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TEMA 3

SOCIETILE TRANSNAIONALE DIN


TURISM I IMPLICAIILE LOR ASUPRA
ECONOMIEI MONDIALE

3.1. Trsturi caracteristice ale societatii transnaionale


3.2. Piaa societii transnaionale
3.3. Dimensiunea ntreprinderii transnaionale
3.4. Tendine noi n politicile financiare i de absorbie
3.5. Posibiliti de expansiune
3.6. Strategii adoptate de companiile transna ionale n
condiiile globalizrii

3.1. Trsturile caracteristice ale societii


transnaionale
Definirea noiunii:
Societatea
transnaional
reprezint extinderea marii
ntreprinderi n afara granielor
propriei ri. Ea alctuiete un
vast ansamblu la scara mondoeconomic, format dintr-o
societate principal-societateamam i un numr de filiale
implantate n diferite ri.

Clarificri conceptuale pentru termenii utilizai


CONCEPT

CONINUT

SOC.TRANS
NAIONAL

Se pornete de la o societate naional care se extinde n plan


internaional prin intermediul filialelor

SOC.MULTI
NAIONAL

Societile multinaionale sunt formate i controlate de capitalul mai


multor ri

TRUST

Form de monopol n care ntreprinderile care s-au contopit i pierd


independena comercial, de producie i juridic, fiind subordonate
unei administraii unice.

CORPORAIE

O firm organizat sub forma societilor comerciale pe aciuni. De


regul corporaia este o mare firm care prin fora i poziia ei pe pia
are un rol important n viaa economic a unei ri i chiar pe pia
mondial, n cazul marilor corporaii internaionale.

HOLDING

Forma de subordonare a diferitelor ntreprinderi (societati) prin


controlul participantilor de catre o societate anonim pe ac iuni.

CONGLOMERAT Firme care acioneaza n domenii economice diferite i pe pie e diferite

3.2. Piaa societii transnaionale

Orice firm transnaional se manifest concomitent n


trei spaii economice:
cel naional, autohton - n cazul societii-mam
cel strin - n cazul filialelor
cel internaional - ori de cte ori este vorba despre schimburile
dintre unitile care o compun sau dintre acestea i restul lumii
n virtutea relaiilor dintre societatea-mam i filialele
sale din strintate, precum i filialele nsei,
societatea transnaional i desfoar activitatea n
cadrul unei piee proprii, care este o pia internaional.

Organizarea corporaiilor transnaionale


La baza organizrii i stabilirii unei anumite structuri
pentru o societate transnaional se au n vedere mai
multe elemente: tipul de ntreprindere i de legturi
specifice, sectorul/sectoarele n care i desfoar
activitatea,
dimensiunile
sale,
gradul
de
multinaionalitate etc.
Statutul lor este diferit in functie de pozitia ocupata in
organizarea corporatista i n funcie de forma de
proprietate i calitatea actionarilor.

Public company aciunile sale sunt tranzacionate


bucat cu bucat la burs sau prin intermediul caselor
de brokeraj,
Private company
cnd aciunile acesteia nu sunt
tranzacionate public
Parent company
compania care controleaz,
deine autoritatea asupra filialelor (afilliates)
Subsidiaries
filiale cu personalitate juridic
Branches filiale fr personalitate juridic
Shareholders sau stockholders
acionari la
multinaional
Stakeholders parteneri(clieni, angajai, furnizori,
distribuitori, agenii guvernamentale)

3.3. Dimensiunea ntreprinderii transnaionale


Creterea taliei ntreprinderii transnaionale se produce pe
urmtoarele ci:
integrarea internaional pe orizontal,
integrarea internaional pe vertical
creterea prin conglomerare internaional, (este caracteristic
mai ales societilor americane).
Conglomerarea nseamn uniunea unor firme din diferite
ri, ale cror activiti sunt, de cele mai multe ori fr nicio
legtur pe linie tehnologic. Absorbiile sunt determinate de
motive pur financiare.)
Pentru ca o firm s devin un monopol transnaional n
adevratul sens al cuvntului, este necesar ca din ansamblul
societate mam - filiale externe -, cel puin dou uniti
situate n ri diferite s dein poziiacheie ntr-un anumit
domeniu.

Creterea taliei ntreprinderii transnaionale se poate


produce prin:
Investiiile de portofoliu, nseamn achiziionarea de
pe o pia financiar a unor valori mobiliare strine
(aciuni, obligaiuni). Cea mai mare parte a
investiiilor vest-europene n S.U.A. mbrac aceast
form. Ele permit participarea la luarea deciziilor,
dar nu i dreptul de control.
Investiiile directe de capital, n alte ri pot mbrca
forma achiziionrii pachetului de control, a
majoritii capitalului unei filiale externe, a
cumprrii unor ntreprinderi sau a construirii altora
noi. Majoritatea investiiilor americane n strintate
se efectueaz n acest fel.

3.4. Tendine noi n politicile financiare i de absorbie


Pentru nfptuirea reproduciei lrgite S.T.N. au ladispoziie
dou ci principale:
autofinanarea si
finanarea extern.
n ultima analiz, evoluia ciclului economic este factorul
determinant n alegerea cilor de finanare.
n perioadele de avnt, cnd masa profiturilor nete crete
considerabil, autofinanarea este cea care trece pe primul
plan.
Dimpotriv, n fazele de recesiune i mai ales de nviorare
S.T.N.-urile recurg mai mult la sursele externe de
finanare.

3.5. Posibiliti de expansiune


Integrarea internaional a produciei - proces ce se contureaz
n rile dezvoltate n ultimii 15 ani, bazate pe legturi de tip
matricial (legturi verticale i orizontale), implicnd nu numai
rapoarte n cadrul unor multinaionale ntre firma-mam i filiale,
ci i aliane strategice i cooperare cu firmele aparinnd altei
multinaionale, creindu-se aa numitele firme reea.
Accentuarea procesului de formare a pieei globale i a sistemului
de producie global a condus la redefinirea regulilor jocului i la
implementarea unor noi strategii de integrare corporativ.
n funcie de prevalena tendinelor de autonomie sau de integrare
s-au materializat i diferitele tipuri sau forme de strategii
expansioniste ale corporaiilor.
.

Avantajele i dezavantajele celor patru strategii de


expansiune a corporaiilor
STRATEGIA

AVANTAJE

DEZAVANTAJE

Internaional

Transferarea de competene
pieele strine gazd.

ctre Lipsa adaptrii la condiiile locale.


Incapacitatea de a realiza economii de
localizare. Incapacitatea de a exploata
efectele curbei de nvare.

Multinaional

Adaptarea ofertei de produse i a Incapacitatea de a realiza economii de


procedurilor de marketing la condiiile localizare. Incapacitatea de a exploata
mediului local.
efectele
curbei
de
nvare.
Incapacitatea
de
a
transfera
competene ctre piee strine gazd.

Global

Exploatarea efectelor curbei de Lipsa adaptrii la condiiile locale.


nvare. Exploatarea economiilor de
localizare.

Transnaional

Exploatarea efectelor curbei de Dificulti de implementare datorate


nvare. Exploatarea economiilor de problemelor
de
natur
localizare. Adaptarea ofertei de organizaional.
produse i a procedurilor de marketing
la condiiile mediului local. Realizarea
de beneficii din experiena ctigat la
nivel global.

Tipurile de strategii de expansiune internaional a firmelor

Presiuni de adaptare la condiiile locale


Presiuni
economice
Ridicate

Reduse

Reduse

STRATEGIA
INTERNAIONAL

STRATEGIA GLOBAL

Ridicate
STRATEGIA
TRANSNAIONAL
STRATEGIA
MULTINAIONAL

Marile corporaii
internaionale

Revista Forbes realizeaz n fiecare an


o list cu marile companii publice
(listate la burs) din lume. Lista se
numete Forbes Global 2000 i este
publicat ncepnd cu anul 2003, atunci
cnd a nlocuit un studiu asemntor,
Forbes 500.
Poziia n topul Forbes a unei companii
este dat de un coeficient calculat pe
baza a 4 indicatori, n pondere egal:
vnzrile companiei;
profiturile nregistrate;
activele;
valoarea de pia.

Lista se numete FORBES GLOBAL 2000


http://www.forbes.com/sites/steveschaefer/2016/05/25/the-worlds-largest-companies-2016/#2
334e76837eb
http://www.forbes.com/pictures/fjlj45fjef/6-jpmorgan-chase/#21097a66529e

n total, companiile topului Global 2000 n anul 2015 au avut:


venituri de 35000 de miliarde dolari;
profituri de 2400 de miliarde de dolari;
active de 162000 de miliarde de dolari;
valoare de pia de 44000 de miliarde dolari.
All four metrics are down from the 2015 ranking, as slowing global
growth, collapsing commodity prices and declines in equity markets
in the U.S., China and elsewhere pressured businesses and knocked
stocks. The Global 2000s combined market cap fell 8% year-overyear.

Cele mai importante performane ale companiilor n


2015
Chinese banks held on to the top three spots in the FORBES Global 2000,
a comprehensive annual ranking of the worlds largest public companies.
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC ), China Construction
Bank and Agricultural Bank of China held onto their leading positions,
despite a slowing Chinese economy that hurt profits and knocked peer
Bank of China from fourth place to sixth.
Heres how we crunched the numbers.
The FORBES Global 2000 ranking is based on a composite score from
equally-weighted measures of revenue, profits, assets and market
value. The 2016 list features public companies from 63 countries that
together account for $35 trillion in revenue, $2.4 trillion in profit, $162
trillion of assets, and have a combined market value of $44 trillion.

THE-WORLDS BIGGEST CRUISES


RESTAURANTS HOTELS AND CASINOS
http://www.forbes.com/sites/samanthasharf/2016/05/27/from-mcdonalds-to-carnivalcruises-the-worlds-biggest-restaurants-hotels-and-casinos/?
utm_source=followingimmediate&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20160527#2c
083ccd27bf

Its not easy to build a big business out of


bites, beds orbets. Indeed, just 26 of the
2000 largest public companies in the world
hail from restaurants, hotels and
leisure(think casinos and cruise ships).
However, those that succeed lay claim
tosome of the most ubiquitous and
recognizable brands on the planet.

Hilton Worldwide Holdings on Forbes Lists


Hilton Worldwide Holdings, Inc. operates as a
holding company, which provides hospitality services
through its subsidiaries.
It is engaged in the owning, leasing, managing,
developing, and franchising hotels, resorts, and
timeshare properties.
The company operates through three segments:
Management and Franchise, Ownership and Timeshare.
The Management and Franchise segment manages
hotels, resorts and timeshare properties owned by third
parties and license its brands to franchisees.

Hilton Worldwide Holdings on Forbes Lists


Locul 476 n Forbes Global
2000
Locul 810 in Sales
Locul 448 in Profit
Locul 909 in Assets
Locul 517 in Market value
Locul 174 America's Best
Employers
Locul 98 Canada's Best
Employers
Locul 38 America's Largest
Private Companies (2013)

Market Cap As of May 2016


$21.4 Billion
Ticker HLT $22.25 $-0.01 (-0%)
Industry: Hotels & Motels
Country: United States
Chief Executive Officer:
Christopher Nassetta
Website:www.hiltonworldwide.com
Employees: 164,000
Sales: $11.27 B
Headquarters: McLean, Virginia

Who are they?


McDonald's MCD -0.05% tops the leisure list and falls at 189
on the overall Global 2000. In the past year, the fast food
standard bearer did $25 billion in revenue and $4.8 billion in
profit. Assets are $38 billion and market value is $110 billion.
To get there McDonalds reportedly serves more than 60 million
people a day.
Next up in leisure is cruise line Carnival CCL +3.78% (#311
overall) with sales of $15.8 billion, profit of $1.9 billion, assets
of $38.4 billion and a market value of $37 billion. In 2014,
Carnivalwhich in addition to its namesake line is parent to
brands including Holland America, Princess and Costa cruises
is estimated to have carried 4.7 million passengers.

Who are they?


Third in leisure is Starbucks SBUX -0.18% (#389)with
more than 24,000 stores around the globehad $20 billion in
revenue, profit of $2.5 billion, $12.9 billion in assets and an a
$85 billion market cap
Rounding out the top five casino company Las Vegas Sands
LVS +0.96% (#432) and food services conglomerate Compass
Group (#467). Among the top 25 in leisure there are:
11 hotels, motels or cruise lines;
8 restaurants; and
6 casino companies.
North America is corporate home to 16 of the top leisure
companies, Asia claims five and Europe four.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500


Revenues and profits were down, but the global workforce
keeps growing.
http://beta.fortune.com/global500

The Fortune Global 500, our annual list of the


worlds largest corporations, represent the best in global
business. In 2015, revenue for the Global 500 declined
11.5% to $27.6 trillion, and total profit declined 11.2% to
$1.5 trillion.
The decreases are largely the result of the oil glut
and all-time lows for crude priceslast year, mining, oil
producers, and metal companies lost a combined $70
billion on $1.3 trillion in revenue. And a strong U.S. dollar
also cut into the revenues for U.S.-based corporations
operating abroad.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 - SHAREHOLDER EQUITY


For the second year in a row, total shareholder equity shrank for the Global
500, by 2.6% to $14.7 billion. The last time it grew was 2013, when it
climbed 6.4% to $14.5 billion.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 - PROFITS


For the entire Global 500, profits were down again last year, by 11.2%, with a
combined total net income of $1.5 trillion. Last year, 65 companies in the
Global 500 reported combined losses of $184 billion. The median loss was
$1.1 billion.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 - REVENUES


Fortune Global 500 companies had revenues that equaled 37.8% of World
GDPdown from 40.1% last year. Over the past 20 years, the 500 largest
companies in the world have grown at a slower rate than World GDP.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 - CHANGE IN REVENUE


In 2015, revenue for the 500 largest global corporations dropped 11.5% to
$27.6 trillion, owing to falling oil prices and in part by the surge in value
of the U.S. dollar, which has stalled economic growth worldwide. Last
year, 360 companies in the Global 500 saw a decline in revenue from the
previous year.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 WOMAN CEOS


There are 12 women CEOs in the Fortune Global 500 this year, down from 14 last
year. Carol Meyrowitz stepped down but as CEO of American retailer TJX, but will
stay on as executive chairman for three more years. DuPont CEO Ellen Kullman
retired last October as the result of the impending merger with Dow Chemical, and
Hindustan Petroleum CEO Nishi Vasudeva retired in March of this year. The one new
female executive in the Global 500 is Isabelle Kocher, CEO of French energy giant
Engie (No. 89), which was formerly known as GDF Suez before being rebranded last
year.

THE FORTUNE GLOBAL 500 TOTAL WORKFORCE


The Fortune Global 500 companies employ 67 million people
worldwide. The industry with the most employees is commercial and
savings banks, which employ more than 6.8 million people, or roughly
10.3% of the Global 500. The automotive industry is the second largest,
with 5.3 million workers worldwide.

3.6. Strategii adoptate de companiile


transnaionale n condiiile globalizrii

Globalizarea este cea care dicteaz corporaiilor deciziile strategice,


pornind de la strategiile de internaionalizare pn la cele globale.
Societile multinaionale sunt firme care au, prin natura lor, o
vocaie internaional i global ce se reflect n mod nemijlocit n
strategiile lor de afaceri, organizatorice i manageriale.

Strategia filialei surs (strategia clasic) - propune valorificarea


avantajelor oferite de dotarea cu resurse n ara gazd, sau din
diferentiarul de costuri.

Strategia filialei cu autonomie funcional - presupune crearea


unor structuri productive n rile de implantare, avnd aceeai
natur cu firma mam; filialele sunt autonome, controlul se
exercit att prin relaii de proprietate, ct i prin furnizarea de
tehnologie sau factori de producie de ctre firma mam.
Strategiile de integrare complex au drept element definitoriu
internaionalizarea produciei, ct i a celorlalte funciuni ale
firmei, orice filial putnd s ndeplineasc o anumit funciune
(funciunea de cercetare-dezvoltare, de personal, financiarcontabil).
Strategia tehnico-financiar depete orizontul strategiei
iniiale i urmrete punerea n valoare a unor atuuri tehnice, ct i
a unor posibiliti financiare de tipul conglomeratului.

Strategiile globale se caracterizeaz prin aspecte


cum sunt: o viziune global, mondial asupra pieei i
concurenei; activiti n domeniile bazate pe tehnic de
vrf; obinerea de valoare adugat n mai multe ri;
localizarea activitilor acolo unde ele sunt cele mai
rentabile.
Alianele strategice - liceniere, subcontractare,
cooperare industrial, societi mixte, etc. dau natere la
reelele multinaionale (aliane ntre societi mam). n
acest cadru, societile transnaionale pot fi, n acelai
timp, concurente pentru unele activiti i partenere
pentru alte activiti (cercetare-dezvoltare).

Examples of Corporate Business Strategies


Every organization will establish business
strategies that are designed to support their
mission, vision and values, and achieve goals
specific to their market, business and industry.
Business leaders who take the time to
analyze and understand their market, industry
and the external environment can develop
strategies that are most likely to promote
business success.

Cost Leader Strategy


A business strategy that has proven to be
very effective for Walmart can also work well for
small businesses: the strategy of being a cost
leader.
Businesses that consciously choose to
position their company as a provider of products or
services at the low end of the pricing point
compared to their competitors believe that they can
make up in volume what they may forfeit in terms
of a high price point.

Luxury Brand Strategy


Some companies choose to position their
products and services at the high end of the competitive
pricing scale. Brands like Lexus and Rolex are
examples of this. Luxury brands appeal to a distinct
group of consumers with ample disposable income and
the desire to purchase exclusive products.
Companies that choose this strategy are able to
increase their ROI (return on investment) through
product cost versus volume. Their customers may be
fewer, but they will buy more expensively.

Niche Strategy
A niche-focused business strategy targets a narrow
group of consumers with a product or service designed
specifically to meet their needs.
Health care products targeted to consumers with
specific health concerns, such as diabetics, for example,
are an example of this type of strategy.
In the general consumer environment, nicherelated products may target consumers with specific
interests in sports, foods or leisure pursuits.

Mass Market Strategy

A mass market business strategy attempts to


appeal to the broad range of consumers across
many demographic categories.
Mass market products include such consumer
goods as detergents and other forms of
household goods.

n concluzie
Conceptul de strategie este unul cu o istorie ndelungat definit de
ctre diveri specialiti. Chandler A.D. definea strategia este
determinarea scopurilor i a obiectivelor organizatiei pe termen lung,
adoptarea politicilor determinate si alocarea resurselor pentru
atingerea scopurilor.
Strategia poate fi conceputa si perceputa ca si un plan. Acesta
are anumite obiective clare urmarind o finalitate si este vizibil in
toate lanturile mari hoteliere si de alimnetatie. De asemenea, strategia
mai poate fi o stratagema folosita pentru a obitne un atu in fata
concurentei, un model de comportament intr-un context dat, o pozitie
in mediul extern sau o persepctiva asupra acestuia.
Sursa: Gabriela Stanciulescu, Olimpia State Tehnica operatiunilor de turism intern si international, Editura C.H.
Beck, Bucuresti, 2013