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# Module 7

Modal Analysis

7. Modal Analysis

Training Manual

## Modal analysis is used to determine a structures vibration

characteristics natural frequencies and mode shapes.

## It is the most fundamental of all dynamic analysis types and

is generally the starting point for other, more detailed
dynamic analyses.

## In this chapter, we will describe how to do a basic modal

analysis via the following topics:
A. Procedure
B. Workshop

## For details, refer to your Structural Analysis Guide or

Dynamics Training Manual.

## INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part

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Modal Analysis

A. Procedure
The steps to do a modal analysis are as follows:
Preprocessing
Geometry
Meshing
Solution
Analysis Type and Options
Loading
Solve
Postprocessing
Review results

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure

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## Same considerations as a static analysis:

Include as many details as necessary to sufficiently represent
model geometry.
A fine mesh will be needed to resolve complex mode shapes.

## Both Youngs modulus and density are required.

Specify mass density instead of weight density when using
British units.
weight density (lb/in3) g (in/sec2) = mass density (lb-sec2/in4)
For example, density of steel = 0.283/386 = 7.3E-04 lb-sec2/in4

are ignored.

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure

## The analysis type is modal.

Solution > -Analysis Type- New Analysis
Or issue ANTYPE,MODAL

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Analysis Type

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure

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## MODOPT command or Solution >

Analysis Options...

recommended.

## Number of modes: Specify the

number of modes you want to extract.

## MXPAND command or Solution >

Analysis Options...

## Expanding modes allows you to view

them in the postprocessor.

## Number of modes is usually the same

as the number extracted.

Prestress effects

## PSTRES command or Solution >

Analysis Options...

## calculate mode shapes of a

prestressed structure, such as a
spinning turbine blade.

## Default settings are

usually sufficient

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Analysis Options

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure

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## The only loads valid in a modal analysis are

displacement constraints:
Solution > -Loads- Apply > Displacement >
Or use the D family of commands: D, DK, DL, DA,
etc.

## If you dont specify constraints, ANSYS will

calculate rigid body modes (zero frequency).

## After all constraints have been specified, obtain the solution:

First save the database (SAVE command or Toolbar > SAVE_DB).
Then issue SOLVE (or Solution > -Solve- Current LS).

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...Procedure

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results.

## Typically, the first step is to list the natural frequencies:

General Postproc > Results Summary
Or issue SET,LIST
Note that each mode is stored in a separate substep.

## INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part

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Review Results

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure
To plot a mode shape:
First read results for that substep
General Postproc > Results Summary...
Or use the SET command
Then plot the deformed shape
General Postproc > Plot Results >
Deformed Shape
Or use the PLDISP command

## INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part

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Modal Analysis

...Procedure
You can also animate mode shapes:
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape
Or use the ANMODE command

## Another option is to plot contours stresses and strains. Note,

however, that displacement and stress values are simply relative
numbers and have no real meaning.

## INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part

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Modal Analysis

B. Workshop
This workshop consists of the following problem:
W6. U-Bracket

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