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Unit 3 Mitosis

and Meiosis
Created By: Mr. Rawlins
Revisions By: Mrs. Norris

LESSON 5: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

COPYING
A CELL

MAKING
SEX
CELLS

WHY MAKE NEW CELLS?

1. The production of more cells is


essential to creating offspring
(babies)
2. More cells allows replacing old,
damaged cells.
3. Used for growth of an organism by
making more cells.

BUT WAIT!
Before we move on
Its important to remember that this is
an introduction to chromosomes and
DNA. We will be looking at the way
most Plant and Animal cells
reproduce but there are more types
of life out there, and copying their
cells doesnt always work the same!

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


DNA IS A CELL PLANNER

6 th
Re g
fr ra
es d
he e
DNA
r!

Found in the Nucleus of a cell,


provides instructions for how a cell
should grow.

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


CHROMOSOMES ARE DNA PACKAGES

When its time for DNA to be copied


and split into two cells, it takes the
shape of a Chromosome to make the
movement less tangled.

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


EACH CHROMOSOME/DNA STRAND
CONTAINS MANY GENES

Each gene in a chromosome is


responsible for building or maintaining
a specific part of an organisms body.
This blue band might be a
gene to build your skin
color.
This orange band might
control whether you are
left or right-handed

(Usually things arent quite this simple, though.)

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES (23 PAIRS)

BEAR TRAP!

Which of the following contains


the ALL of the instructions for
how a cell should be created?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Chromosomes
Genes
Cytoplasm
Cell Wall

SWINGING AXE TRAP!

Plant cells contain


chromosomes.
A. True
B. False

HOW ARE NEW CELLS MADE?


TWO TYPES OF CELLS

In most animals and plants there are


two types of cells

BODY
CELLS
!

SEX
CELLS
!

and both types of cells are made in


different way, and perform different
functions.

BODY CELLS VS. SEX CELLS

Body cells are


used to create all
the parts that
make up an
organism.
NERVE
CELL

Sex cells are used


to create new
offspring through
sexual
reproduction.
SPERM
CELL

BONE
CELL

MUSCLE
CELL

EGG
CELL

BUT WAIT!
Before we move on
Youll notice that all of the cells
mentioned previously were human
body cells
However, ALL organisms are made of
cells. All organisms have BODY CELLS.
Only organisms that sexually
reproduce have SEX CELLS.

LESSON 5: MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

COPYING
A CELL

MAKING
SEX
CELLS

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Begins like this

Begins like this

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Ends like this

Ends like this

Whats the product of meiosis?


A. 2 cells with full sets of
chromosomes.
B. 2 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.
C. 4 cells with full sets of
chromosomes.
D. 4 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.

Whats the product of mitosis?


A. 2 cells with full sets of
chromosomes.
B. 2 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.
C. 4 cells with full sets of
chromosomes.
D. 4 cells with half sets of
chromosomes.

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Chromosomes
Copy

Chromosomes
Swap

MITOSIS VS. MEIOSES

MITOSIS making
a perfect* copy of
a body cell.

MEIOSIS making
a sex cell.

Why Mitosis?
To quickly
replace old and
dying cells.

Why Meiosis?
To mix the
genes of two
parents, giving
the best of both
to the offspring.

CUDDLY HAMSTER TRAP!

Chromosomes are different in


sex cells and body cells.
Which of the following is the
only way that they are similar?
A. They both have crossover.
B. They both have a single
chromosome OR
C. They both are made of DNA.

CHEESEMAN CHALLENGE!

You need two sex cells in order


to create a full set of DNA.
A. True
B. False

Genetics
and
Heredity

Fr
om

M
om

ad
D
From

DNA - a
complete code
of instructions
to build ALL
parts of an
species body.
Remember that
theres twin
halves of DNA
you get one
strand from

Fr
om

M
om

Here

to H
ere

GENE - a part
of the DNA code
that gives
instructions for
ONE part of a
species body.
This section of DNA gives
the code to build your
Earwax!

HUMAN CHROMOSOMES (23 PAIRS)

BUT WAIT!

Since Dad gives a set of


DNA, too, you would have a
gene from him that also
builds earwax!

Fr
om

M
om

ALLELE - an
ad
D
option a gene
From
can be coded as.
YOUR options
depend on what
your parents
Momgive
givesyou!
you an allele
for dry, crumbly earwax!

Dad gives you an allele for


wet, gooey earwax!

BUT WAIT!
Weve got two types of earwax!?
How does the body know what to
choose?
Well explore that later in the
lesson!

Lets examine some DNA, Genes, and


Alleles!

Mr. Michaels Facial Hair


Why so Black?

Like all humans, Mr. Michael


has a set of DNA that codes
instructions to grow all parts of
his body, including facial hair.
And again, like
all humans, Mr.
Michael has a
GENE that is
specifically in
control of facial
hair color!

To grow black, Mr.


Michaels facial hair
gene must have
ALLELES from his
parents that code for
black hair!

Mr. Rawlins Facial Hair


Why so Red?

Like all humans, Mr. Rawlins


has a set of DNA that codes
instructions to grow all parts of
his body, including facial hair.
And again, like
all humans, Mr.
Rawlins has a
GENE that is
specifically in
control of facial
hair color!

To grow red, Mr.


Rawlins facial hair
gene must have
ALLELES from his
parents that code for
red hair!

BEAR TRAP!

Which of the following contains


ALL of the instructions for how
a cell should be created?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Chromosomes
Genes
Cytoplasm
Cell Wall

What two things do


Mr. Rawlins and Mr.
Michael share?

What do they have


different?

We both have a set


of human DNA and
the Gene for facial
We both
hair.have

different codes for


our Alleles that
makes our hair

When describing alleles,


scientists usually pick a letter
and use it to represent the DNA
code. Because each organism
has two alleles, one from each
parent, the alleles are written as
2 letter combos.
PP HH Qq EE tt

For example, scientists might use the


letter H to represent facial hair. A
capital H codes for dark hair. Mr.
Michael probably has the alleles H
H or H h. A lower case h codes
for lighter hair. Mr. Rawlins probably
has the alleles h h. Wed have to
learn more about their genes to be
sure.

Capital letters are called Dominant.


Lower case letters are called
recessive.
Dominant letters are bullies. If
they are around, you will not see the
trait (what it looks like) on the
organism.

Alleles
f f (gene for
number of
fingers)
Polydactyl is a
recessive trait.
F=
f=

Traits

Alleles
F F (gene for
number of
fingers)
Can also be
written as Ff
There is a
bully
present

Traits

Alleles
Q Q (gene for
freckles) Can
also be written
as Qq.
Freckles are a
recessive trait.
q=
Q=

Traits

Alleles
q q (gene for
freckles) Look
no bullies..
*Remember*
1 q comes from
mom
1 q comes from
dad

Traits

We all have the gene for fingers.


The number of fingers we have is
determined by the allele.
We all have the gene for skin.
Whether or not we have freckles
is determined by the allele.

Alleles
Genotype =
List of Alleles

Traits
Phenotype =
List of Traits

Alleles

Traits

Dominant E

Pointy ears

Recessive e

Floppy ears

EE or Ee =

ee=

Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares

e
E
e

Punnett Squares

E
e

Ee

Ee

Punnett Squares

Ee

Ee

ee

ee

YOUR
TURN!!!

USING THE INFORMATION GIVEN


ON THE NEXT SLIDE, CREATE A
PUNNETT SQUARE ON YOUR
NOTES.

P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy


ears
P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy
ears

P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy


ears
P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy
ears
E
e

EE

Ee

Ee

ee

Essential Questions

Pick two of the following


questions and write the
number and the answer
at the bottom of the
back of your notes.

1. How does genetic information


pass from parent to offspring?
2. How can Punnett Squares be
used to predict offsprings
genotypes?
3. How can traits be carried in
someone's genetic material, but
never seen?
4. How can a dominant or a
recessive trait be predicted