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In Snapdragons:
tall plants are dominant to dwarf
Flowers can be red, white, or pink
What is the mode of inheritance for
flower colour?
What are the phenotypic ratio and
genotypic ratios of a heterozygous
tall, pink snapdragon pollinated by
a dwarf, pink snapdragon?
Heterozygous Tall, Pink Snapdragon x Dwarf, Pink
T = tall: TT or Tt dwarf = tt
R = red: RR white = rr pink = Rr
Incomplete dominance!
TtRr x F1:
ttRr TR Tr tR tr
Tall & red = 1/8
tR TtRR TtRr ttRR ttRr Tall & white =
tr TtRr Ttrr ttRr ttrr Tall & pink = 2/8
Dwarf & red =
tR 1/8
Dwarf & white =
tr 1/8
Dwarf & pink =
Phenotypic ratio: 1:1:2:1:1:2 2/80
Genotypic ratio: 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1
History of DNA
Reading: 4.1 & 4.2
(Nelson Biology 12)

Molecular Genetics
The Molecule of Heredity: DNA
Pre 1800s:
People can look alike:
you have your moms eyes
you have your fathers nose
Can selectively breed for traits:
Fastest horse
Hens that lay more eggs
Sweeter watermelon
But no one understood HOW this
The first inkling
Gregor Mendel:
factors of inheritance from both
parents were passed on to offspring
Sometimes, even though both parents
contribute factors for a particular trait,
one of them may not be expressed in
the offspring
Offspring traits could be predicted based
phenotypic ratios
The Molecule of Heredity: DNA
1869: Friedrich Miescher
Extracted acidic, phosphate-rich
substance from white blood cells (WBC)
Called it nuclein because it came from the
nucleus of WBC
Nuclein renamed nucleic acid in 1889 by
Richard Altmann: why?
Where is hereditary information stored in the cell?

Joachim Hmmerling, 1930s

Used green algae Acetabularia
(Mermaids Wineglass)
Single-celled organism
1 nucleus located in the foot
BIG (3-5cm)
Robust, regenerates easily




Hmmerling Experiment
Which part facilitates regeneration?
This will tell me which part contains
hereditary information

Conclusion: the foot contains hereditary

Is hereditary information actually in the nucleus?

Oswald Averys group proved this in 1944

Built on experiment initially done by
Griffith in 1928

Griffith Video
Griffith Experiment
R = rough strain = doesnt cause
S = smooth strain = causes pneumonia

Averys Experiment
R = rough strain = doesnt cause
S = smooth strain = causes pneumonia
1. Using heat-killed S bacteria, remove lipids
& carbs

Each test tube contains

protein, DNA, and RNA
from heat-killed
S bacteria
Averys Experiment
2. Isolate components

Add Add RNase Add DNase

Only Only Only
contains contains contains
protein protein
3. Add live R bacteria to test tubes (doesnt
cause pneumonia)
Averys Experiment
4. Test by injection

Add Add RNase Add DNase

Only Only Only
contains contains contains
protein protein

Conclusion: DNA is the factor of inheritance!

But scientists were skeptical for another
The story so far
Factors of heredity are stored in the
Nucleic Acid is in the nucleus!
DNA is the factor of heredity
Hammerlings Acetabularia
Griffiths R & S bacterial injections
Averys bacterial component isolate
More Research!
Phoebus Levene: biochemist
What is nucleic acid?
Discovered there were 2 types of
nucleic acid
One contained a known 5C sugar
Named this nucleic acid for the sugar
it contained:
ribose nucleic acid: RNA

One contained a previously undiscovered sugar

Named the sugar deoxyribose (structure is similar to
The nucleic acid containing this sugar became
deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA
Nucleic Acid
Phoebus Levene, 1929
DNA is made up of 3 components:
1. sugar (deoxyribose)
2. phosphate group (contains a central P)
3. nitrogenous bases (has N in it)
5 different bases used to create nucleotides
Nucleotide: the basic structural unit of
nucleic acids
. 1 pentose sugar
. 1 phosphate group
. 1 nitrogenous base
(nitrogen base)
Nucleic Acid
Definitive proof that DNA is the hereditary molecule

Hershey & Chase experiment

phage = T2 bacteriophage
= virus that infect bacteria

Hershey & C
hase Video

35S = radioactive sulfur

Sulfur is found in the protein coat (amino acids)
of T2
32P = radioactive phosphorus
Phosphorus is found in DNA (phosphate group)
Hershey-Chase Experiment
What they knew:
Virus are composed of DNA & protein
Viral infection reprograms bacteria to
make more viruses
Protein part stays on outside of cell; DNA
is injected into the cell
Their question: is it the protein or the DNA
that is responsible for the reprogramming of
the host cell?

Part 1:
add 35S T2 bacteriophages to bacteria
Shake test tube to knock off viral protein
and isolate bacteria
Hershey-Chase Experiment
Part 1:
add 35S T2 bacteriophages to bacteria
Shake test tube to knock off viral Isolated
protein and isolate bacteria bacteria
Wheres the 35S found?
In the liquid, not the pellet: Viral protein coat
doesnt contribute to reprogramming
Part 2:
Add 32P T2 bacteriophages to bacteria
Shake test tube to knock off viral
protein and isolate bacteria
Wheres the 32P found? pellet
In the pellet: DNA controls the
Nitrogenous Bases
4 in DNA:
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C),
Thymine (T)

RNA substitutes
Uracil for
RNA uses: AGCU
Nitrogenous Base distribution
Levene: All nitrogenous bases are present
in the nucleus in equal amounts
Erwin Chargaff: WRONG!
Chargaff Rules: Levene is
1. % A = % T !
2. % C = % G

Chargaff Video
The Structure of DNA
Rosalind Franklin: X-ray diffraction to
study DNA molecule

DNA has a helical structure: 2 strands
One pattern at 0.34nm (spacing between each base pair
One pattern at 3.4nm (one complete turn of dsDNA, 10bp)
Based on DNAs reaction to water, the hydrophobic
nitrogenous bases were in the centre with the
hydrophilic sugar-phosphate backbone on the outside
Watson & Crick publish their DNA model
Thought experiments & models
Published model in 1953: they guessed
1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Justified plagiarism?
A science tragedy
Rosalind Franklin did not receive a Nobel
Prize for her efforts, but the men who
borrowed her work did
Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously
Franklin died in 1958 at age 37 from
ovarian cancer
Watson and Crick nominated in 1962

Rosalind was a colleague of Maurice Wilkins

Contentious relationship
Wilkins was friends with Watson & Crick
Wilkins showed Rosalinds unpublished results to
Watson and Crick to help them with their DNA model
Watson and Crick didnt acknowledge Rosalinds
invaluable assistance until 1968 (The Double Helix by
John Watson)
Nitrogenous Bases
Purines have 2 rings
Pyrimidines have 1 ring
Smaller than purines; matters
when we make double-
stranded DNA (dsDNA)

Joining nitrogenous bases in dsDNA

A=T (2 hydrogen bonds between A and T)
GC (3 hydrogen bonds between G and C)

Joining nucleotides in ssDNA/RNA DNA Anatomy

Phosphodiester bond via Video

dehydration synthesis
Reading DNA
dsDNA strands run antiparallel
Complementary base pairs form
hydrogen bonds to hold ssDNA
Reading DNA
DNA is read 53
5 end is that end of the
strand that terminates with
a phosphate group attached
to the 5 carbon of the sugar
Nitrogenous base attaches
to the 1 carbon
Since DNA is complementary,
only need 1 strand
What is the complementary strand?
Okazakis Revenge: DNA Basics
Okazakis Revenge: DNA Replication +
Screenshot your top score
Top 2 highest scores get a prize!
NOTE: capitalization matters for this site!

Textbook Questions
4.1.1, 4.1.4, 4.1.5, 4.1.6
4.2.1, 4.2.3,4.2.5, 4.2.6, 4.2.9
PvZ snapdragon: Dr. Lisa Briona
Snapdragon flower:
Thoroughbred Racing:
Pus-filled bandage:
Ribose & deoxyribose:
Nucleic acid: Dr. Lisa Briona
DNA zoomed in:
Acetabularia diagram:
2 kinds of acetabularia:
Acetabularia experiment: modified from
Skull and crossbones:
Griffith video:
Test tubes:
Nitrogenous bases: Dr. Lisa Briona
T2 bacteriophage =
Alfred Hershey:
Martha Chase:
Hershey-Chase video:
Centrifuge tube:
Rosalind Franklin:
Rosalind Franklin:
Watson and Crick:
DNA model:
3 kinds of DNA:
Okazakis Revenge: written by Dr. Lisa Briona,
Chargaff Video: