uniformly accelerated motion to

coefficient of kinetic friction between

determine the time at which the

the sphere and the surface is k.

tangential velocity of the sphere at the

Determine: (a) the time t1 at which the

surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere

sphere will start rolling without sliding,

stops sliding.

and (b) the linear and angular velocities

of the sphere at time t1.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.5

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the

equivalence of external and effective forces on the

sphere.

Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fy Fy eff

N W 0

Fx Fx eff

F ma

k mg

N W mg

a k g

M G M G eff

Fr I

k mg r 23 mr 2

5 k g

2 r

NOTE: As long as the sphere both rotates and slides,

its linear and angular motions are uniformly

accelerated.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.5

Apply the kinematic relations for uniformly accelerated

motion to determine the time at which the tangential

velocity of the sphere at the surface is zero, i.e., when the

sphere stops sliding.

v v 0 a t v 0 k g t

5 k g

t

2 r

0 t 0

a k g

5 k g

2 r

v1 r1

5 k g

t1

2 r

t1

v0 k gt1 r

5 k g

5 k g

t1

2

r

2

r

5 v0

7 r

v1 r1 r

2 v0

2 v0

7 k g

5 v0

7 r

v1 75 v0

Seventh

Constrained Plane Motion

Most engineering applications involve rigid

bodies which are moving under given

constraints, e.g., cranks, connecting rods, and

non-slipping wheels.

Constrained plane motion: motions with

definite relations between the components of

acceleration of the mass center and the angular

acceleration of the body.

Solution of a problem involving constrained

plane motion begins with a kinematic analysis.

e.g., given and , find P, NA, and NB.

- kinematic analysis yields ax and a y .

- application of dAlemberts principle yields

P, NA, and NB.

Seventh

Constrained Motion: Noncentroidal Rotation

Noncentroidal rotation: motion of a body is

constrained to rotate about a fixed axis that does

not pass through its mass center.

Kinematic relation between the motion of the mass

center G and the motion of the body about G,

at r

an r 2

at and an from equations derived from

dAlemberts principle or from the method of

dynamic equilibrium.

Seventh

Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling Motion

For a balanced disk constrained to

roll without sliding,

x r a r

Rolling, no sliding:

F s N

a r

Rolling, sliding impending:

F s N

a r

Rotating and sliding:

a, r independent

F k N

For the geometric center of an

unbalanced disk,

aO r

The acceleration of the mass center,

aG aO aG O

aO aG O aG O

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.6

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for AOB,

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

mE 4 kg

k E 85 mm

mOB 3 kg

actuated by gear D and at the instant

shown has a clockwise angular velocity

of 8 rad/s and a counterclockwise

angular acceleration of 40 rad/s2.

Determine: a) tangential force exerted

by gear D, and b) components of the

reaction at shaft O.

weights of gear E and arm OB and the

effective forces associated with the

angular velocity and acceleration.

Solve the three scalar equations

derived from the free-body-equation

for the tangential force at A and the

horizontal and vertical components of

reaction at shaft O.

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.6

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for AOB.

Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of

gear E and arm OB and the effective forces.

WE 4 kg 9.81m s 2 39.2 N

1.156 N m

mE 4 kg

k E 85 mm

mOB 3 kg

40 rad s 2

8 rad/s

24.0 N

38.4 N

I OB

1.600 N m

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.6

Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the tangential force at A and the

horizontal and vertical components of reaction at O.

M O M O eff

F 0.120m I E mOB aOB t 0.200m I OB

F 63.0 N

Fx Fx eff

WE 39.2 N

WOB 29.4 N

I E 1.156 N m

Rx 24.0 N

Fy Fy eff

I OB 1.600 N m

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R y 24.0 N

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.8

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for the

sphere, expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

With the linear and angular accelerations

related, solve the three scalar equations

derived from the free-body-equation for

the angular acceleration and the normal

A sphere of weight W is released with

and tangential reactions at C.

no initial velocity and rolls without

Calculate the friction coefficient required

slipping on the incline.

for the indicated tangential reaction at C.

Determine: a) the minimum value of

Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of

the coefficient of friction, b) the

uniformly accelerated motion.

velocity of G after the sphere has

rolled 10 ft and c) the velocity of G if Assuming no friction, calculate the linear

acceleration down the incline and the

the sphere were to move 10 ft down a

corresponding velocity after 10 ft.

frictionless incline.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.8

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing

the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

With the linear and angular accelerations related, solve

the three scalar equations derived from the free-bodyequation for the angular acceleration and the normal

and tangential reactions at C.

M C M C eff

a r

W sin r ma r I

mr r 52 mr 2

W

2W 2

r r

r

g

5 g

a r

5 g sin 30

7

5 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30

7

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a 11.50 ft s 2

5 g sin

7r

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.8

Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the angular acceleration and the

normal and tangential reactions at C.

Fx Fx eff W sin F ma

W 5 g sin

g

7

2

F W sin 30 0.143W

7

N W cos 0

Fy Fy

eff

5 g sin

7r

a r 11.50 ft s 2

N W cos 30 0.866W

indicated tangential reaction at C.

F s N

F 0.143W

N 0.866W

s 0.165

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.8

Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of uniformly

accelerated motion.

v 2 v02 2a x x0

0 2 11.50 ft s 2 10 ft

v 15.17 ft s

and the corresponding velocity after 10 ft.

5 g sin

7r

M G M G eff

0 I

Fx Fx eff

W sin ma

W

a

g

a r 11.50 ft s 2

v 2 v02 2a x x0

0 2 16.1ft s 2 10 ft

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v 17.94 ft s

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.9

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for the

wheel, expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

Assuming rolling without slipping and

therefore, related linear and angular

accelerations, solve the scalar equations

for the acceleration and the normal and

tangential reactions at the ground.

hub of a wheel and pulled

Compare the required tangential reaction

horizontally with a force of 200 N.

to the maximum possible friction force.

The wheel has a mass of 50 kg and a

If slipping occurs, calculate the kinetic

radius of gyration of 70 mm.

friction force and then solve the scalar

Knowing s = 0.20 and k = 0.15,

equations for the linear and angular

determine the acceleration of G and

accelerations.

the angular acceleration of the wheel.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.9

SOLUTION:

Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel,.

Assuming rolling without slipping, solve the scalar

equations for the acceleration and ground reactions.

M C M C eff

8.0 N m 50 kg 0.100 m 2 0.245 kg m 2

I mk 2 50 kg 0.70 m 2

0.245 kg m 2

Assume rolling without slipping,

a r

0.100 m

10.74 rad s 2

Fx Fx eff

F 200 N ma 50 kg 1.074 m s 2

F 146.3 N

Fx Fx eff

N W 0

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.9

Compare the required tangential reaction to the

maximum possible friction force.

Fmax s N 0.20 490.5 N 98.1 N

F > Fmax , rolling without slipping is impossible.

Without slipping,

F 146.3 N N 490.5 N

scalar equations for linear and angular accelerations.

F Fk k N 0.15 490.5 N 73.6 N

Fx Fx eff

200 N 73.6 N 50 kg a

a 2.53 m s 2

M G M G eff

73.6 N 0.100 m 200 N 0.0.060 m

0.245 kg m 2

18.94 rad s 2

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18.94 rad s 2

Seventh

Sample Problem 16.10

SOLUTION:

Based on the kinematics of the constrained

motion, express the accelerations of A, B,

and G in terms of the angular acceleration.

weighing 50 lb can move freely and

with no friction along two straight

tracks. The rod is released with no

velocity from the position shown.

expressing the equivalence of the

external and effective forces.

Solve the three corresponding scalar

equations for the angular acceleration and

the reactions at A and B.

acceleration of the rod, and b) the

reactions at A and B.

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.10

SOLUTION:

Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion,

express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of

the angular acceleration.

Express the acceleration of B as

a B a A aB A

With aB A 4 , the corresponding vector triangle and

the law of signs yields

a A 5.46

aB 4.90

a a G a A aG A where aG A 2

Resolving into x and y components,

a x 5.46 2 cos 60 4.46

a y 2 sin 60 1.732

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Seventh

Sample Problem 16.10

Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing

the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the

angular acceleration and the reactions at A and B.

M E M E eff

2.30 rad s 2

1 ml 2

I 12

1

50 lb

2

4

ft

12 32.2 ft s 2

2.07 lb ft s 2

I 2.07

50

4.46 6.93

ma x

32.2

50

1.732 2.69

ma y

32.2

2.30 rad s 2

Fx Fx eff

RB sin 45 6.93 2.30

RB 22.5 lb

Fy Fy eff

RB 22.5 lb

R A 27.9 lb

45o