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MUSIC, SCIENCE AND ART

GRAPHIC NOTATION AS SONIC AWARENESS AND VISUAL ART

LISTENING WHAT DO YOU HEAR?


LISTEN TO A PORTION OF EACH OF THESE SOUND SAMPLES
HOW MIGHT YOU CATEGORIZE EACH?
WHAT SOUNDS CAN YOU SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFY?
IS THERE A PATTERN TO THE SOUNDS?
DOES THE SOUND CHANGE OVER TIME?

LISTEN 1
LISTEN 2

THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC


PITCH HOW HIGH OR LOW A SOUND IS
DURATION - HOW LONG/SHORT A SOUND OR SILENCE IS
RHYTHM A SPECIFIC COMBINATION OF SOUNDS AND SILENCES
METER HOW BEATS ARE GROUPED
MELODY HOW PITCHES ARE COMBINED TO TRAVEL UP, DOWN OR STAY THE
SAME
TONALITY HOW PITCHES WORK TOGETHER
HARMONY HOW PITCHES COMBINE TO CREATE CHORDS(3 OR MORE PITCHES
SOUNDING AT THE SAME TIME
TEXTURE HOW THE MELODY AND HARMONY COMBINE
TIMBRE WHAT MAKES THE SOUND UNIQUE
TEMPO THE SPEED OF THE SOUND
DYNAMICS THE LOUDNESS OR QUIETNESS OF THE SOUND
ARTICULATION CONNECTION OR SEPARATION, STRENGTH OR WEAKNESS OF
THE SOUND
FORM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SOUND
CONTEXT THE SITUATION IN WHICH THE SOUND WAS MADE
STYLE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON QUALITIES AND CONTEXT

CLASSIFY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AS


MANMADE OR NATURAL
LISTEN 3
LISTEN 4
LISTEN 5
NOISE POLLUTION IS DEFINED AS ANY SOUND THAT DISRUPTS THE
NATURAL RHYTHM OF LIFE.
WHAT SOUNDS WOULD YOU CONSIDER NOISE POLLUTION
DO YOU THINK THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO ESCAPE MANMADE SOUND ALL
TOGETHER? WHERE MIGHT YOU GO TO DO THIS?

HOMEWORK
COLLECT SOUND SAMPLES FROM 2 LOCATIONS, ONE THAT YOU FEEL IS
MANMADE AND ONE THAT YOU FEEL IS NATURAL.
DOCUMENT EVERYTHING THAT YOU HEAR IN YOUR SKETCHBOOK THE
DOCUMENTATION CAN BE WRITTEN OR DRAWN
USE YOU PHONE TO RECORD A MINIMUM OF 5 MINUTES FROM EACH
LOCATION. YOU MUST ALSO DO A VISUAL/WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION.
IDENTIFY ALL ELEMENTS OF MUSIC THAT YOU HEAR
CATEGORIZE THE AMBIENT SOUNDS AS NATURAL OR MANMADE

SOUND MADE VISUAL

AS YOU LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES, TAKE NOTE OF HOW THE


ARTIST/COMPOSER HAS EXPRESSED THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC IN A
VISUAL FORM.

SCHNEE CHOLLOBHAT
WHEN IT COMES TO IMAGINING WHAT THIS
EXPERIMENTAL JAZZ-INSPIRED COMPOSITION MIGHT
SOUND LIKE, YOUR GUESS IS AS GOOD AS OURS.
COMPOSED BY ABSTRACT ARTIST AND MUSICIAN,
DANIEL SCHNEE, THE HIGHLY DETAILED SYMBOLS ALL
INFORM HOW THE MUSIC SHOULD BE PERFORMED.

PHILLIPS ORNAMENTIK
IT MIGHT LOOK A BIT LIKE A LOAD OF UNUSUAL ROAD SIGNS,
BUT ORNAMENTIK IS ACTUALLY A PIECE FOR TROMBONE. IT
WAS DRAWN AT THE REQUEST OF AN AMERICAN PLAYER,
STUART DEMPSTER, WHO ASKED FOR A PIECE THAT WOULD
PROVIDE VARIOUS PROVOCATIVE CHALLENGES TO CORNER
HIM INTO INVENTING NEW SOUNDS OR TECHNIQUES.

TOM PHILLIPS
Written in 1991, represents an
artist's fusion of the visual and
sonic world. The resulting six
pieces are a contemporary
manifestation of ornamented
medieval illustrated
manuscripts, captivating to
explore as visual art and
composition. Six of Hearts is
constructed by using pages
from Phillips's
A Heart of a Humument,
playing cards designed by
Phillips,
and the songs themselves.

PHILLIPS ORNAMENTIK
IT MIGHT LOOK A BIT LIKE A LOAD OF UNUSUAL ROAD SIGNS,
BUT ORNAMENTIK IS ACTUALLY A PIECE FOR TROMBONE. IT
WAS COMPOSER BRIAN SCHORN IS AS MUCH A VISUAL ARTIST
AND GRAPHIC DESIGNER AS HE IS AN EXPERT IN
ELETROACOUSTIC MUSIC - THAT IS, MUSIC USING
ELECTRONIC SOUNDS. NEBULA IS WRITTEN FOR THREE
INSTRUMENTS, WITH EACH PLAYER TAKING INSPIRATION
FROM ONE OF THE THREE INTERLINKED DARK CLOUDS.

KWI - DRAWING THE


AIR
THIS NATURE-INSPIRED SCORE IS A
REPRESENTATION OF AN ELECTRONIC
PIECE BY COMPOSER SLAVEK KWI. HE
EXPLAINED: "THERE IS NOTHING TO
BE UNDERSTOOD, NO
COMPREHENSION REQUIRED
ACCESSING THIS WORK ONLY
INTENSIVE LISTENING."

LOYATO - CELESTIAL
SPHERES FANTASY
FOR IMPROVISERS
WRITTEN FOR 40 PERFORMERS,
THIS SOLAR-SYSTEM-INSPIRED
PIECE ASKS GROUPS OF
PERFORMERS INCLUDING
CHOIRS, DUOS, TRIOS AND
QUARTETS TO START PLAYING
IN AN ORBIT-STYLE CYCLE.

ANTOSCA - ONE
BECOMES TWO

IT DOESN'T LOOK ALL THAT


DIFFERENT FROM A TRADITIONAL
MUSICAL SCORE... UNTIL YOU REALISE
THERE ARE NO BARLINES AND
THERE'S NO STAVE. STILL, THE MUSIC
GIVES AN IDEA ABOUT RHYTHM AND
PITCH, EVEN WITH SOME OF THE
TRADITIONAL FEATURES MISSING

NOMURA - SHOGI
COMPOSITION

EVER PLAYED CONSEQUENCES? THIS IS THE


MUSICAL EQUIVALENT. FIND A PIECE OF PAPER
AND SOME FRIENDS, AND EACH GRAB A
COLOURED PEN. WRITE A MUSICAL PHRASE
OR DRAW A PICTURE THAT MIGHT INSPIRE
YOU, AND PASS IT ON TO CREATE YOUR VERY
OWN COMPOSITION. THE BEAUTY OF THIS
PIECE IS THAT ANY PAPER WILL DO: THIS
ONE'S WRITTEN ON THE BACK OF A NATURAL
HISTORY MUSEUM PAPER BAG..

VITIELLO - FIRST
VERTICAL

LUCKILY, THERE'S NO NEED TO


WORK OUT HOW ON EARTH TO
PLAY THIS PIECE OF MUSIC. IT'S
ANOTHER GRAPHIC SCORE
INTERPRETING MUSIC THAT'S
ALREADY BEEN RECORDED - A BIT
LIKE LISTENING TO A PIECE AND
DRAWING WHAT COMES TO MIND.

ESCOT - YOUR
KINDLED VALORS
BEND
SOMETIMES GRAPHIC SCORES
AREN'T JUST ABSTRACT IMAGES
OR DRAWINGS. MANY INCLUDE
MORE TRADITIONAL MUSICAL
NOTATION LIKE KEY SIGNATURES
OR MUSICAL STAVES - JUST IN AN
UNEXPECTED LAYOUT!

SMITH LUMINOUS AXIS

ANY IDEAS HOW THIS ONE MIGHT SOUND?


BECAUSE OF THE FLEXIBLE NATURE OF
GRAPHIC SCORES, THEY CAN PROVIDE
INSTRUCTIONS FOR A LIVE PERFORMANCE,
OR JUST GIVE A GRAPHICAL
INTERPRETATION OF AN ELECTRONIC PIECE
OF MUSIC. THIS IS A SCORE FROM A PIECE
BY SMITH, WHICH HE DESCRIBES AS: "AN
ELECTRONIC SONIC GARDEN OF DELIGHTS
AND TRANSFORMATIONS, EVENTS 1-15"

BERBERIAN STRIPSODY

ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS (AND MOST


CARTOONISH!) GRAPHIC SCORES IS BY
COMPOSER CATHY BERBERIAN. WRITTEN IN
1966, IT USES LINES JUST LIKE A TRADITIONAL
MUSICAL STAVE, INDICATING AN APPROXIMATE
PITCH FOR THE SINGER. THE DIFFERENCE
BEING, THE SINGER DOESN'T SING NOTES SHE SINGS NOISES AND WORDS, WITH
ACTIONS, INCLUDING PRETENDING TO BE A
RADIO, ROARING LIKE TARZAN, AND URGING A
KITE TO COME DOWN FROM A TREE...

PHILLIPS GOLDEN FLOWER


PIECE
GRAPHIC SCORES FIRST DEVELOPED IN THE 1950S AS
AN ALTERNATIVE WAY OF SHOWING HOW MUSIC COULD
BE PLAYED. BUT THEY'RE NOT ENTIRELY
STRAIGHTFORWARD FOR INEXPERIENCED PLAYERS. THIS
PIECE BY TOM PHILLIPS USES UPPERCASE LETTERS TO
SHOW NOTES THAT SHOULD BE PLAYED IN THE BASS,
AND LOWERCASE LETTERS PLAYED IN A HIGHER
REGISTER. YOU'RE ALLOWED TO ADD FLATS AND
SHARPS AS YOU PLEASE. AND THE DOTS AROUND THE
NOTES ARE SUPPOSED TO HELP WITH HOW LOUD TO
PLAY THE NOTE, AND HOW LONG TO HOLD IT FOR. HE'S
BLOCKED OFF A FEW NOTES TOO (YOU'RE NOT
ALLOWED TO PLAY A B FLAT AT ALL).

CAGE - WATER
MUSIC
DON'T BE FOOLED BY THE TITLE:
THIS WORK IS NOTHING TO DO
WITH HANDEL'S WORK OF THE
SAME NAME. THE NUMBER OF
SECONDS IS WRITTEN ON THE
TOP, WITH INSTRUCTIONS AS TO
THE PROPS TO BE USED,
ACCOMPANIED BY A TAPE.

JOHN CAGE - ARIA

JOHN CAGE, THE MAN BEHIND SO MUCH


GROUNDBREAKING MUSIC INCLUDING THE
FAMOUSLY SILENT 4'33", WAS A KEEN
GRAPHIC SCORE COMPOSER. IT MIGHT
LOOK LIKE RANDOM SQUIGGLES, BUT EACH
LINE INDICATES A DIFFERENT STYLE OF
SINGING, NOTATED IN WAVY LINES IN TEN
DIFFERENT COLORS, AND THE BLACK
SQUARES INDICATE NON SPECIFIED 'NONMUSICAL' SOUNDS

MCQUEEN PICNIC
GRAPHIC SCORES SERVE A DUAL
PURPOSE: AS WELL AS LOOKING
BEAUTIFUL, THEY EXPLAIN ABSTRACT
IDEAS ABOUT HOW THE MUSIC SHOULD
BE PLAYED. IN THIS PIECE, WRITTEN IN
2006, EACH LINE REPRESENTS A
DIFFERENT INSTRUMENT, WITH THE
COLOURS AND SHAPES INFORMING
HOW THE MUSIC MIGHT SOUND

CARDEW TREATISE
THIS IS JUST ONE FRAGMENT OF
THE 193-PAGE SCORE FOR THIS
LENGTHY WORK. UNLIKE MANY
GRAPHIC SCORES, THIS PIECE HAS
NO INSTRUCTIONS AS TO HOW IT
SHOULD BE PLAYED, SO EVERY
PERFORMER HAS TO MAKE UP
THEIR OWN RULES!

CARDEW TREATISE
IN THE 1950S PROGRESSIVE
COMPOSERS BROKE FROM
THE 5 LINE MUSIC STAFF TO
EXPERIMENT WITH NEW,
MORE EXPRESSIVE FORMS
OF GRAPHIC MUSIC
NOTATION

LIGETI ARTIKULATION
LIGETI WROTE HIS ELECTRONIC PIECE,
ARTIKULATION, IN 1958. ALTHOUGH IT
EXISTED AS A RECORDING, THERE WAS
NO SCORE FOR MUSICIANS TO 'SEE' THE
MUSIC. RAINER WEHINGER STUDIED
THE PIECE IN THE 1970S AND CREATED
THIS COLOURFUL EXPLANATION OF THE
MUSIC, WITH A VAST KEY EXPLAINING
ALL THE COLOURS AND SYMBOLS.

CRUMB - TWELVE
FANTASY-PIECES
AFTER THE ZODIAC
FOR AMPLIFIED
PIANO
WITH SO MANY NOTES, THIS SCORE
WOULD BE DIFFICULT FOR ANY PIANIST
TO READ IF IT WAS LAID OUT SIMPLY
ON THE PAGE. LUCKILY, THIS PIECE BY
CRUMB ALSO CONTAINS THREE
DETAILED PAGES OF INSTRUCTIONS,
WITH MOVEMENTS INCLUDING
PRIMEVAL SOUNDS, CRUCIFIXUS AND
SPIRAL GALAXY.

BERGSTRMNIELSEN TOWARDS AN
UNBEARABLE
LIGHTNESS
ONE FEATURE OF MANY GRAPHIC
SCORES IS THEY CAN BE PLAYED BY
ANY NUMBER OF PLAYERS, OF ANY
STANDARD, ON ANY INSTRUMENT.
NO TWO PERFORMANCES SOUND
THE SAME, BUT ALL THE PLAYERS
WILL BE FOLLOWING THE SAME
INSTRUCTIONS.

ART AND MUSIC


TOGETHER

SCORES CAN BLEND CONVENTIONAL


ELEMENTS NOTATION WITH THE
UNCONVENTIONAL. THE PERFORMER
HAS TO USE THE PICTURES TO
INSPIRE HIS OR HER PERFORMANCE IT'S MORE LIKE A GUIDE, OR A
MUSICAL MAP. PICTURE:
IWANTDESIGN

WADADA LEO
SMITH'S
LUMINOUS AXIS
FOR TRUMPET
AND
ELECTRONICS
S, IN THE COMPOSER'S WORDS: "AN
ELECTRONIC SONIC GARDEN OF
DELIGHTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS."
SMITH HAS PIONEERED THE CREATION
OF A NEW WORLD MUSIC SOUND
SINCE THE 1960S, AND HIS
ADVENTUROUS USE OF ELECTRONICS
IN LUMINOUS AXIS PARTNERS WITH
TRUMPET IN WAYS THAT TRULY ARE
TRANSFORMATIVE

A GRAPHIC SCORE BY
CHRISTINA STANLEY
PERFORMED BY THE SKADI
QUARTET: CHRISTINA STANLEY
AND TAMMIE DYER: VIOLINS,
VIJAY CHALISANI: VIOLA, AND
CRYSTAL PASCUCCI: CELLO.

In 1966, composed her


first musical work,
Stripsody for solo
voice. Stripsody is an
exploration of the
onomatopoeic sounds
of comic strips
illustrated by
Roberto Zamarin, which
are used to convey a
succession of engaging
vignettes. The work
represented a radically
new paradigm of new
musical composition
during the 1960's

BOGUSAW
SCHAEFFER

MORE!!!!

LETS TRY IT!


YOU HAVE BEEN DIVIDED INTO GROUPS OF 4 OR 5 SIT WITH YOUR GROUP
LISTEN TO THE FOLLOWING SOUND SAMPLE AS YOU LISTEN, WORK AS A GROUP TO LIST EVERYTHING THAT YOU
HEAR
LISTEN AGAIN ADD TO YOUR LIST
USING YOUR ELEMENTS OF MUSIC LIST, WORK TOGETHER TO IDENTIFY THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC THAT YOU HEARD
SELECT THE 4 OR 5 ELEMENTS THAT YOUR GROUP FEELS ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN THIS SELECTION AND ASSIGN
ONE TO EACH GROUP MEMBER.
USING TRANSPARENCY FILM AND YOUR CHOICE OF MATERIAL CREATE A GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE
ELEMENT THAT YOU HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED
WORK AS A GROUP TO LAYER THE INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS TO FORM A COMPLETED COMPOSITION.
AS A GROUP, COMPOSE AN ARTISTS STATEMENT DESCRIBING HOW YOU USED THE ART ELEMENTS TO
COMMUNICATE THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC AND WHAT SPECIFIC CHOICES YOU MADE IN YOUR FINAL COMPOSITION TO
COMMUNICATE THE SOUND CLEARLY TO THE VIEWER.