Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12

Module 7

Modal Analysis

7. Modal Analysis

Training Manual

Modal analysis is used to determine a structures vibration


characteristics natural frequencies and mode shapes.

It is the most fundamental of all dynamic analysis types and


is generally the starting point for other, more detailed
dynamic analyses.

In this chapter, we will describe how to do a basic modal


analysis via the following topics:
A. Procedure
B. Workshop

For details, refer to your Structural Analysis Guide or


Dynamics Training Manual.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Octo

Modal Analysis

A. Procedure
The steps to do a modal analysis are as follows:
Preprocessing
Geometry
Meshing
Solution
Analysis Type and Options
Loading
Solve
Postprocessing
Review results

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Training Manual

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure

Training Manual

Same considerations as a static analysis:


Include as many details as necessary to sufficiently represent
model geometry.
A fine mesh will be needed to resolve complex mode shapes.

Both Youngs modulus and density are required.


Specify mass density instead of weight density when using
British units.
weight density (lb/in3) g (in/sec2) = mass density (lb-sec2/in4)
For example, density of steel = 0.283/386 = 7.3E-04 lb-sec2/in4

Linear elements and material properties only. Nonlinearities


are ignored.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Geometry & Meshing

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure

The analysis type is modal.


Solution > -Analysis Type- New Analysis
Or issue ANTYPE,MODAL

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Analysis Type

Training Manual

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure

Training Manual

Mode extraction options

MODOPT command or Solution >


Analysis Options...

Method: Block Lanczos is generally


recommended.

Number of modes: Specify the


number of modes you want to extract.

Mode expansion options

MXPAND command or Solution >


Analysis Options...

Expanding modes allows you to view


them in the postprocessor.

Number of modes is usually the same


as the number extracted.

Prestress effects

PSTRES command or Solution >


Analysis Options...

calculate mode shapes of a


prestressed structure, such as a
spinning turbine blade.

Default settings are


usually sufficient

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Analysis Options

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure

Training Manual

The only loads valid in a modal analysis are


displacement constraints:
Solution > -Loads- Apply > Displacement >
Or use the D family of commands: D, DK, DL, DA,
etc.

If you dont specify constraints, ANSYS will


calculate rigid body modes (zero frequency).

After all constraints have been specified, obtain the solution:


First save the database (SAVE command or Toolbar > SAVE_DB).
Then issue SOLVE (or Solution > -Solve- Current LS).

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Loading & Solve

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure

Training Manual

POST1 (the general postprocessor) is used to review modal analysis


results.

Typically, the first step is to list the natural frequencies:


General Postproc > Results Summary
Or issue SET,LIST
Note that each mode is stored in a separate substep.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Review Results

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure
To plot a mode shape:
First read results for that substep
General Postproc > Results Summary...
Or use the SET command
Then plot the deformed shape
General Postproc > Plot Results >
Deformed Shape
Or use the PLDISP command

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Training Manual

Octo

Modal Analysis

...Procedure
You can also animate mode shapes:
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape
Or use the ANMODE command

Another option is to plot contours stresses and strains. Note,


however, that displacement and stress values are simply relative
numbers and have no real meaning.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Training Manual

Octo

Modal Analysis

B. Workshop
This workshop consists of the following problem:
W6. U-Bracket

Please refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions.

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 6.0 - Part


2

Training Manual

Octo