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Seventh Edition

CHAPTER

16

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies:


Forces and Accelerations

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Contents
Introduction
Equations of Motion of a Rigid Body
Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in
Plane Motion
Plane Motion of a Rigid Body:
dAlemberts Principle
Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bod
ies
Problems Involving the Motion of a R
igid Body
Sample Problem 16.1
Sample Problem 16.2

Sample Problem 16.3


Sample Problem 16.4
Sample Problem 16.5
Constrained Plane Motion
Constrained Plane Motion:
Noncentroidal Rotation
Constrained Plane Motion:
Rolling Motion
Sample Problem 16.6
Sample Problem 16.8
Sample Problem 16.9
Sample Problem 16.10

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Introduction
In this chapter and in Chapters 17 and 18, we will be
concerned with the kinetics of rigid bodies, i.e., relations
between the forces acting on a rigid body, the shape and mass
of the body, and the motion produced.
Results of this chapter will be restricted to:
- plane motion of rigid bodies, and
- rigid bodies consisting of plane slabs or bodies which
are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane.
Our approach will be to consider rigid bodies as made of
large numbers of particles and to use the results of Chapter
14 for the motion of systems of particles. Specifically,

F ma
and
M H

DAlemberts principle is applied to prove that the external

forces acting on a rigid body are equivalent a vector ma


attached to the mass center and a couple of moment I .
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body
Consider a rigid body acted upon
by several external forces.
Assume that the body is made of
a large number of particles.
For the motion of the mass center
G of the body with respect to the
Newtonian frame Oxyz,

m
a

For the motion of the body with


respect to the centroidal frame
Gxyz,

M G HG
System of external forces is
equipollent to the

system
consisting of ma and H G .
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion
Angular momentum of the slab may be
computed by
n

H G ri vimi
i 1
n


ri ri mi
i 1

ri 2 mi

After differentiation,

H G I I
Consider a rigid slab in
plane motion.

Results are also valid for plane motion of


bodies which are symmetrical with respect to
the reference plane.
Results are not valid for asymmetrical bodies or
three-dimensional motion.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Plane Motion of a Rigid Body: DAlemberts Principle
Motion of a rigid body in plane motion is
completely defined by the resultant and moment
resultant about G of the external forces.
Fx ma x Fy ma y M G I
The external forces and the collective effective
forces of the slab particles are equipollent (reduce
to the same resultant and moment resultant) and
equivalent (have the same effect on the body).
dAlemberts Principle: The external forces
acting on a rigid body are equivalent to the
effective forces of the various particles forming
the body.
The most general motion of a rigid body that is
symmetrical with respect to the reference plane
can be replaced by the sum of a translation and a
centroidal rotation.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

The forces F and F act at different points on


a rigid body but but have the same magnitude,
direction, and line of action.
The forces produce the same moment about
any point and are therefore, equipollent
external forces.
This proves the principle of transmissibility
whereas it was previously stated as an axiom.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Problems Involving the Motion of a Rigid Body
The fundamental relation between the forces
acting on a rigid body in plane motion and
the acceleration of its mass center and the
angular acceleration of the body is illustrated
in a free-body-diagram equation.
The techniques for solving problems of
static equilibrium may be applied to solve
problems of plane motion by utilizing
- dAlemberts principle, or
- principle of dynamic equilibrium
These techniques may also be applied to
problems involving plane motion of
connected rigid bodies by drawing a freebody-diagram equation for each body and
solving the corresponding equations of
motion simultaneously.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.1
SOLUTION:
Calculate the acceleration during the
skidding stop by assuming uniform
acceleration.
Draw the free-body-diagram equation
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
At a forward speed of 30 ft/s, the truck Apply the three corresponding scalar
brakes were applied, causing the wheels
equations to solve for the unknown
to stop rotating. It was observed that the normal wheel forces at the front and rear
truck to skidded to a stop in 20 ft.
and the coefficient of friction between
the wheels and road surface.
Determine the magnitude of the normal
reaction and the friction force at each
wheel as the truck skidded to a stop.

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.1
SOLUTION:
Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop
by assuming uniform acceleration.
v 2 v02 2a x x0
ft
v0 30
s

x 20 ft

ft
0 30
s

2a 20 ft

a 22.5

ft
s

Draw a free-body-diagram equation expressing the


equivalence of the external and effective forces.
Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

Fy Fy eff

Fx Fx eff

N A NB W 0
FA FB ma

k N A N B

kW W g a

k
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a 22.5

0.699
g 32.2

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.1
Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

M A M A eff
5 ft W 12 ft N B 4 ft ma
1
W W
a
5W 4 a 5 4
12
g 12
g
N B 0.650W
NB

N A W N B 0.350W
N rear 12 N A 12 0.350W
Frear k N rear 0.690 0.175W

N front 12 NV 12 0.650W

N rear 0.175W
Frear 0.122W
N front 0.325W

F front k N front 0.690 0.325W


F front 0.0.227W
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.2
SOLUTION:
Note that after the wire is cut, all
particles of the plate move along parallel
circular paths of radius 150 mm. The
plate is in curvilinear translation.
Draw the free-body-diagram equation
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
The thin plate of mass 8 kg is held in
place as shown.
Neglecting the mass of the links,
determine immediately after the wire
has been cut (a) the acceleration of the
plate, and (b) the force in each link.

Resolve into scalar component


equations parallel and perpendicular to
the path of the mass center.
Solve the component equations and the
moment equation for the unknown
acceleration and link forces.

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.2
SOLUTION:
Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the
plate move along parallel circular paths of radius
150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation.
Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing
the equivalence of the external and effective
forces.
Resolve the diagram equation into components
parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass
center.

Ft Ft eff
W cos 30 ma
mg cos 30

a 9.81m/s 2 cos 30
a 8.50 m s 2
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60o

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.2
Solve the component equations and the moment
equation for the unknown acceleration and link
forces.

M G M G eff

FAE sin 30 250 mm FAE cos 30100 mm


FDF sin 30 250 mm FDF cos 30100 mm 0
38.4 FAE 211.6 FDF 0
FDF 0.1815 FAE

Fn Fn eff
a 8.50 m s 2

60o

FAE FDF W sin 30 0


FAE 0.1815 FAE W sin 30 0

FAE 0.619 8 kg 9.81m s 2


FDF 0.1815 47.9 N
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FAE 47.9 N T
FDF 8.70 N C

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.3
SOLUTION:
Determine the direction of rotation by
evaluating the net moment on the
pulley due to the two blocks.
Relate the acceleration of the blocks to
the angular acceleration of the pulley.
Draw the free-body-diagram equation
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces on the
complete pulley plus blocks system.

A pulley weighing 12 lb and having a


radius of gyration of 8 in. is connected to
Solve the corresponding moment
two blocks as shown.
equation for the pulley angular
Assuming no axle friction, determine the
acceleration.
angular acceleration of the pulley and the
acceleration of each block.
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.3
SOLUTION:
Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net
moment on the pulley due to the two blocks.

M G 10 lb 6 in 5 lb 10 in 10 in lb
rotation is counterclockwise.
note:

I mk 2

W 2
k
g

12 lb 8

ft
2
32.2 ft s 12

0.1656 lb ft s 2

Relate the acceleration of the blocks to the angular


acceleration of the pulley.
a A rA

10
ft
12

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aB rB

6
12
ft

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.3
Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the
equivalence of the external and effective forces on the
complete pulley and blocks system.
Solve the corresponding moment equation for the pulley
angular acceleration.

M G M G eff
6
10 lb 126 ft 5 lb 10
ft I mB aB 12
ft m Aa A 10
ft
12
12
10 6 6 5 10 10
10 126 5 10

0
.
1656

12 32.2 12 12
12
32.2 12

I 0.1656 lb ft s 2

a A 10

ft
s
12

aB

12

ft s

2.374 rad s 2
Then,
a A rA

a A 1.978 ft s 2

aB 1.187 ft s 2

10
ft
2.374
rad
s
12

aB rB

6 ft 2.374 rad s 2
12

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.4
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-diagram equation
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces on the disk.

A cord is wrapped around a


homogeneous disk of mass 15 kg.
The cord is pulled upwards with a
force T = 180 N.

Solve the three corresponding scalar


equilibrium equations for the horizontal,
vertical, and angular accelerations of the
disk.
Determine the acceleration of the cord by
evaluating the tangential acceleration of
the point A on the disk.

Determine: (a) the acceleration of the


center of the disk, (b) the angular
acceleration of the disk, and (c) the
acceleration of the cord.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.4
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the
equivalence of the external and effective forces on
the disk.
Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fx Fx eff
ax 0

0 ma x

Fy Fy eff
T W ma y

T W 180 N - 15 kg 9.81m s 2
ay

m
15 kg

M G M G eff
Tr I

a y 2.19 m s 2

12 mr 2

2T
2180 N

15 kg 0.5 m
mr

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48.0 rad s 2

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.4
Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the
tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk.

acord a A t a a A G t

2.19 m s 2 0.5 m 48 rad s 2

acord 26.2 m s 2

ax 0

a y 2.19 m s 2

48.0 rad s 2

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.5
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-diagram equation
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces on the
sphere.
Solve the three corresponding scalar
equilibrium equations for the normal
reaction from the surface and the linear
A uniform sphere of mass m and radius
and angular accelerations of the sphere.
r is projected along a rough horizontal
Apply the kinematic relations for
surface with a linear velocity v0. The
uniformly accelerated motion to
coefficient of kinetic friction between
determine the time at which the
the sphere and the surface is k.
tangential velocity of the sphere at the
Determine: (a) the time t1 at which the
surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere
sphere will start rolling without sliding,
stops sliding.
and (b) the linear and angular velocities
of the sphere at time t1.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.5
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the
equivalence of external and effective forces on the
sphere.
Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Fy Fy eff

N W 0
Fx Fx eff
F ma
k mg

N W mg

a k g

M G M G eff
Fr I

k mg r 23 mr 2

5 k g
2 r
NOTE: As long as the sphere both rotates and slides,
its linear and angular motions are uniformly
accelerated.
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.5
Apply the kinematic relations for uniformly accelerated
motion to determine the time at which the tangential
velocity of the sphere at the surface is zero, i.e., when the
sphere stops sliding.
v v 0 a t v 0 k g t
5 k g
t
2 r

0 t 0

a k g

5 k g
2 r

At the instant t1 when the sphere stops sliding,


v1 r1
5 k g
t1
2 r

t1

v0 k gt1 r

5 k g
5 k g
t1

2
r
2
r

5 v0

7 r

v1 r1 r

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2 v0

2 v0
7 k g

5 v0
7 r

v1 75 v0

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Constrained Plane Motion
Most engineering applications involve rigid
bodies which are moving under given
constraints, e.g., cranks, connecting rods, and
non-slipping wheels.
Constrained plane motion: motions with
definite relations between the components of
acceleration of the mass center and the angular
acceleration of the body.
Solution of a problem involving constrained
plane motion begins with a kinematic analysis.
e.g., given and , find P, NA, and NB.
- kinematic analysis yields ax and a y .
- application of dAlemberts principle yields
P, NA, and NB.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Constrained Motion: Noncentroidal Rotation
Noncentroidal rotation: motion of a body is
constrained to rotate about a fixed axis that does
not pass through its mass center.
Kinematic relation between the motion of the mass
center G and the motion of the body about G,
at r

an r 2

The kinematic relations are used to eliminate


at and an from equations derived from
dAlemberts principle or from the method of
dynamic equilibrium.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling Motion
For a balanced disk constrained to
roll without sliding,
x r a r
Rolling, no sliding:
F s N
a r
Rolling, sliding impending:
F s N
a r
Rotating and sliding:
a, r independent
F k N
For the geometric center of an
unbalanced disk,
aO r
The acceleration of the mass center,

aG aO aG O

aO aG O aG O

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.6
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for AOB,
expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
mE 4 kg
k E 85 mm
mOB 3 kg

The portion AOB of the mechanism is


actuated by gear D and at the instant
shown has a clockwise angular velocity
of 8 rad/s and a counterclockwise
angular acceleration of 40 rad/s2.
Determine: a) tangential force exerted
by gear D, and b) components of the
reaction at shaft O.

Evaluate the external forces due to the


weights of gear E and arm OB and the
effective forces associated with the
angular velocity and acceleration.
Solve the three scalar equations
derived from the free-body-equation
for the tangential force at A and the
horizontal and vertical components of
reaction at shaft O.

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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.6
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for AOB.
Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of
gear E and arm OB and the effective forces.

WE 4 kg 9.81m s 2 39.2 N

WOB 3 kg 9.81m s 2 29.4 N

I E mE k E2 4kg 0.085 m 2 40 rad s 2


1.156 N m
mE 4 kg
k E 85 mm
mOB 3 kg

40 rad s 2
8 rad/s

mOB aOB t mOB r 3 kg 0.200 m 40 rad s 2

24.0 N

mOB aOB n mOB r 2 3 kg 0.200 m 8 rad s 2


38.4 N

I OB

121 mOB L2 121 3kg 0.400 m 2 40 rad s2

1.600 N m
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.6
Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the tangential force at A and the
horizontal and vertical components of reaction at O.

M O M O eff
F 0.120m I E mOB aOB t 0.200m I OB

1.156 N m 24.0 N 0.200m 1.600 N m


F 63.0 N

Fx Fx eff
WE 39.2 N
WOB 29.4 N
I E 1.156 N m

Rx mOB aOB t 24.0 N

Rx 24.0 N

Fy Fy eff

mOB aOB t 24.0 N

R y F WE WOB mOB aOB

mOB aOB n 38.4 N

R y 63.0 N 39.2 N 29.4 N 38.4 N

I OB 1.600 N m
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R y 24.0 N

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.8
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for the
sphere, expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
With the linear and angular accelerations
related, solve the three scalar equations
derived from the free-body-equation for
the angular acceleration and the normal
A sphere of weight W is released with
and tangential reactions at C.
no initial velocity and rolls without
Calculate the friction coefficient required
slipping on the incline.
for the indicated tangential reaction at C.
Determine: a) the minimum value of
Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of
the coefficient of friction, b) the
uniformly accelerated motion.
velocity of G after the sphere has
rolled 10 ft and c) the velocity of G if Assuming no friction, calculate the linear
acceleration down the incline and the
the sphere were to move 10 ft down a
corresponding velocity after 10 ft.
frictionless incline.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.8
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing
the equivalence of the external and effective forces.
With the linear and angular accelerations related, solve
the three scalar equations derived from the free-bodyequation for the angular acceleration and the normal
and tangential reactions at C.

M C M C eff
a r

W sin r ma r I
mr r 52 mr 2
W

2W 2
r r
r
g

5 g

a r

5 g sin 30
7

5 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30

7
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a 11.50 ft s 2

5 g sin
7r

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.8
Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the angular acceleration and the
normal and tangential reactions at C.
Fx Fx eff W sin F ma
W 5 g sin

g
7
2
F W sin 30 0.143W
7
N W cos 0
Fy Fy

eff

5 g sin
7r

a r 11.50 ft s 2

N W cos 30 0.866W

Calculate the friction coefficient required for the


indicated tangential reaction at C.
F s N

F 0.143W

N 0.866W

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s 0.165

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.8
Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of uniformly
accelerated motion.
v 2 v02 2a x x0

0 2 11.50 ft s 2 10 ft

v 15.17 ft s

Assuming no friction, calculate the linear acceleration


and the corresponding velocity after 10 ft.

5 g sin
7r

M G M G eff

0 I

Fx Fx eff

W sin ma

W
a
g

a 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30 16.1ft s 2

a r 11.50 ft s 2
v 2 v02 2a x x0

0 2 16.1ft s 2 10 ft
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v 17.94 ft s

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.9
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for the
wheel, expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
Assuming rolling without slipping and
therefore, related linear and angular
accelerations, solve the scalar equations
for the acceleration and the normal and
tangential reactions at the ground.

A cord is wrapped around the inner


hub of a wheel and pulled
Compare the required tangential reaction
horizontally with a force of 200 N.
to the maximum possible friction force.
The wheel has a mass of 50 kg and a
If slipping occurs, calculate the kinetic
radius of gyration of 70 mm.
friction force and then solve the scalar
Knowing s = 0.20 and k = 0.15,
equations for the linear and angular
determine the acceleration of G and
accelerations.
the angular acceleration of the wheel.
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.9
SOLUTION:
Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel,.
Assuming rolling without slipping, solve the scalar
equations for the acceleration and ground reactions.
M C M C eff

200 N 0.040 m ma 0.100 m I


8.0 N m 50 kg 0.100 m 2 0.245 kg m 2

I mk 2 50 kg 0.70 m 2
0.245 kg m 2
Assume rolling without slipping,
a r
0.100 m

10.74 rad s 2

a 0.100 m 10.74 rad s 2 1.074 m s 2

Fx Fx eff

F 200 N ma 50 kg 1.074 m s 2
F 146.3 N

Fx Fx eff
N W 0

N mg 50kg 1.074 m s 2 490.5 N


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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.9
Compare the required tangential reaction to the
maximum possible friction force.
Fmax s N 0.20 490.5 N 98.1 N
F > Fmax , rolling without slipping is impossible.
Without slipping,
F 146.3 N N 490.5 N

Calculate the friction force with slipping and solve the


scalar equations for linear and angular accelerations.
F Fk k N 0.15 490.5 N 73.6 N

Fx Fx eff
200 N 73.6 N 50 kg a

a 2.53 m s 2

M G M G eff
73.6 N 0.100 m 200 N 0.0.060 m

0.245 kg m 2

18.94 rad s 2
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18.94 rad s 2

Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.10
SOLUTION:
Based on the kinematics of the constrained
motion, express the accelerations of A, B,
and G in terms of the angular acceleration.

The extremities of a 4-ft rod


weighing 50 lb can move freely and
with no friction along two straight
tracks. The rod is released with no
velocity from the position shown.

Draw the free-body-equation for the rod,


expressing the equivalence of the
external and effective forces.
Solve the three corresponding scalar
equations for the angular acceleration and
the reactions at A and B.

Determine: a) the angular


acceleration of the rod, and b) the
reactions at A and B.
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.10
SOLUTION:
Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion,
express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of
the angular acceleration.
Express the acceleration of B as

a B a A aB A
With aB A 4 , the corresponding vector triangle and
the law of signs yields
a A 5.46

aB 4.90

The acceleration of G is now obtained from


a a G a A aG A where aG A 2
Resolving into x and y components,
a x 5.46 2 cos 60 4.46
a y 2 sin 60 1.732
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Seventh

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 16.10
Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing
the equivalence of the external and effective forces.
Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the
angular acceleration and the reactions at A and B.

M E M E eff

501.732 6.93 4.46 2.69 1.732 2.07


2.30 rad s 2
1 ml 2
I 12

1
50 lb
2

4
ft
12 32.2 ft s 2

2.07 lb ft s 2
I 2.07
50
4.46 6.93
ma x
32.2
50
1.732 2.69
ma y
32.2

2.30 rad s 2

Fx Fx eff
RB sin 45 6.93 2.30
RB 22.5 lb

Fy Fy eff

RB 22.5 lb

RA 22.5 cos 45 50 2.69 2.30

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R A 27.9 lb

45o